Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3002391 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 3, 1961
Filing dateAug 7, 1957
Priority dateAug 7, 1957
Publication numberUS 3002391 A, US 3002391A, US-A-3002391, US3002391 A, US3002391A
InventorsPaul J Holmes
Original AssigneeBorg Warner
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Plural axis transducer
US 3002391 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 3, 1961 P. J. HOLMES PLURAL AXIS musnucsn 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 7, 1957 Oct. 3, 1961' P. J. HOLMES ,3

PLURAL AXIS TRANSDUCER Filed Aug. 7. 1957 fnuerzz pr' 74 .Paul Jfi alflzes 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Patent 3,002,391 PLURAL AXIS TRANSDUCER Paul J. Holmes, Laguna Beach, Calif., assignor to Borg- Warner Corporation, Chicago, 11L, a corporation of Illinois 1 W Filed Aug. 7, 1957, Ser. No. 676,824 9 Claims. (Cl. 73-517) celerometers, the force on the wire is due to the reaction of a mass to an unbalanced force'which produces an acceleration of the mass, the mass being fixed on one end of the wire so as to cause an increase and a decrease in wire tension. Inasmuch as the frequency of vibration of the wire. varies as the square root of its tension, it is possible to calibrate the frequency at which the wire vibrates in terms of the unbalanced force to which the mass is subjectedand hence to the acceleration of the mass. The wire is disposed in a magnetic field and generates an alternating voltage of the same frequency as the natural vibrating frequency of the wire. Any slight change in wire tension resulting from the unbalanced force producing the acceleration or other force on the end of the wire causes a measurable changein output frequency of the unit. I

Such translating devices utilizing a single wire have certain objections, among which arethe fact that changes in frequency of the output signal are not substantially linear as related to changes of the applied force, and the signal is also affected to some extent by incipient forces acting at right angles to the wire axis and to the applied force being measured. To overcome these objections, it has been proposed to utilize a pair of wires, instead of a single 'wire, with the pair of wires being disposed on a common axis and being connected by an element, such as a mass, the force on which it is desired to measure. As the force moves the element in one direction or the other along the axis of the pair of wires, the tensionon one of the wires is increased while the tension on the other is decreased. The natural frequency of vibration of the one ofthe wires 'isthu's increased while the frequency of the other is decreased. These wires may be maintained in vibration by any suitable means, such as by passing an alternating current through each of the wires, and the difference in the frequency of vibration of the two wires may be measured by any suitable mechanism such as by mixing alternating electrical signals generated by the two wires to produce the difference frequency. Such a plural wire transducer is disclosed in my co-pending application for Dual String Force Transducer, Serial No. 660,009, filed May 17,1957.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a plural axis transducer, particularly an accelerometer, which may be utilized for simultaneously measuring forces having components on a plurality of axes. Such a plural axis transducer, it is contemplated, may be one for measuring the force components on X and Yaxes disposed at right angles to. each other or on X, Y and Z axes, all of which are disposed at right angles to each other. j

3,002,391 Patented Oct. 3, 1961 2 More particularly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a plural axis transducer having a pair of vibrating wires on each of the axes, used instead of a single wire, so as to obtain substantially linear signals corresponding to the applied force on each of the axes.

Still more particularly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an improved plural axis transducer comprising an element, such as a mass, centrally disposed within a transducer casing and held suspended therein by three pairs of wires, each of the pairs being disposed on axes perpendicular to the others, whereby the transducer may be utilized for measuring forces simultaneously on X and Y axes or simultaneously on X, Y and Z axes, mutually'perpendicular to each other.

The invention consists of the novel constructions, arrangements and devices to be hereinafter described and claimed for carrying out the above stated objects and such other objects as will be apparent from the following description of a preferred form of the invention i1- lustratcd with reference to theyaccompanying drawings, in which: p a

FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a vibrating wire accel erometer embodying the principles of the invention;

FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken on line 22 of FIG. 1; and, r

FIG. 3 is an electrical diagram showing an electrical system for use'in connection with the accelerometer.

Like characters of reference designate like parts in the several views.

Referring now to FIGS.-1 and 2, the illustrated accelerometer may be seen to comprise a central housing or casing 10 having a cavity 11 therein. Openings 12, 13, 14, 15,16 and 17 are provided in the housing 10 connecting the cavity 11 with the exterior of the housing 10. The openings 13, 14 15, 16 and 17 have diameters somewhat less than, that of the cavity 11, and the opening 12 is of the same diameter as the cavity 11 and constitutes in effect a continuation of the cavity 11.

A spherical mass 18 is loosely disposed in the cavity 11. Eight stops 19 extend through the housing 10 into close proximity to but not normally in contact with the mass 18, for limiting the movement that the mass 18 may have in the cavity 11. These stopsare simply screws which are threaded into the housing 10, and each of them is provided with a lock washer 20 beneathits head of .a suitable type for preventing undesired turning of the screw in the housing 10 once the screw has been adjusted. As will be observed,.the stop screws. 19 are positioned on axes that are perpendicular to each other.

Six wire retaining assemblies '21, 22, 23,24, 25, and 26 are disposed on sides of the housing 10. As will be observed, the assemblies 21 and 23 are coaxially disposed with respect to each other on an X axis; the assemblies 22 and 24 are co-axially disposed with respect to each other on a Y axis which is at right angles to the X axis; and the assemblies 25 and 26 are co-axially disposed on a Z axis which'isat right angles to both the X and Y axes.

Each of the. assemblies 21, 22, 23, 24-, 25 and 26 comprises a'cylindricalshell 27. The shells 27 of the assemblies 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26 are positioned on countersunk shoulders 28 respectively surrounding the openings 13, 14,15, 16 and 17. The shell 27 of the Wire assembly 21 is provided with a peripheralflange 29 which is positioned on a countersunk shoulder 30 provided around the periphery of the opening 12 in the housing 10, and the as 3 34, 35, 36, 37 and 38 extend through the caps of the assemblies 21, 22, 23, 24, and 26, respectively, and are insulated from the caps.

Six terminal posts 39, 40, 41, 42, 43 and 44 are screw threaded into the mass 18. Thin vibratory wires or strings 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 and 50 are'respectively fixed to and are stretched between the posts 33 and 39, the posts 34 and 40, the posts 35 and 41, the posts 36 and 42, the posts 37 and 43, and the posts 38 and 44. As will beapparent, the posts 33 and 39 and the string therebetween, and the posts '41 and 35 and the string 47 therebetween are disposed on the X axis; the posts 34 and 40 and the string 46 therebetween, and the posts 42 and 36 and the string 48 therebetween, are disposed on the Y axis; and the posts 37 and 43 and the string 49 therebetween and the posts 44 and 38 and the string 50 therebetween are disposed on the Z axis; and each of these axes is perpendicular to each of the other two axes.

Each of the wire assemblies 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26 includes a semi-circular C-shaped magnet 51 fixed within the shell 27 of the assembly which has north and south poles 52 and 53 disposed adjacent to the respective wires 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, and 50 on opposite sides of the wire, with the pole faces extending parallel to the wire. It will be observed that the magnets 51 of the assemblies 21 and 23 are rotated at 90 degrees with respectto each other; and the same is true of the magnets 51 in the assemblies 22 and 24 with respect to each other and of the magnets 51 of the assemblies 25 and 2 6;with respect to each other.

All of the wire retaining assemblies 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26 are identical except that the assembly 21 is provided with the large diameter fastening flange 29 not provided on the others. This large diameter flange 29, permits the aflixing of the assembly'Zl to the housing 10 by the screws 31 around the periphery of the large diameter opening. 12 in the housing 10 and the large diameter. opening 12 permits the insertion into and the removal of the mass 18 with respect to the housing 10 prior to fixing the vibratory wires 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 and.50 with respect to the mass, since the opening 12 has the same diameter. as the cavity 11. In the assembled condition. of the transducer as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, it will be apparent that the housing 10 and the assemblies 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26, in effect, form a frame and this frame holds the wires 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 and 50 respectively in. tension between the posts 33 and 39, the posts 34 and 40, the posts 35 and 41, the posts 36.and 42, the posts 37 and 43, and the posts 38 and 44. The wires 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 and 50 together hold the mass 18 suspended within the cavity 11 out of contact with the sides of the cavity 11 and the ends of the studs 19, inasmuch as the wires are connected to the mass 18 on all three axes and from all six directions.

The mass 18 moves within and relative to the housing 10 due to the reaction of the mass to an unbalanced force applied to and producing an acceleration of the housing 10, and thus increases and decreases the tension in the wires 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, and 50, depending on the direc-. tion of the force. A suitable material for the wires 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 and 50 is cold drawn tungsten. A wire of this material is freefrom local strain and'is not subject. to creeping under tension, and furthermore, the tension on such a wire may be brought nearly to its elastic limit without causing any perceptible creeping. The wirealso is very thin and may, for example, have a diameter of. .0007 inch.

Each of the wires 45, 4.6;, 47, 48, 49 and 50 is kept in vibration at a natural frequency, particularly its fundamental frequency by means of a feedback amplifier 54,

The IG. 3 diag m lustrates an amp ifier o each.

of h wir and47 and he amp fie 54in the isht. ndp rtion o t is. ias amj s. r thsw re This. a p fie s c nec ed toan e ss ris lbri senstw rls 55 having resistors 56 and 57 connected at a junction 58 thereof to one end of a lead 59 from the amplifier 54. The resistors 56 and 57 constitute two of the four arms of the bridge network 55, and the other two arms are formed by the vibratory wire 47 and by a static wire 60 which preferably extends through the same wire retaining assembly in which the vibratory wire is located, so that the vibratory wire and the static wire remain at the same temperature. The vibratory wire 47 is electrically connected to the mass 18, and the mass 18 is electrically connected to the housing 10. by means of a flexible lead 61. The vibratory wire 47 and the resistor 56 have. a junction 62; the resistor 57 andthe static wire 60 have a junction 63; and the housing 10 is grounded at a point 64 which constitutes a junction between the vibratory wire 47 and the static wire 60. The two wire junctions 62 and 6 3 and also the lead 59 are connected to the amplifier 54 which is grounded at 65. The amplifier has two output leads 66 and. 67.

The amplifier 54 may be of any suitable feedback type, such as of'the type disclosed in detail in my co-pending application for Dual String Force Transducer, Serial No. 660,009, filed May 17, 1957. An amplifier 54 and a bridge network 55 of the same construction and with the same connections as. described for the wire 47 are used for the vibratory wire 45, and this amplifier 54 and bridge network 55, are shown for the wire 45 in the lefthand portion of the FIG. 3 diagram.

The two amplifiers 54 connected respectively to the vibratory wires 47 and 45 have their output leads 66 and 67 connected to a mixer 68 which is of a suitable type containing one or more non-linear elements so as to produce sumv and diflference output frequencies. This mixer is connectedv by output leads 69 and 70 with a low pass filter 71 The low pass filter may have any suitable conventional. arrangement. The low pass filter has output terminals 72 and 73, and a frequency meter 74 of any suitable type is connected across the terminals 72 and 73.

A mixer 68, a low pass filter 71, and a frequency meter 74, together with. two amplifiers 54 and two networks 55, are provided for each of the two other pairs-of vibratory wires on both the Y axis and also the Z axis, these pairs being the wires 46 and 48 on the Y axis and the wires 49.v and 50: on the Z axis. For the electrical assemblage for the Y axis, the vibratory wires 46 and 48 are simply substituted for the wires 45 and.47 in the FIG. 3 diagram; and for the Z axis assemblage, the vibratory wires 49 and 50 are simplysubstituted for the vibratory wires 45 and.

47. in thejFIG. 3 diagram.

In operation, assuming a certain acceleration given the accelerometer, the forces due to inertia of the mass 18 tend to move the mass in accordance with the acceleration. The flexible wires 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 and 50hold the mass 18 properly positioned at substantially the center of the cavity 11, and the stops 19 limit the movement of the mass 18 within the cavity with increases and decreases of. tension in the vibratory wires 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, and 50.

Assuming anacceleration given the accelerometer in one direction, such as toward the right as seen in FIG. 1 along the X axis, the mass 18 dueto force of inertia tends to move toward the wire retaining assembly 21, decreasing the tension onthe wire 45 and at the same time increasing the tension on the wire 47. This movement of the mass ,18 also is efiective on the other four vibratory wires 46, 48, 49. and 50, but the tension in these wires is increased equally. Likewise, when the mass 18 tends to move due to force of inertia in the opposite direction, the tension on the wire 45 is increased and the tension on the opposite wire 47 is decreased.

Asthe'tension on the wires 45 and 47 increases or de rea s h uralt squens b at n p icu rl he u d m ntal, f equency, of. e e r s e pectively insrs se anddesresses- Eachnt he ir s 4 i is positioned in the magnetic field between the poles 52, and 53 of the magnet 51 in its respective assembly 21 or 23, and the wires vibrate in "a direction perpendicular to their axes at a natural frequency with a nearlysinusoidal motion, and they generate an alternating voltage therein having the same frequency. The mass 18 in changing the tension on the wires 45 and 47 with accelerationcauses the frequency of vibration and the frequency of the resulting generated alternating voltage to change accordingly. Sustained, vibration of the wires 45 and 47 in the illustrated system is obtained by employing the wires 45 and 47 as impedance elements in self-oscillating electrical circuits, including a bridge 55 and an amplifier 54 for each of the wires 45 and 47 to control the oscillatory fre quency of these circuits. 1

It is to be noted that the mass 18, being connected between the two Wires 45 and 47, acts to disconnect the two wires with respect to each other and acts to establish a null point in the, transverse Vibration of the wires 45 and 47, so that the vibratory frequencies of the wires on the two, sides ofthe mass 18 are controlled by the net tension in the individual wires 45 and 47 obtained as a result of the inertia force of the mass 18 on the X axis.

Each of the bridge networks 55 constitutes a filter which is used in .a feedback; circuit of the respective amplifier 54 for each of thewires 45 and 47 to render the amplifier operable as an oscillator. Each network 55, one of whose arms contains the vibratory wire 45 or 47,00nstitutes a balanced bridge under static conditions, assuming no vibration in the wire 45 or 47. The upper resistors 56 and 57 are equal in value, and the static wire 60 has the same resistance as the vibratory wire 45 or 47, preferably the wire 60 being precisely like the vibratory wire 45 or 47, except that it is not positioned in a magnetic ,field.

As each network 55 is balanced when the wire 45 or 47 is not in motion, no alternating potential exists between the junctions 62 and '63 connected to the respective amplifier 54 when the vibratory wire 45 or 47 is still. When, however, each of the wires 45 and 47 vibrates in the magnetic field between its poles 52 and 53, it develops therein a counter-electromotive force in well-known manner, thus developing an effective dynamic impedance greater than its static impedance which unbalances the e 6 and 47, if they are identical in all respectsincluding. their length, may be found bycomputationsto be quite closely as follows:

a (for one wire) (for the other wire) where f is the frequencyof each wire when the acceleration is zero, As is the change in stress or tension (plus or minus) and proportional to the applied force on the mass 18 and s is the initial stress or tension in the vibratory wire when the acceleration and applied force on the mass 18 is zero; 7 n

It may be seen thatrwhenthefrequency of one wire 45 or 47 increases, due to increase in tension, and that of the other decreases due to decrease in tension, the number of cycles change in the difference in frequency between the two wires is essentially twice that of either wire and is bridge network 55 and provides an alternating voltage of I this frequency between the junctions 62 and 63 applied to the amplifier 54 connected thereto. The amplifier 54 for each of the wires and 47 provides an output signal between its output leads 66 and 67 having the frequency of vibration of the respective, wire 45 or 47, and a portion of the outputsignal of the amplifier 54 is applied between the lead 59 and the ground connection 65 for applying an alternating voltage of this frequency across the bridge network 55, between the junction 58 and the ground connection 64, for maintaining the respective wire 45- or 47 in vibration. The wires 45 and 47 each have a definite vibration frequency for each adjusted tension of the wire andinsures the maintenance of this frequency after adjustment and the repetition of this frequency when the same adjustment is made again, and the amplifier 54 connected with the respective wire maintains it invibration at a fundamental frequency depending on its tension and provides an electrical signal between its outlet leads 6'6 and 67 of this frequency. 7 I

The outputs of the twoam-plifiers 54 driven respectively by the vibratory wires 45 and 47 are applied to the mixer 68 through the loads 66 and- 67 as seen in FIG. 3. The mixer- 68 applies on its output leads voltages having the ,73 and measures the beat frequency f -f The difference in frequencybetween the two wires 45 sum and difference frequencies of f f f +f or 2f if twenty or more times more linear with respect to As (proportional to applied force at mass 18) for all As/s ratiosup to about one-tenth ($1 It may also be seen that the actual frequency of either wire is eliminated in obtaining the, difference frequency and that the difference in frequency is zero when the externally applied force due to acceleration acting along the length of the Wires 45 and 47 iszero, assuming that the wires 45 and 47 are identical and equal in length. Since f and the quantity s for each wire 45 or 47 are known quantities, As which is the change in stress or wire tension may be obtained from the formula from the difference frequency of hf,; and since As is proportional to the applied force on the mass 18, the value of this applied force may be obtained.

As has been previously mentioned, there is a FIG. 3 electrical system for eachof the other two pairs of vibratory wires 46 and 48 and also 49 and 50. In one of these additional systems, the vibratory wire 46 would be substituted for the wire 45 andthe vibratory wire 48 is substituted for the wire 47. In the other of these systems, the wire 49 is substituted for the wire 45 and the wire 50 is substituted for the wire 47. If the mass 18 is accelerated inthe Y axis instead of the X axis, the acceleration may be measured by the frequency meter 74 in the electrical system for the wires 46 and 48; and if the acceleration is in the Z axis in lieu of the other two axes, the frequency meter 74 for the electrical system for the vibratory wires 49 and 50 may be utilized for measuring the acceleration on the-Z axis.

. In most cases, however, the acceleration is not strictly along any one of the three XX, YY, or Z-Z axes, but is rather atan angle with respect to all of them. In this case, the components of the acceleration force along the X, Y and Z axes can be determined from the frequency meter 74 for eachof the axes; and with the X, Y and Z components being known, the direction and amplitude of the acceleration force can be determined. The electrical systems for each of the pairs of wires, namely, for those on the X, Y and Z axes, function substantially independently of each otherso that the true component of the acceleration force may be obtained from the reading of the frequency meter 74 for each of the three axes; the frequency meter as hereinbefore mentioned, indicating directly the difference in the frequencies of vibration of the vibratory wires on each of the three axes. The transducer is particularly accurate in indicating the true'force of acceleration or the true components thereof, if the acceleration is not strictly on one ofthe X, Y, or Z axes, due to the fact that an incipient force when applied on the mass 18 at right angles to any one of the X, Y or Z axes of the transducer does not materially influence the axis, is nearly equal and is positive in sign for both wires; and the difference in frequency between the two wires on the particular axis being considered due to the inertia force of the mass. 18 remains essentially unchanged by the action of the incipient force at right angles to the axis. Thus, the true magnitude of the acceleration force on the accelerometer may be accurately determined from any one of the frequency meters 74 assuming the force is directly along any one of the three X, Y or Z axes; and the true value and direction of the acceleration force may be accurately obtained using the three frequency meters 74, assuming that the acceleration is at angles to all three axes.

. The accelerometer may, for example, be used in a missile and, in the event that the accelerometer in flight assumes different oriented positions with respect to absolute vertical, gravity could have a variable effect on the mass 1-8 thus variably affecting the tension of the various wires. In order to overcome this condition, the accelerometer is mounted on a stable platform which is maintained by suitable servo mechanisms in fixed position with respect to absolute vertical, such as in a platform position in which one of the three accelerometer axes is always on an obsolute vertical. In this case, the force of gravity acting on the mass 18 will not variably affect the tension of the wires to change the f f quantity for any of'the axes from its true value while the missile is in flight.

I contemplate that the vibratory wires 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, and 50 may be purposely made unequal in length, density, cross-sectional area, moduli of elasticity, or combination thereof, to obtain, for example, a difference in frequency between the frequencies of vibration of the wires of any particular pair when the applied force and the inertia force due to acceleration are zero, in order to permit the sense and the magnitude of the force producing the acceleration to be determined by the value of change of the difference in frequency. I also contemplate, and it is within the scope of my invention, that the wires 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 and 50, instead of being circular in cross-section, may have various cross-sectional shapes, such, for example, as ribbonlike or polygonal, and I also contemplate that strings of non-conductive material coated with conductive material maybe employed instead of metallic strings.

In the event the acceleration occurs in only one plane of the transducer, such as in the X-Y plane, perpendicular to the Z axis, in this case the electrical system for the vibratory wires 49 and 50 may be dispensed with, and in this case the wires 49 and 50 have the sole function of suspending the mass 18 in the cavity 11 and within the X--Y plane. In this case, the transducer is substantially a two axis transducer measuring acceleration force just in the X-Y plane. In the case of such a two axis accelerometer, two difierent frequency signals f -f are obtained from two frequency meters 74, one responsive to thecomponent of inertia force in the X direction and the other to the component of inertia force in the Y direction.

I also contemplate, in the three axis transducer shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 or in the two axis transducer in which one Of the FIG. 3 electrical systems is eliminated, that other suitable force applying means may be used in lieu of the mass 18. The three axis transducer utilizing the three FIG. 3 electrical systems would measure the magnitude and direction of the force in the three axes, and the two axis transducer would be elfective to measure the magnitude of a force and its direction in a single plane.

The improved transducers disclosed herein advantageously employ a plurality of pairs of vibrating wires under tension, as distinguished from a single pair, as sensing elements in which an externally applied force results in a decrease of tensionof some .of the wires and an increase in tension of. the other wires, resulting in alternating electricalsignals of' frequencies that'are direct measures of the components of the applied force. In view of the fact that pairs of wires in lieu of single wires are used, greater accuracy is obtained, particularly since the frequency output signal from each of the pairs of vibrating wires is substantially unaffected by forces acting at right angles to the Wires axis.

' I wish it to be understood that my invention is not to be limited to the specific constructions and arrangements shown and described, except only in so far as the claims may be so limited, as it will be understood to those skilled in the art that changes may be made without departing from the principles of the invention.

I claim:

1. In a force measuring system, the combination of a plurality of pairs of stretched strings, the strings of each pair being coaxially disposed and the axis of said string pairs being at angles to each other, aforce responsive element connected to each of said strings and joining the two strings of each of said pairs so that as said element is afforded movement, at least a component of which is along the axis of the string pair due to force acting on said element, said element increases the tension in one of said strings of the pair while decreasing the tension in the other of said strings of the pair, the strings of each of said pairs having different natural frequencies of vibration so that the frequency of vibration of one of said strings is always more than the frequency of vibration of the other of said strings throughout a predetermined range of variations in force on said force responsive element, means for vibrat ing said strings at their natural frequencies of vibration, and means for indicating the dilference in the frequencies of vibration of the strings of each pair as an indication of both the magnitude and direction of the force components acting along the pairs of strings for determination of the magnitude and direction of the force acting on said force responsive element.

2. In a force measuring system, the combination of a plurality of pairs of stretched strings, the strings of each pair being coaxially disposed and the axis of said string pairs being at angles to each other, a force responsive element connected to each of said strings and joining the two strings of each of said pairs so that as said element is afforded movement, at least a component of which is along the axis of the string pair due to force acting on said element, said element increases the tension in one of said strings of the pair while decreasing the tension in the other of said strings of the pair, the strings of each of said pairs having different physical characteristics so that the natural frequency of vibration of one of said strings is always more than the natural frequency of vibration of the other of said strings throughout a predetermined range of variations in force on said force responsive element, means for vibrating said strings at their natural frequencies of vibration, and means for indicating the difference in the frequencies of vibration of the strings of each pair as an indication of both the magnitude and direction of the force components acting along the pairs of strings for determination of the magnitude and direction of the force acting on said force responsive element.

3. In a force measuring system, the combination of a plurality of pairs of stretched strings, the strings of each pair being coaxially disposed and the axis of said string pairs being at angles to each other, a force responsive element connected to each of said strings and joining the two strings of each of said pairs so that as said element is afforded movement, at least a component of which is along the axis of the string paid due to force acting on said element, said element increases the tension in one of said strings of the pair while decreasing the tension in the other of said strings of the pair, the strings of each of said pairs being of different lengths so that the natural frequency of vibration of one of said strings is always more than the natural frequency of vibration of the other of said strings throughout a predetermined range of variations in force on saidforce-responsive'element, means for vibrating said strings at th natural frequencies of vibration, and means forindicatingthedifierence in the'frequencies of vibratiorrof the strings of each pair as an indication of both the magnitude and direction of the force components acting along the pairs of strings for determination of the magnitude and direction of the force acting on said force responsive element.

4. In a force measuring system, the combination of a plurality of pairs of stretched strings, the strings of each pair being coaxially disposed and the axis of said string pairs being at angles to each other, a force responsive element connected to each of said strings and joining the two strings of each of said pairs so that as said element is afiorded movement, at least a component of which is along the axis of the string pair due to force acting on said element, said element increases the tension in one of said strings of the pair while decreasing the tension in the other of said strings of the pair, the strings of each of said pairs having different moduli of elasticity so that the natural frequency of vibration of one of said strings is always more than the natural frequency of vibration of the other of said strings throughout a predetermined range of variations in force on said force responsive element, means for vibrating said strings at their natural frequenciw of vibration, and means for indicating the difference in the frequencies of vibration of the strings of each pair as an indication of both the magnitude and direction of the force components acting along the pairs of strings for determination of the magnitude and direction of the force acting on said force responsive element.

5. In a force measuring system, the combination of a plurality of pairs of stretched strings, the strings of each pair being coaxially disposed and the axis of said string pairs being at angles to each other, a force responsive element connected to each of said strings and joining the two strings of each of said pairs so that as said element is afforded movement, at least a component of which is along the axis of the string pair due to force acting on said element, said element increases the tension in one of said strings of the pair while decreasing the tension in the other of said strings of the pair, means for vibrating said strings at their natural frequencies of vibration including means for causing the strings of each pair to vibrate in diiferent planes to minimize mechanical coupling therebetween, and means for indicating the difference in the frequencies of vibration of the strings of each pair as an indication of both the magnitude and direction of the force components acting along the pairs of strings for determination of the magnitude and direction of the force acting on said force responsive element.

6. In a force measuring system, the combination of a plurality of pairs of stretched strings, the strings of each pair being coaxially disposed and the axis of said string pairs being at angles to each other, a force responsive element connected to each of said strings and joining the two strings of each of said pairs so that as said element is afforded movement, at least a component of which is along the axis of the string pair due to force acting on said element, said element increases the tension in one of said strings of the pair while decreasing the tension in the other of said strings of the pair, means for vibrating said strings at their natural frequencies of vibration including means for causing the strings of each pair to vibrate in different planes disposed at approximately 90 to minimize mechanical coupling therebetween, and means'for indicating the difference in the frequencies of vibration of the strings of each pair as an indication of both the magnitude and direction of the force components acting along the pairs of strings for determination of the magnitude and direction of'the force acting on said force responsive element. 7

7. In a force measuring system, the combination of a plurality of pairs of electrically conductive stretched strings, the strings of each pair being coaxially disposed and the axis of said string pairs being at angles to each i string pair=dueto force acting on said'element, said element increases the tension in one of said strings of the pair while decreasing the tension in the other of said strings of the pair, means for vibrating said strings at their natural frequencies of vibration including means aifording magnetic flux flow normal to the length of said strings, said magnetic flux means being so disposed as to cause the strings of each pair to vibrate in planes disposed at approximately to minimize mechanical coupling therebetween, and means for indicating the difference in the frequencies of vibration of the strings of each pair as an indication of both the magnitude and direction of the force components acting along the pairs of strings for determination of the magnitude and direction of the force acting on said force responsive element.

8. In a force measuring system, the combination of a plurality of pairs of electrically conductive stretched strings, the strings of each pair being coaxially disposed and the axis of said string pairs being at angles to each other, a force responsive element connected to each of said strings and joining the two strings of each of said pairs so that as said element is afforded movement, at least a component of which is along the axis of the string pair due to force acting on said clement, said element increases the tension in one of said strings ofthe pair while decreasing the tension in the other of said strings of the pair, means for vibrating said strings at their natural frequencies of vibration including means afiording magnetic flux flow normal to the length of said strings and individual electrical means each of which comprises a separate one of said strings as a tuned electrical element, said magnetic flux means for causing the strings of each pair to vibrate in different planes to minimize mechanical coupling therebetween, and means for indicating the difference in the frequencies of'vibration of the strings of each pair as an indication of both the magnitude and direction of the force components acting along the pairs of strings for determination of the magnitude and direction of the force acting on said force responsive element.

9. In a force measuring system, the combination of a plurality of pairs of stretched electrically conductive non-magnetic strings, the strings of each pair being coaxially disposed and the axis of said string pairs being at angles to each other, a force responsive element connected to each of said strings and joining the two strings of each of said pairs so that as said element is aflorded movement, at least a component of which is along the axis of the string pair due to force acting on said element, said element increases the tension in one of said strings of the pair while decreasing the tension in the other of said strings of the pair, means for vibrating said strings at their natural frequencies of vibration including individual magnetic means affording magnetic flux flow normal to the length of said strings and individual electrical means comprising a resistance bridge having at least one electrical resistance leg and including as another leg one of said strings as a tuned electrical element for comparison with said electrical, resistance leg, said magnetic means being angularly disposed to cause the flux flow at the strings of each pair to be offset by approximately 90 to cause the strings of each pair to vibrate in planes disposed at approximately 90 tominimize mechanical coupling therebetween, and means for indicating the difference in the frequencies of vibration of the strings of each pair as an indication of both the magnitude and direction of the force components acting along the pairs of strings for determination of the magnitude and direction of the force acting on said force responsive element.

(References on following page) 1.2 2, 4 R fi S pt 21, 1954' 2,725,492 Allan Nov. 29, 1955- II References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,995,305 Hayes Mar. 26, 1935' FOREIGN T 2, 17,212 May 29, 1945 5* 729,894- Germany Dec. 19, 1942

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1995305 *Oct 10, 1928Mar 26, 1935Hayes Harvey CMethod and apparatus for determining the force of gravity
US2377212 *Dec 30, 1943May 29, 1945American Steel FoundriesAccelerometer
US2689943 *Mar 28, 1946Sep 21, 1954Frank S StreeterFrequency determining unit
US2725492 *Apr 1, 1953Nov 29, 1955Wallace H AllanDual range string accelerometer
DE729894C *May 9, 1936Dec 19, 1942Oberkommando Heer BerlinAnordnung zur Messung der Geschwindigkeit ueber Grund eines Wasser- oder Luftfahrzeuges
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3153351 *Dec 27, 1957Oct 20, 1964Borg WarnerVibrating string transducer devices and systems employing the same
US3218870 *Jun 12, 1962Nov 23, 1965Baker Richard HDevice for measuring accelerations and decelerations
US3244011 *Oct 15, 1962Apr 5, 1966Kollsman Instr CorpSolid state accelerometer
US3382723 *Oct 3, 1963May 14, 1968Bosch Arma CorpLimit stops for the inertial masses of accelerometers
US3400576 *Jul 15, 1965Sep 10, 1968George C Moore CompanyStretch-testing machine for elastic fabric
US3465597 *May 25, 1965Sep 9, 1969Singer General PrecisionVibrating-column accelerometer
US3541866 *Feb 13, 1968Nov 24, 1970CsfVibrating string accelerometers
US3888115 *Mar 30, 1973Jun 10, 1975Texas Instruments IncStrain sensor
US4056760 *Jul 1, 1976Nov 1, 1977Ernst Leitz G.M.B.H.Method of driving a two coordinate oscillator and circuit arrangement therefor
US4306456 *Mar 25, 1980Dec 22, 1981Thomson-CsfElastic wave accelerometer
US6826960Aug 7, 2002Dec 7, 2004Quartz Sensors, Inc.Triaxial acceleration sensor
US7178401 *Apr 14, 2005Feb 20, 2007General Electric CompanyThree axis accelerometer with variable axis sensitivity
Classifications
U.S. Classification73/514.29, 310/25
International ClassificationG01P15/18, G01L1/10, G01P15/10
Cooperative ClassificationG01P15/18, G01P15/10, G01L1/10
European ClassificationG01P15/10, G01P15/18, G01L1/10