US 3002233 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 3, 1961 G. OBATA AUDITORIUM STRUCTURES 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 6, 1959 R O m m N I GYO OBATA ATTORNEYS Oct. 3, 1961 G. OBATA 3,002,233
AUDITORIUM STRUCTURES Filed Feb 6, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 2
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\ ATTORNEYS 3,%Z,Z33 Patented st. 3, 1961 earn The present invention relates to buildings generally has particular reference to improvements in auditorium structures.
The principal object of the invention is to provide an improved architectural plan for an auditorium, and more specifically, to provide an improved plan for using an area of a building either as a large single auditorium or as a pair of separate auditoriums or assembly chambers.
An important objective is achieved in an architectural plan or design for an auditorium which may be readily enlarged to have more than twice its normal seating capacity and wherein the seats in the incremental portion of the enlarged auditorium correspond with and have the same relative locations and distances from the stage or pulpit as those in the normal or nnexpanded form.
An important objective is to provide an improved do sign and arrangement of chambers which may be unified by removing a movable partition wall that normally separates them, to the end that the chambers in both their separate and combined forms serve exceptionally well the purposes of an expanded auditorium and, in both forms, embody all of the essentials of good architecture.
The design of the present invention may be used to ad vantage for assembly rooms used for social, recreational, educational or religious purposes. It has particular application to the design oi the principal assembly areas in religious buildings or such as may require an auditorium which is quite adequate without being undesirably large for normal or average uses, and which, for special occasions, can be readily expanded to provide more than twice the normal seating capacit in the architecture of religious structures plans for ex pending the sanctuary or nave by annexing an adjacent room are known and used. Former plans and designs however, are not completely satisfactory, chiefly because the enlargement results in a make-shift chamber lacking architectural integrity and being poorly suited for religious worship. In many such plans the distancesbetween pulpit and portions of the expanded nave are too great and sight lines to the principal focal point are poor. An important object of the present invention is' to provide an architectural plan which eliminates those faults.
The foregoing objects and advantages are achieved by the novel use of the hexagon as the basic plan shape for both the individual and for the unified or enlarged auditorium areas.
in the accompanying drawing,
P16. 1 is a plan view showing the design of areas and arrangement of facilities in the provision of two separate, independent auditoriums; and
FIG. 2 is a plan view illustrating the space and facilities arranged to form a large single auditorium.
in the drawings, numerals 1 and 2 designate adjoining areas or chambers in a building structure, which chambers may constitute respectively the nave or sanctuary, and an auditorium or social hall of a religious building, for which the present invention is believed to be especially applicable. The chambers 1 and 2 comprise complementary portions of a large elongate room covered by a unitary, continuous roof or ceiling. Such room is enclosed and defined by six walls, including a pair of parallel side walls 3 and 4, a pair of parallel, diagonally opposed end walls 5 and 6, and a second pair of parallel, diagonally opposed end Walls '7 and S. in the optimum design the said end Walls extend at angles of degrees with respect to and are one-third the length of the side Walls, forming a hexagonal room of length which bears a fixed and definite relationship to its Width. This definite relationship results from the fact that the basic floor plan is derived from an arrangement of two regular hexagons placed point to point. In numerical terms the length of the said room as measured along its longitudinal axis is approximately 2.3 times the width, and the length of a side wall 3 or 4 is 3 (or approximately 1.73) times the width of the room. These proportions conform to aesthetic requirements for a well-shaped room.
The room portions 1 and 2 are adapted to be separated from each other by a movable partition wall iii. Such wall member extends obliquely across the room through the geometrical center thereof, in parallelism with the end walls 5 and 6. The partition wall thus intersects side wall 3 at the point designated 11, setting off the portion 12 identified with chamber 2 and the portion 13 identified with chamber 1.. Similarly, the movable partition Til intersects the opposite side wall 4 at the point 14 separating the same into Wall portion 15 identified with chamber 2 and wall portion 16 identified with chamber 1. The geometry of the plan is such that side wall portions 12 and id of rooms 1 and 2 respectively are equal in length to each other and to the end walls 6 and 8, and 5 and 7. Each thereof is one-hali as long as the side wall portions 13 and 15. It will also appear that the side wall portions 13 and 15 are each equal in length to the movable partition wall lib.
The movable wall 19 may be of any suitable construction, for example, it may consist of an integral rigid panel arranged to move vertically by hydraulic means (not shown) into and out of a suitable well formed in and extending downwardly from the floor of the room. Any other suitable type of movable partition may be employed for the purpose.
The individual chambers l and 2 are essentially pentagonal in shape, each being symmetrical with respect to the diagonal axes indicated by lines designated in and 17 which bisect the acute corner angles at points 11 and 1 and pass through the midpoints l8 and 19 of the end Walls 7 and 8 respectively. Walls 7 and ti constitute the rear end parts of the individual chambers l and 2 and are spaced remotely from and directly face the stages 26 and 21 which occupy the corner portions defined between the movable wall 10 and the side wall portions 13 and 15.
The stages 20 and 21 are truncated angular extremities as shown. They are located opposite each other, bisected by the transverse axis 42 of the combined space. The stages 24 and 2.1 are raised above the floor levels of the chambers 1 and 2 and are bordered on all accessible sides by series or": steps, indicated generally at 22 and 23. The forward margins 24 and 25 of the stages 2i? and 21 extend at right angles to what may be considered to be the longitudinal axes 16 and 17 of the individual chambers i and 2.. These forward stage portions thus delineate the sixth sides of hexagonal floor plan of the nave or body portions of the individual chambers l and 2. Doorways in the side and end walls of the chambers are designated generaliy at as.
Chamber 1 is provided with seating means indicated generally at 3% These seats may be in the form of pews fixedly secured to the floor and arranged in rows on oppo site sides of a central aisle extending along the longitudinal axis 16 of that chamber. The stage or pulpit 26 is shown provided with one or more altars or lecterns 31 and a religious or other object indicated at 32 located at the prime focal point, in the line of the principal axis 16 of the chamber. Appropriateiy spaced behind the ob generally triangular with jects 32 and pulpits 31 is a removable screen or curtain :3 33 which serves as a back drop and appropriately conceals the sharp corner recess.
The principal permanent objects on the altar or stage may desirably be mounted on a rotatable section of the stage floor, indicated at 3'7. Such a provision facilitates the relocation of the objects on the altar to the positions thereof shown in FIG. 2, or even to a third setting not represented facing the end wall 6 of the chamber 2.
Chamber 2 is desirably equipped with movable seats 38 which may be removed and stored to adapt the charrber for dance or other functions. Normally the seats in chamber 2 will be arranged in rows facing the front 25 or" stage 21, in sections on opposite sides or" an aisle extending along the longitudinal axi 17, as shown in FIG. 1. A. removable curtain provides a back drop for con cealing the corner recess directly to the rear of stage 211. When the sanctuary and auditorium areas 1 and 2 combined by removal of the partition wall 1b, as shown in FIG. 2, the movable seats 38 are desirably rearranged to face the pulpit 20, in sections divided by an aisle 39 which, like the aisle at 1.6 in chamber 1, extends radially from the center of that pulpit or stage.
When the sanctuary is in the enlarged or unified form as shown in FIG. 2, the pulpits 29 and 21 directly face each other, being symmetrically arranged on opposite sides of the longitudinal axis 43. Pulpit or stage'Zi may be provided with removable seats 4-9, as shown in FIG. 2, further increasing the seating capacity of the enlarged chamber.
From the foregoing description the many advantages of the present architectural plan will appear. By the simple operations of lowering or otherwise removing the mow able partition wall 10 and rearranging the seating in chamber 2 an auditorium is produced which will have more than twice the seating capacity of either or" the component chambers 1 and 2. Most importantly, corresponding seats remain at the same relative distances from the pulpit or stage in both the auditorium, and a close direct View of the altar is had from all seats. In both forms the pulpits and the seats are symmetrically arranged Within chambers of strong architectural form.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a building structure, wall members arranged to form an elongated hexagonal auditorium chamber, said wall members including a pair of opposed parallel side Walls and two pairs of substantially three times chamber, said stages being in opposed relation and located in the corner areas between the partition wall and side Walls, and seats in each subchamber normally facing the stage therein, the seats in at least one of said subchambers being movable so as to be arranged to face either one of said stages.
normal and enlarged forms of 2. In a building structure, an elongate hexagonal room comprising a pair of parallel side walls and two pairs of end walls, each of said end walls being approximately one-third the length of said side walls and extending at an angle of approximately degrees with respect thereto, a movable partition wall traversing the center of the room at angles of 120 degrees to said side walls, said partition wall dividing the room into two chambers of equal size and shape, a raised platform in each of said chambers, said platforms being located in the corner portions formed respectively between each side wall and said partition wall, said platform in plan having the general shape of equilateral triangles, and seats in said chambers, the seats in at least one of said chambers being movable to face either one of said platforms.
3. In a building structure, an elongated hexagonal auditorium space comprising a pair of parallel side walls and two pairs of parallel end walls, each of said end walls being approximately one-third the length of each or" said side walls, a removable partition extending through the center of said auditorium space, said partition dividing said space into two pentagonal subchambers of the same size and shape, and a fixed platform in each or" said subchambers, said platforms being located in opposed, spaced relation to each other on the transverse medial axis of said auditorium space and on opposite sides of said removable partition, fixed seats in one of said subchambers, facing the platform therein, and movable seats in the other said subchamber adapted to be arranged to face either of said platforms.
extending parallel to said side walls, a movable partition wall extending obliquely from one side wall to the op posite side wall dividing the said chamber into pentagonal subchambers of equal size and shape, a raised platform in the corner portion of each chamber, between said movable partition Walls and one side Wall, said raised platforms being generally triangular in form and being arranged sym- References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS