|Publication number||US3002351 A|
|Publication date||Oct 3, 1961|
|Filing date||Jan 29, 1957|
|Priority date||Jan 26, 1951|
|Publication number||US 3002351 A, US 3002351A, US-A-3002351, US3002351 A, US3002351A|
|Inventors||Sloan David H|
|Original Assignee||Sloan David H|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (7), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
D. H. SLOAN RAMJET DEVICE Oct. 3, 1961 5 sheets-sheet 1l Original Filed Jan. 25, 1951 VJ! VBURNING MIXTURE FIG.I
IGNITION LEADS FIG.2
R. m n W.
MN5. ATTORNEYS Oct. 3, 1961 D. H. sLoAN 3,002,351
RAMJET DEVICE Original Filed Jan. 26, 1951 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fl 6 [3 MISSILE WALL INVENTOR.
'DAVID H. SLOAN BY ZQM' y A TTORNEYS D. H. SLOAN RAMJET DEVICE Oct. 3, 1961 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Original Filed Jan. 26, 1951 m El JNVENTOR. DAVID H. sLoA/v ATTORNEYS 'nited States 2 claims. (cl. 6o-39.72)
The present invention relates generally to a ramjet device, and more particularly to a ducted combustion system for maintaining burning in the combustion chamber of a ramjet missile.
The present invention relates to an improved burning system for use in ramjet guided missiles of the general type disclosed in U.S. patent application, Serial Number 659,188, filed April 3, 1946, D. H. Sloan and W. A. Goss, inventors. This application is a division of copending U.S. patent application, Serial No. 207,948, iiled January 26, 1951, bythe same inventor.
In the construction and utilization of ramjet devices considerable diilculty has been experienced in obtaining proper burning of the fuel. In particular, diiliculty has been encountered because of so-called rough burning which frequently terminates in ilash-backs or blowouts. Also, in llame holders of the types heretofore used, optimum burning of the fuel has frequently not been accomplished. This is because of the fact that fuel ilowsA through the combustion chamber too rapidly and may not become ignited or may be ignited for short explosive bursts of llame followed by intervals of no llame.
This condition results from the fact that a simple baille-like llame holder as heretofore used, while providing a protected region in which to stabilize or anchor a small ilame as well as operating for spreading llame to the air-fuel mixture by disturbance of the ilow pattern in its wake, constitutes at best only a compromise because the requirements for a satisfactory baille are contradictory, i.e., optimum stability of burning and best mixing and spreading of the burning fuel mixture cannot be satisfactorily achieved by a simple baille.
In accordance with the present invention, a duct has been placed in the air-fuel stream of the combustion chamber. This duct provides a plurality of separate fuel channels, and in at least one of these channels conditions are maintained such that burning of a small portion of the fuel is carried forward with a maximum degree of protection and resultant stability. To this end, there has been provided a restriction to produce a jet effect which, in turn, reduces the quantity of air-fuel mixture passing through the duct and causes the maintenance of an area of low velocity, high turbulent fuel mixture, and which ignites the fuel mixture within this low velocity, high turbulent area. The burning of the small quantity of fuel communicates itself to an air-fuel stream within the protected area so that substantially complete combustion of the fuel in the duct takes place. The combusted fuel issuing `from the protected duct is mixed with the fuel flowing past the duct. Spreaders are utilized to insure rapid mixing of the combusted and uncombusted fuel mixtures at the inter-face between the two streams.
The burning within the duct further heats at least a portion of the burner above the ignition point of the mixture so that ignition of the fuel stream becomes spontaneous after a brief ignition interval. The burning within the duct heats the duct wall and communicates a large amount of heat to the fuel stream to provide material preheating of the fuel prior to the junction of the streams of combusted and non-combusted fuel downstream from the duct.
One of the foremost objects of the present invention,
therefore, is to provide an Yimproved ignition unit for ramjet missiles.
It is another object of the invention to provide a ducted ignition device which eilects separation of the functions of burning stabilization and llame mixing and spreading.
A further object of the invention is lto provide a unit securing progressive burning of the fuel in a ramjet device.
It is a further object of the invention to provide an ignition system in which stability is fostered in the combustion phase within the unit while mixing is accomplished by suitable mixing devices in the precise amount desired and at the most effective location, i.e., at the inter-face between the combusted stream issuing from the ignition unit and the main fuel stream or streams flowing past said unit.
Even another object of the invention is to provide, in a ramjet missile, an ignition unit which constitutes both a protected region in which to stabilize a llame as well as an agitating means for spreading the llame in the airfuel mixture ilowing past the unit by the disturbance of a iluid ilow pattern arising in the wake of said unit in order to obtain optimum fuel combustion.
And another object of the invention is to provide a ducted combustion system having a plurality of progressively ignited fuel-carrying channels.
Still a further object ofthe invention is to provide a ducted combustion chamber in which portions of the fuelV are sequentially ignited in progressively turbulent conditions.
Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same becomes understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic view of a section of a ramjet device utilizing as an ignition unit a conventional ilare heretofore in general use in this type of device;
FIG. 2 is a view similar to FIG. 1 but showing the use of an ignition baille as a llame stabilizing device;
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic view of an improved ignition unit according to the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a similar diagrammatic view of a modification of the improved ignition unit;
FIG. 5 is a further diagrammatic view of another embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 6 is a diagrammatic View of a further modification to accomplish the objects of the invention;
FIG. 7 is a similar View showing the application of the device to a three-stage combustor;
FIG. 8 is a perspective View partially broken away of a modication of the invention for application to a larger type of ramjet device;
FIG. 9 is a similar view showing utilization of tandem type combustors; and
FIG. l0 is a perspective view, also partially broken away, of an annu-lar type combustor according to the invention.
In the exemplary embodiments according to the present invention, FIG. 1 discloses a well known ilare type of combustion initiator in which a pyrotechnic ilare 10 is placed within the combustion chamber 11 in the fuelair mixture stream. Flare 10 is ignited by any suitable means, usually by an electric igniter device 12. The presence of the flare 10 produces a turbulence in the airfuel mixture stream which causes at least a portion ofy the air-fuel mixture to trail behind the igniter unit so that the ilare 10 communicates ilame to the mixture and causes burning of the mixture ilowing the ilare 10. v
It has also been proposed to utilize a llame holding baille 14 as shown in FIG. 2, thebate being intended downstream from f to cause a low velocity area back of the baffle in which a fuel mixture can be ignited by suitable means, such as an electric spark or a heated element, A
As pointed out hereinbefore, these devices have not been entirely satisfactory in that the propermixing of the burning gases with the main fuel stream has not always resulted. Accordingly, some of the fuel has frequently remained unburned or the fuel has had uneven or rough burning, so that optimum burning seldom has taken place.
In FIGS. 3 to 6, inclusive, there are shown in diagrammatic form several modifications of a ducted combustor embodying the essence of the present invention. These modifications disclose a few of the configurations that may be utilized to provide a controlled protected area Within a portion of the fuel stream where the conditions, necessary for absolute certainty of maintenance of combustion, are maintained and properly propagated to the main body of the fuel stream.
yIn FIG. 3, a diagrammatic or schematic exemplication of the present invention is illustrated. The rear interior of the ramjet device `d3 defines a combustion chamber Il through Vwhich the air-fuel mixture streams at high velocity. Within this chamber 11 a duct-like passage ld has been placed preferably coaxial with the combustion chamber 1l and having a constriction 17 adjacent to the forward-end of the duct 16 so that only a small quantity of fuel can enter through the jet-like orifice 1S. Within the duct 16 there is placed a llame holding baille 19 behind which is a suitable ignition device 15. Usually a llame spreader or gutter 20 is applied to the trailing edge of the duct 16 to impart turbulence to the fuel streams and expedite the commingling of the streams at the inter-face of the combusted and non-combusted fuel downstream from the duct 16.
In the modification according to FIG. 4, there is Shown a substantial open-ended duct 21 in which a burner 2,2 has a iiared skirt 24 to provide a low area jet 24A to produce a stagnation effect of a portion of the fuel mixture'behind the burner 22.
In the modification according to FIG. 5, the constricted nose 25 of the duct body 16 has been shaped to provide vane-like jet portions 27 which give a whirling motion to the small quantity of fuel entering into the duct 16.
In the modification according to FlG. 6, the nose 2S of the duct 16 has been given a re-entrant jet opening to provide an annular baffle maintaining a substantially annular pool of the fuel-air mixture.
In the practical construction of devices according to the present invention, that portion of the body 13 of the ramjet Which defines the combustion chamber lll has installed therein one or more ducts 21 which are firmly anchored, as by struts 35, to the inner wall ofthe combustion chamber 11. These duct devices 21 produce a plurality of fuel channels A, B, etc., which are substantially separated from each other by the thickness of the duct walls. A suitable burner 22 is placed within one,
' preferably the innermost, of these channels. For example, in FIG. 4, there is shown a ilare type burner 22 having an expanded skirt portion 24 which, in cooperation with the inner wall of the duct 21, provides an annular jet opening 24A which reduced the quantity of fuel mixture owing through channel A yof the duct 2l and which causes a small portion of the fuel to linger behind the flare 22.
In operation, the burner Z2 will be started by any Suitable means, such as an electric igniter 12, after which the liare 22 will communicate the flame to the portion of the fuel mixture lingering behind the burner 22 and that in turn will propagate flame to the fuel mixture Within the duct 21. 'I'he burning of the fuel mixture within the duct v21 will lbring parts of lthe duct 21 and burner 22 to a temperature sufficient to produce spontaneous ignition of ,the fuel mixture passing .through so that, in theory at least, it is unnecessary to maintain the operation of the burner 22 beyond this pre-heating period.
A further desirable elect is obtained in that the hot walls of the duct 21 communicate a large amount of heat to the fuel mixture in the adjacent channel B so that when the partially combusted material within the duct mingles with the pre-heated fuel mixture in the surrounding chamber B, ignition or flame propagation to the adjacent channel B is considerably expediated.
It frequently may be desirable to maintain a combustion chamber utilizing a plurality of sequentially ignited fuel channels. For example, in FIG. 7, there is shown a pair of ducts 31-32 which, together with the inner wall of the combustion chamber II, define two main fuel mixture channels B-C together with the centrally located ignition channel A. It is usually desirable to construct the ducts 31-32 .of varying length, preferably increasing in length in the direction away from the igniter channel A. That is, with a centrally located ignition element 33 the innermost duct 31 will be shorter than the outermost ducts 32, so that the ignition points progress away from the igniter element 33 as the llame is propagated downstream from the igniter 33. In a combustor of this type, the flame will be initiated behind the burner or flame holder 34 in the portion of the mixture which is retained behind the burner 34 because of the reduced jet opening. The fuel mixture passing through alongside of the igniter 33 will then be combusted, and at the end of Vthe inner channel A will be spread out so as to mingle with the non-combusted fuel in the next adjacent channel B, which will mix at its inter-face and combust the fuel in the intermediate channel before the termination of the second or outermost duct 32. Preferably the outermost duct 32 is provided at or adjacent its terminal end with a restriction or flame spreader 36 which causes rapid intermingling of the combusted fuel in the intermediate channel B through the inter-face with the fuel coming through the outmost channel C. The restriction 36 of the intermediate channel B not only serves as a llame spreader but also creates an increased pressure facilitating flame propagation in the intermediate channel B. In this manner the various portions of the fuel are sequentially ignited and are thoroughly mixed so that substantially constant and complete fuel burning is secured.
Many types of igniter elements may be utilized in any of the various embodiments of the present invention. For example, in FIG. 4 the pyrotechnic flare type of burner 22 is shown, while in FIG. 7 there is disclosed a bleeder type burner 33 in which a small quantity of fuel mixture is withdrawn from the main fuel stream and introduced into the burner cavity where it is ignited by any suitable means, such as an electric spark 15. Instead of introducing a portion of the fuel mixture, a special fuel may be piped into the burners from an auxiliary source as shown in FIGS. 5 and 9. Obviously the type of burner utilized in any particular combustor will be determined by the exigencies of the occasion.
Sometimes it is found desirable to provide a plurality of sequentially operating igniters so that if for any reason unequal or burst type combustion should occur at one of the burners, another burner will be available to maintain combustion in spite of this undesirable operation. Accordingly, in FIG. 9, there is shown a plurality of sequentially arranged ducts 4u and 4I each of which is provided with a burner 42 .and a jet-like passage 43 for retaining llame behind the burner 42 so that, in the event either of the burners 42 should fail to operate either momentarily or permanently for any reason, the other burner 42 will maintain the operation of the device in spite of the failure of one of the burners 42 therein.
The multiple burners 42 .are preferably provided with a fuel-usually gaseous--from an auxiliary source, not shown, of `suiiicient capacity to supply a supporting flame until the parts have been heated to the point where automatic ignition takes place.
While a simple duct system having one or more concentric ducts, according to the present invention, is quite satisfactory in the smaller missiles, it is found desirable in the larger missiles to provide a plurality of burners or ducts acting in parallel. For this purpose I have shown, in FIG. 8, a plurality of parallel operating ducts 50 arranged in annular formation and supported by means of an annular frame 51 secured within the combustion chamber 1l. Each of the ducts 59 which may be of a plurality of stages contains at least one duct member and preferably more, the innermost duct being provided with a burner 52 substantially as described in connection With the preceding iigures.
n the operation of this multiple parallel unit each of the burners 52 will be ignited and propagate flame to the immediate surrounding duct; also the ducts Sil define a fairly large space between the ducts and the wall 13 through which the fuel mixture ows. Because of the configuration, rapid mixing of combusted and heated uncombusted fuel occurs at the trailing end of the duclts 50 and develops very complete utilization of the fue In the intermediate size devices it is -found that an annular type duct is more satisfactory and simpler to build than a plurality of parallel operating ducts 50. In this modification according to FIG. there is shown a plurality of substantially concentric duct-like members 55-56 defining a plurality of annular channels about an inner tubular member 57 through which usually no fuel or other material is expected to pass. A shroud-like member 5d of annular formation is provided which substantially closes an inner annular channel so that a small quantity of the fuel mixture may pass behind the shroud into a protected area 59 in which a plurality of igniter devices 6@ may be installed. The shroud 58 likewise cooperates with the next adjacent duct 55 to provide an annular jet-like opening 61 through which a quantity of fuel passes to produce a stagnant or pool-like area behind the shroud 5S Where burning can be maintained under the most favorable conditions. The intermediate duct 55 then operates to provide a plurality of channels A-B-C so that at the trailing edge of the intermedi ate duct the combusted material from the inner channel A is mixed with and ignites the mass of fuel mixture in the intermediate channel B and the likewise combusted material from the intermediate channel B intermingles with and combusts the material in the exterior or outermost channel C; preferably this annular second channel is provided With suitable restrictions 62-63 to produce the desired high pressure Within the intermediate channel B and extreme turbulence in the downstream portion of the commingled fuel streams.
Obviously many modications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than specifically described.
What is claimed is:
1. A llame holder unit comprising a plurality of ame holders each having a duct and a burner in the duct, said burner having a ared skirt at its aft end and extending in close space relation to the wall of said duct to define an annular orifice for retarding fuel flow at the aft end of said burner, means for spreading flame at the aft end of each of said ducts, and means for supporting said burners in an annularly arranged cluster.
2. The arrangement as set forth in claim 1, wherein said first mentioned means comprises a convergent nozzle and said supporting means includes a duct defining a hub, struts radiating from said hub, and a ring connecting the corresponding outer end of said struts.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,360,548 Conway Oct. 17, 1944 2,447,758 Lubbock et al Aug. 24, 1948 2,579,614 Ray Dec. 25, 1951 2,740,254 Ballauer et al. Apr. 3, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS 879,123 France Nov. 10, 1942
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|US2579614 *||Jun 23, 1944||Dec 25, 1951||Allis Chalmers Mfg Co||Combustion chamber with rotating fuel and air stream surrounding a flame core|
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|US3866413 *||Jan 22, 1973||Feb 18, 1975||Parker Hannifin Corp||Air blast fuel atomizer|
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|US5223651 *||Mar 8, 1990||Jun 29, 1993||Avco Corporation||Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution|
|DE19815723A1 *||Apr 8, 1998||Oct 14, 1999||Herbert Zemann||Multistage ramjet engine for propulsion of high-speed aircraft|
|U.S. Classification||60/749, 60/767, 60/39.826, 60/746|
|International Classification||F02K7/00, F02K7/10|