US 3005515 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
OC- 24, 1961 A. M. CADDELL CENTRIFUGAL FLUID CLEANER 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed May l2. 1959 lllll |110 LEGEND.-
o NC A R L E L T C l E A n; @M O lnHDn S//M AAAA GMGT R O N W W A L C R L O E /L Smm Oct. 24, 1961 A. M. cADDELL 3,005,515
v CENTRIF'UGAL FLUID CLEANER Filed May 12, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INV ENTOR.
N 3,005,515 ce Patented Oct. 24, 1961 3,005,515 CENTRIFUGAL FLUID CLEANER Alfred M. Caddell, 1318 W. Hunting Park Ave., Philadelphia 40, Pa. Filed May 12, 1959, Ser. No. 812,668 6 Claims. (Cl. 18S- 17) This invention describes a means for cleaning intake air for an internal combustion engine without incurring the inevitable loss of power associated with present-day air cleaners. Moreover, the design can be modified to any desired extent to add a supercharging effect to the air being cleaned and, coincidentally, remove heat that accompanies such supercharging. Basically, however, its purpose is to supply absolutely clean air at unrestricted atmospheric pressure to an engine.
The energy-producing mixture for internal combustion engines is composed, approximately, of l parts air to 1 of gasoline. Thus, over extended operating periods, multi-cylinder engines breathe in and expel in chemically altered form vast quantities of air. For example, more than 10,000 pounds of air are drawn into the cyl- `inders of a 1,000 HP. aviation engine during every hour of its operation. This corresponds to five times the weight of the engine itself. Therefore, over a 2li-hour operating period, the quantity of air taken in by one such engine amounts to 120 tons which, in volume, translates into more than 30,000 cubic feet.
Inasmuch as most aviation engines operate a considerable part of their time on or near the ground as do, of course, the millions of automobile, marine, farm and stationary engines, the air they breathe is heavily laden with dust and dirt of all kinds. It is said that above New York City a cubic mile of air often carries in suspension more than a ton of soot, silica dust and other harmful matter. The air over other industrial cities and over farm land is similarly ladenwith tine iioating particles, and every airport virtually becomes a Sahara at take-off time. During World War II countless aviation engines were rendered Iuseless within a few hours flying time by the cloud-high sand and dust storms that prevailed over the deserts of North Africa and in other parts of the world.
However, the presence of abrasives in the air is not limited to any specific sections of the globe for, surprisingly enough, dust is found in the air over the polar regions and in the middle of the oceans. In fact, the air in marine environments contains large quantities of minute ferrous-oxide particles, or rust.
But it isnt the dirt that can be seen that damages an engine-that can be easily kept out. Rather, it is the invisible speaks that cannot be seen Without the aid of a powerful microscope. Oftentimes, magnification shows silica dust having an 85 percent quartz content. Both silica and quartz are harder than steel, quartz having a hardness comparable to seven-tenths that of a diamond, consisting largely of angular and sub-angular grains. Particles of from 5 to l5 microns in size-a micron is equivalent to four one-hundred thousandt-hs of an inchfind their way between bearing surfaces, span the oil film and cause scoring of the pistons and cylinder walls. While, fortunately, the major portion of the dust carried by the intake air goes out with the exhaust, nevertheless in a comparatively short period of time abrasive particles in varying quantities adhere to the oil film on the cylinder walls and mix with the soft gums, asphalts and carbon residues that result from the process of combustion. Intense combustion heat causes fusion of the dust with such products, resulting in a flint-like carbonaceous mass, small particles of which break olf as destructive 2 abrasives to be carried by the lubricating oil throughout the engine.
However, with perfectly clean film lubrication and perfectly clean intake air, no wear would occur in an engine. There are public utility cases on record wherein the original tool marks on bearings, seen by the aid of a microscope, are still discernible after a continuous operating period of six years. Lubricating oil constantly centrifuged, plus most careful attention to ltered air,
comprises the basis of this industrial miracle.
Paradoxically, however, the better a iilter is, the worse it is, for if it is capable of removing rline, invisible particles of matter, the closely knit pores of the filter element quickly become clogged, rendering the filter use-l less and necessitating frequent chang of the element if the engine is to put out satisfactory power. Furthermore, elhcient air lters are likely to choke an engine to death. This can be demonstrated lmost easily by simply removing the air cleaner from an automobile engine while it is running. Instantly, the engine will `deliver a startling pick-up in rpms-evidence that the air cleaner had been choking on the air supply. Such air cleaning therefore comes at a. high price*a constantly sustained loss in engine power.
In tests conducted with air cleaners by this applicant, it has been found that the most successful way to remove abrasives from the intake air without being handicapped by the choking effect is by centrifuging-causing a whirling device to throw air against an oil-covered wall before it is conveyed to the cylinders. With such a device, a permanently open air-flow channel may be constantly maintained. No clogging occurs at any time nor is there any loss o-f atmospheric pressure in the air reaching the cylinders. In fact, by increasing the revolutions of the device, added compression may be given to the intake air.
In this regard, it is wellaknown that if air is compressed its temperature rises in proportion to the degree of compression. While added compression is desirable, even necessary to attain high power output with certain fuels that are capable of withstanding high compression ratios. the heat that supercharging generates in the air causes pre-ignition, or detonation, resulting in a lower volumetric efliciency, a hotter operating engine and an over-all loss in eihciency. The cooler the air the more dense it is, the better the engine will operate and the greater will be the power output per cubic inch displacement.
While removing by centrifugal force, as is done by this invention, attention must therefore be of heat from the air so cleaned. by means hereinafter described. sign and operating technique also the herein description proceeds.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a complete cross-sectional side view of the air cleaner.
FIG. 2 is a frontal View of the screened air-intake cover identi-tied as 1A, FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a half-size, partially exposed external view of the cleaner, showing the casing to be of cage-type construction throughout the major portion of its length and in conjunction therewith screening to safeguard the rotor therewithin.
FIG. 4 is a half-size top view of the intake duct, FIGS. 1 and 3, showing in dotted outline the bearing assembly upon which it rides.
FIG. 5 is a three-quarter view showing a section of inner surface of wall 20, and mounting of rings 28 thereon, including drain openings.
This is accomplished Other features of dewill be pointed out as FIG. 6, taken on lines 6 6, FIG. 1, is a reduced view,
looking downward, of the tubes mounted to discharge, in
unwanted matter from the intake airgifven to the simultaneous removala direction opposite to that Vofthe cleaners rotation, air freed from matter intodiifuser conduits for the distribu-v tion thereof to any desired destination.
FIG. 7, taken on lines 7-7, FIG. 1, is a reduced view, looking upward, ofthe cage-type construction of the bottom of the cleaner, a spider connecting the external cone construction with the-inner cone assembly, thedrain hole bosses and removably installed plugs for sedi-ment ilushing purposes.
FIG. 8 is an enlarged view of an individual nozzle identilied 32,
FIG. 9, taken on lines Sl-9, FIG. 1, is a reduced view, looking downward of the exterior of the external cone construction, showing positioning of the cooling-air blades, the centrally positioned contaminated-air intake blades and .the clean-air-fiow passageway, identified 29.
FIG. l0, taken on lines 1li- 10, FIG. 3, is a View, looking upward, of the bottom of the casing, showing the removable section containing a radial thrust bearing assembly for supporting the rotor, and screening identified 37 installed in the inner surfaces of the cage-type construction, FIGS. f1, `3 and l0. Y
The air, gas or duid to undergo centrifugal treatment enters the cleaner through screening 1A secured to intake duct 1, IFIGS. l and 3. This duct is mounted to ride on ball bearing assembly 2, the bearings of which are positioned in groovefways formed in flange iittting 3, FIG. l. Duct 1 is of elbow design and is movably mounted to swivel-so that when it is exposed to the wind it will at all times Vlhave the benefit of taking in ram pressure air irrespective of the mounting ofthe cleaner itself which, obviously, must be securely mounted on an engine `or machine. To insure turning of the duct into the wind, a rudderfelement 4 is secured to the back -of the elbow. In stationary installations, Vsuch as for the purpose of removing foreign matter from gases in a chemical factory, an auxiliary duct, not shown, may supplant the duct described herein so that the gas to be freed of foreign matter mayenter the cleaner. f i
As indicated by intake 'arrow 5, the air, or gas, to be cleanedienters a chamber formed by wall 6A of outermost cone 6 of the inner assembly which extends centrally through the wall of casing S. Besides serving in the gas receiving capacity, the surface of the outer wall of this chamber abuts ball bearing assembly 7mounted in the central areaof casing 8, and secured thereto by screw bolts 9.
Inner cone 10 of the assembly has a rounded apex at its top and extends downwardly to engage at its lowermost terminus spider 11 which encompasses shaft '12, having screw engagement therewith, as at 11A. This Vspider is secured inyposition by locknut 13.
-On the `-underside of inner cone 10 Vat the top thereof, an inwardly positioned boss 14 is provided so that shaft 12 may have detachable screw engagement therewith. Shaft 12 is -held securely iniposition by double locknuts '15 and 16.
Blades 17 are mounted between the outer and the inner cones of the two-cone assembly, the walls of which parallel each other in the blade area. These blades may be secured to each of the cones by any appropriate means, Vsuch as shown bya plurality of tie-bolts 19, or by rivets, or welding, thus to form an integrated, accurately aligned assembly. Due -to the difference in radii between the intake and discharge ends of the blades, they become powerful air movers, the greater velocity at the discharge ends serving as centrifugal pumps to draw air downwardly and throw it outwardly. Arrows -18 indicate the course of the air travel from 6A into the intake area circumscribed by the lesser radial endsfof these blades.
External cone construction 20 is nested in recess 21 inv radial plate 22, which issecured to the walls of the chamber-6A. The walls of this construction parallel 6A for a comparatively short distance and then turn downwardly and outwardly throughout a major portion of their length to establish a greater radius than that presented by wall 6 of the inner cone assembly. A short distance from the lower extremity, wall 2i) turnscurvingly inward, as at 20A, to abut wall 10 of said assembly and be made secure thereto by flange means and a plurality of screw bolts 23 lwhich join wall 2l), wall 16 and spider 11 that, as aforesaid, encompasses shaft 12.
The increased radius presented by wall 20, compared to that of wall 6, together with inwardly curving section 20A, permit at the juxtaposition thereof the formation of a sediment-receiving chamber beneath the lower terminus of blades 17. This chamber is of major importance in the design and functioning of this centrifugal air cleaner; first, as a simple but positive means of separating, regardless of its fmeness, all foreign matter carried in suspension by the air undergoing purication and, second, as a means for building up above-normal pressures in the air, i.e., supercharging. Y
A viscous oil is introduced into this chamber by removing one or more intake plugs 24, located near the top of wall Zi?. This oil naturally finds its way downward into the chamber, which extends circumferentially around the cleaner, and lays horizontally therein until the cleaner is given rotation. Whcreupon centrifugal force throws oil 25 outwardly and upwardly to form a viscous wall against a considerable portion of the inner surface of wall 20. A plurality of arrows 26 indicate the centrifugal throw of the air against this oil wall, the stickiness of which traps the dust and the air freed of dust is forced upwardly under the relentless pressure imparted by the incoming air and by the suction applied thereto by centrifugal pump nozzles secured to radially mounted tubes 30, later described.
As indicated by a plurality of arrows 27, the matterliberated air hugs the inner surface of wall 20 where it encounters a series of inwardly extending rings 28. lf any dust or other foreign matter is not precipitated into the oil it will be trapped by these rings and forced to remain thereunder throughout the rotation of said cleaner.
Meanwhile, due to the centripetal effect imposed by wall 241 on the air being forced to travel upward through channel 29 while the rotor is undergoing centrifugal action, plus the flow-around resistance offered by rings 28, greater than normal pressure is built up in the sediment receiving chamber and upwardly against the inner surface of wall 2t?. Obviously, the extent of such pressure is whollycontingent upon the degree of pitch of this wall, which factor also lgoverns the input power required to rotate the cleaner. For delivering clean air to an engine at normal atmospheric pressure, an external wall construction having a lesser pitch relative to shaft 12 may be in order, whereas to deliver air under greater than normal pressure a degree of pitch, such as that shown in FIG. l, would suffice for that purpose.
Upon arriving at the top of passageway 29, theair enters radially mounted tubes 30 shown by arrows 31 and is discharged through nozzles 32, FIGS. l, 3 and 6, into diffuser conduits 35 for delivery shown by arrows 34 to any desired destination. If the cleaned air is destined to a single carburetor, these conduits would merge into a single tubular duct, but should the air cleaner be used to provide Vair to a diesel engine, a separate conduit would lead to Veach individual cylinder, or to a chamber for serving any specific industrial use.
Conduits 33 are mounted on'inwardly extending circular plate 35 and also abut the inner walls of cage-like casing 8. They are shaped to receive in the most eilicient manner the discharge of air from nozzles32', that is, as shown in FIG. l, the conduits have a top and bottom overhang that help conne the cleaned air therein for distribution to its destination. The top of the air cleaner being closed and plate 35 extending inwardly from the closed casing wall to within close proximity of the rotor, an elfective seal to prevent the loss of cleaned air or the intake of contaminated air is thus maintained.
Tubes 30 are supported by a plurality of clevis bolts 36 which protrude through radial plate 22 and are made fast thereto.
As shown in FIGS. 1, 3 and 6, nozzles 32 are mounted at a right angle on the extremities of tubes 30, so that the air discharges into conduits 33 in a direction opposite t0 that of the rotors rotation. Powerful reactive drive, obtained at the maximum leverage discharge position of the device, is thus provided, which reactive drive assists in the rotation thereof.
Commencing at radial plate 35 and continuing downwardly therefrom, the sides and bottom of casing 8 have a cage-like construction which permits the inflow of cooling air through screening 37, shown in side View in the walls of casing 8, and frontally in FIG. 3.
Mention has heretofore been made of the above-normal air pressures that may be developed in the sediment receiving chamber and against the inner surface of wall 20. By observing FIG. 1, it will be seen that the discharge ends of nozzles 32 are mounted at a greater radius than the discharge terminus of blades 17 thereby creating a strong centrifugal pump effect. Dotted outlines 38 and 39 respectively indicate this differential, which is further indicated by arrows 4u. Obviously, this differential may exist to any extent desired, all dependingfon the degree of pitch of wall 2t) and the length of tubes 30 relative to the discharge radius of blades 17.
Air-pumping blades 41 are consequently mounted on the exterior of wall 2G to absorb heat from the air under momentary compression in passageway 29. Ambient ternperature air enters these blades shown by a plurality of circle-tipped arrows 42, discharging therefrom as indicated by arrows 43. By keeping wall Ztl cool, the air against the inner side thereof will give up its heat convectively and instantly to said cooling air flowing rapidly over the surface of the wall. Therefore, regardless of the pressure therein, nothing but cold, clean air will enter the diffuser conduits.
A plurality of air-moving blades 44 may also be mounted on the inner surface of inner cone wall lil. As shown in FIG. l0, screening 37 permits the upward flow of air to the interior of this cone, shown by arrows 45, the air indicated by said arrows curving to satisfy the suction demands of blades 44, cooling air rushing in the full length of these blades to absorb heat convectively through wall from the air being propelled downwardly by blades 17.
A number of bosses 46 are formed on the bottom of cone wall 2t), in which bosses removable plugs 47 may be threaded to retain oil 25 in the sediment receiving chamber formed by the walls construction. Inevitably, the oil will become heavily laden with dirt of all kinds. Whereupon a cleansing solvent, such as kerosene, methylethyl-ketone or gasoline may be introduced through intake holes (occupied by plugs 24) leading through wall 20 into passageway 29, and upon removal of plugs 47 at the bottom of the receiving chamber, the accumulated sediment may be thoroughly flushed out.
This cleaner may be rotated by conventional means, such as indicated by pulley 48 mounted on shaft 12 and held securely in position by locknut 49. V-belt 50 may transmit power to pulley 48 from any conventional source.
As will be noted in FIG. 1, a shoulder is formed at 51 on shaft 12 for seating in radial thrust bearing assembly 52, which is secured on removable plate section 53 by a plurality of bolts 54. In turn, plate section 53 is secured to casing 8 by means of bolts 55. Oil seal 58 is installed in plate 53 to encompass shaft 12.
Casing -8 is of twin-half construction as indicated by flanges 56, which may be secured to each other by a plurality of bolts 57, FIGS. 1 and 3. The top of casing 8 is of solid plate construction while the part extending downwardly from circular plate 35 is of open cage-type construction to permit the inflow of cooling air on the sides and bottom thereof. This cage-type construction may be secured to the top part of casing 8 by any conventional means.
As one example of use, although not herein shown, this air cleaner may be mounted in any convenient manner on an engine or above an engine and extend through a specially prepared opening in the hood of an automobile, projecting upwardly therefrom into free air. Also, the power to rotate it, also not shown, may be taken by any conventional means from the engine for which the cleaner is designed to supply clean, cooled air at any intake pressure desired.
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. A centrifugal cleaner adapted to receive power from an outside source and when under power to draw into itself a gas carrying matter in suspension and discharge said gas freed from said matter at normal or above normal atmospheric pressures, the combination comprising a casing, an open-end duct movably mounted on said casing and communicating with a source of said gas, a rotor having a shaft and being comprised of an inner twocone assembly and an outer cone secured thereto and to said shaft for rotation within said casing, said outer cone being spaced from said two-cone assembly Vto provide a gas-flow channel therebetween, an open-end gas distributing chamber formed by the wall of said two-cone assembly having the greater radius for establishing communication with said duct, a plurality of pumping blades having communication with said distributing chamber and being positioned between said two cones throughout their length, said latter cones and said blades extending a distance in a direction opposite to and outwardly from said distributing chamber and terminating in ends having considerably greater radii than the diameter of said distributing chamber, said outer cone being comprised of a frusto-conical wall having a base curving inwardly for securement to said two-cone assembly, a sediment-receiving chamber formed at the juxtaposition of said wall and base, said sediment-receiving chamber being located substantially opposite to the greater radial termini of said blades and carrying a viscous fluid for receiving thereagainst the gas pumped by said blades, said frusto-conical wall extending in a direction opposite to said base and turning inwardly to form an annular construction terminating near but spaced from said distributing chamber, a plurality of open-end tubes comprising centrifugal pumps extending through said construction for establishing communication with the gas in said channel and a like number of nozzles secured on the radial ends of said tubes, said nozzles being positioned at a radius greater than that of the greater radial termini of said blades and being mounted to discharge said gas in a direction opposite to that of the rotors rotation.
2. A centrifugal air cleaner comprised of a casing mounting a duct open to atmosphere and a rotor having connection with power means and mounted for rotation in said casing, said rotor having an inner assembly comprised of a construction having an inner and an outer cone, each cone being formed by walls having lesser and greater diametered ends, the outermost cone thereof having at its lesser diametered end a circular construction forming an open-end chamber having airflow communication with said duct, a plurality of blades having one end thereof secured in said chamber and being positioned between said cones for pumping air under constantly increasing radial pressure from said chamber toward said greater diametered ends, a cone mounted radially outward from said inner construction to form the periphery of said rotor, said peripheral cone having a side wall substantially paralleling the outer wall of the cone of said inner construction but mounted distantly therefrom to provide a centripetally disposed airflow channel therebetween, a section of said side wall curving inwardly to form a base for said peripheral cone at its greater dametered end, a circumferential chamber formed at the juxtaposition of said side wall and base for receiving the air pumped by said blades and reversing the flow thereof into said channel, said casing being comprised of a top section, sides and bottom,.the sides and the bottom thereof having acage-type construction and screening affixed thereto to permit circulation of air within its boundaries, a plurality of curved vanes secured to the inner wall of the inner cone construction and a plurality of curved varies secured to the outer wall of said peripheral cone to propel air over the surfaces of each of said cones for abstracting heat and greater diametered ends removably secured at said ends to said shaft and a cone structure substantially paralleling but distantly spaced from said inner assembly for providing an airtlow channelV therebetween, an aperture formed in said closed top and a duct positioned around said aperture, a chamber formed in the lesser diametered end of said inner cone assembly for establishing communication with said duct, a plurality of curved blades having ends secured in said chamber and mounted between said two cones for moving air throughout their lengths toward said greater diametered ends at constantly increasing centrifugal pressure, said distantly spaced cone structure'being comprised of a Wall having a plurality of dirtcatching traps on its inner surface, a formation of said wall curving inwardly at its greater dialnet-ered end to form a base therefor, a sediment receiving chamber formed at the juxtaposition of said curving formation and base opposite the greater diametered ends of said blades, aplurality of removable plugs mounted in the lesser radial end of said outwardly mounted cone to permit the introduction of a viscous iiuid into said sediment receiving chamber for receiving the precipitation thereagainst of said centrifuged air carrying matter in suspension and effecting the separation thereat of said matter from said air, said removable plugs also permitting the introduction of a solvent into said sediment chamber, a plurality of removable plugs mounted in the base of said chamber for permitting when removed ushing by said solvent of said viscous fluid and matter contained therein.
f4. The centrifugal cleaner as described in claim 3' wherein said duct is swivelly mounted around said aperture, said duct having an elbow construction and a screened opening therefor, a rudder secured to said duct opposite said opening for maintaining irrespective of the mounting of said casing the directional intake of air cntering under pressure into the cleaner.
5. The centrifugal cleaner as Ydescribed in claim 3 wherein said dirt-catching traps are comprised of rings spaced around the inner wall of said distantly spaced cone, said rings protruding inwardly for varied distances at right angles to said inner Wall, the upper surfaces of the rings tapering to a point at their innermost ends to permit thorough ushing of sediment arrested by said rings.
6. A centrifugal liuid cleaner comprised of a casing having means for permitting the entry therethrough of a uid carrying solid matter in suspension, a power-driven rotor having lesser and greater radial ends and mounted for rotation in said casing, a duct having communication with said lluid for the conveyance thereof into the area circurnscribed by the lesser' of said radial ends, said rotor comprising a double-walled cone construction and a plurality of blades positioned therebetween to effect the centrifugal throw of said fluid, an outer cone having a lesser and greater radial end distantly spaced from but secured to said double-walled cone construction to provide a centripetally disposed channel for the conveyance through said rotor ot said centrifugally thrown luid, a sediment receiving chamber formed between the greater radial ends of said blades and the inner wall of said outer cone, a viscous iiuid in said chamber for eiiecting separation and retention of said solid matter, a pluraiity oi tubes mounted through the wall of said outer cone at the lesser radius thereof and extending radially beyond the greater radial ends of said blades, and a like number of nozzles secured on the ends of said tubes to comprise centrifugal pumps for the removal of iluid from said centripetally disposed channel, said nozzles being mounted to discharge said fluid in a direction opposite to that oi the rotors rotation, a plurality of diuser conduits positioned in said casing in close proximity to the discharge end of said nozzles for receiving and conveying the duid freed from solid matter to locations distant from said cleaner.
References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS V1,620,890 Huntley n mn- Mar. l5, 1927 2,126,48l Lapp et al. Aug. 9, 1938 2,459,944 Jones Ian. 25, 1949