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Publication numberUS3007471 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 7, 1961
Filing dateApr 27, 1959
Priority dateApr 27, 1959
Publication numberUS 3007471 A, US 3007471A, US-A-3007471, US3007471 A, US3007471A
InventorsJr John N Mcclure
Original AssigneeJr John N Mcclure
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Biopsy instrument
US 3007471 A
Images(1)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

7, 1961 J. N. MCCLURE, JR

BIOPSY INSTRUMENT Filed April 27, 1959 INVENTOR N. TfQCLURE, JR. BY

, FIG.H

JOHN

ATTORNEY tates This invention relates to a biopsy instrument and is more particularly concerned with a biopsy needle in which the blade within the needle is deflected across the entrance of the needle as the blade is urged within the needle.

in the past many biopsy needles have been employed, the function of all such needles being to remove and re tain within a needle, a portion of tissue or the like so that when the needle is removed, the retained tissue may be examined under a microscope for diagnostic purposes. Such an instrument is particularly useful in sampling subdermal growths such as tumors and the like.

The prior art needles, however, have left much to be desired; indeed, substantially all of such prior art needles tend, in varying extents, to tear rather than cut the tissue. With tough stringy tissues, such as is often encountered when malignancy is present, the tearing operation is difficult and the sample may pull out of the needle as the needle is retracted, thereby necessitating several rather painful incisions before the sampling is successfully accomplished.

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a biopsy instrument which will positively sever rather than tear the tissue to be sampled.

Another object of my invention is to provide a biopsy instrument which is more reliable, accurate and dependable than the prior art biopsy devices.

Another object of my invention is to provide a biopsy instrument which is efficient in operation, durable in structure and inexpensive to manufacture.

Another object of my invention is to provide a biopsy instrument which is simple in construction and one which may be sharpened easily and quickly.

Other and further objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein like characters of reference designate corresponding parts throughout the several views and wherein:

FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view of a biopsy instrument constructed in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a cross sectional view taken along lines 2-2 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view taken along lines 33 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 4 is a cross sectional view taken along lines 44 in FIG. 1.

FlG. 5 is a cross sectional view taken along lines 5-5 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary plan view of the lower end of the biopsy instrument of FIG. 1.

FIG. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary plan view of the blade portion of the stylet of the biopsy instrument of FIG. 1.

FIG. 8 is a side elevational view of the blade portion of the stylet shown in FIG. 7.

FIG. 9 is an enlarged broken side elevational View of the needle of FIG. 1, showing a conventional syringe being employed to apply vacuum to the needle to draw the tissue to be sampled into the entrance of the needle.

1G. 10 is an enlarged broken side elevational view of the lower end of the biopsy instrument of FIG. 1, the stylet being partially inserted within the needle past the sample retained therein.

' atent ice FIG. 11 is an enlarged broken side elevational view similar to FIG. 10 with the stylet completely inserted into the needle and severing the sample of tissue.

Referring now in detail to the embodiment chosen for the purpose of illustrating the present invention, it being understood that the present invention is not limited to the specific details disclosed therein, the biopsy instrument here depicted includes an outer needle denoted generally by numeral 2t and an inner severing needle or stylet 4% which is slidable axially within the outer needle it The upper end of the needle Zll comprises an enlarged cylindrical hollow hub or shank 21 flattened on opposite sides 22, 22 thereof to provide a convenient handle by which my biopsy instrument may be grasped between the fingers. The lower end of hub Zi tapers, as at numeral Z3, and terminates in a long straight hollow tube or barrel 24 having a bevelled sharpened end 25. The needle 2% has a straight cylindrical bore throughout, the lower bore portion 556 being of uniform diameter throughout the length of tube 24-. Tube 24 communicates in the central portion of the shank 21 with a larger diameter intermediate bore portion 27 providing a peripheral ledge 28 therebetween. The upper bore portion 29 is of still larger diameter and communicates with the intermediate bore portion 27, there being provided a beveled peripheral edge 36 therebetween.

According to the present invention, the end 25 of tube 24 is beveled at about a angle from the axis of the tube 24 to provide an elliptical shaped opening having a rounded lower point 31, best seen in FIG. 6, and a concave upper edge 32. The end or inlet 25 is bevelled inwardly as at numeral 33 to provide an elliptical sharp lower edge 34.

Axially spaced :1 short distance above the concave upper edge 32 of end 25 is a deflector 35 formed by deforming the wall of tube 24 inwardly to provide a transverse or radially disposed inner edge 36 formed by converging side surfaces 37, 37 extending from the inner wall of tube 24. It is therefore seen that the plane of the upper side surface 37 forms an obtuse angle with respect to the inner wall of tube 24 for purposes to be described hereinafter.

Sl-idable within the bore of the outer needle 24) is the inner severing needle, or stylet 40, which includes a manipulation handle or knob at its upper end. This knob is outside the needle 20 at all times and may be any convenient shape. In the present embodiment, however, the

knob is circular having an upper peripheral shoulder 41,

a central, hyperbolic shaped, waist portion 42 of reduced diameter, and a lower peripheral shoulder 43 of larger diameter than the waist portion 42 and smaller diameter than the peripheral shoulder 41.

The central part of the stylet includes a shaft formed of several integral, coaxial, end-to-end cylinders of diminishing diameter conforming to the shape of the bore of needle 20. The upper cylinder 44- is of the same length as and of slightly less diameter than upper bore portion 2d; the intermediate cylinder 45 is the same length as and of slightly less diameter than intermediate bore portion 27 and the lower cylinder 46 is of slightly less diameter than lower bore portion 26. There is provided between upper cylinder 44 and intermediate cylinder 45, a conical shoulder 47 conforming totthe shape of peripheral ledge 30, and, between intermediate cylinder 4-5 and lower cylinder 46 a peripheral shoulder 48 conforming to the shape of peripheral ledge 28.

The lower cylinder 46 is a long rod-like member adapted to extend downwardly into the lower intermediate portion of bore 26. The lowermost portion of lower cylinder 46 terminates in a flat bevelled end 49, best seen in FIGS. 7 and 8, the lower end of which is integrally connected to I 3 a concave blade guide member 50. This concave blade guide member 56, in cross section as seen in FIG. 4, is crescent shaped having the same outer diameter as lower cylinder 46 and is in coaxial alignment therewith. The lower end of blade guide member 5% is bevelled as at numeral 51.

When the severing needle 4 is completely inserted within needle 20, the lower end of blade guide member 50 terminates above the deflector 35. This lower end of blade guide member 50 is provided with an elongate flexible blade 52 having parallel, relatively sharp, side edges 53, a flat inner surface 54 and a curved outer surface 55, the outer surface being aligned with and the same diameter as the outer diameter of guide member 50 and lower cylinder 46.

The point 56 at the lower end of blade 52 is rounded or oval shaped and is bevelled inwardly, as at numeral 57. The width of blade 52, as best seen in FIG. 7, is slightly less than the width of blade guide member 50 and hence slightly less than the diameter of bore 26 so that, as the stylet 40 is urged downwardly Within the bore of needle 20, the blade 52 may be deflected by deflector 35 to project at an obtuse angle across the bore 26. It will be noted that the oval point 56 with its bevel 57 forms, at this obtuse angle, a shape substantially conforming with the periphery of bore 26 and therefore when the stylet 40 is completely depressed, the point 56 engages the bore 26 over a wide area adjacent point 31 of tube 24.

As best seen in FIG. 9, the upper bore portion 29 of needle 20 is of such diameter as to receive the tip 60 of a conventional syringe 61 so that a vacuum may be drawn to pull the tissue sample 70, indicated by broken lines in FIGS. 9, and 11 within the lower end of bore 26.

It will also be noted in FIG. 1 that I have provided an alignment member 71 below the lower peripheral shoulder 43. When this alignment member 71 is aligned with a complementary recess 72 in handle 21, the blade 52 is properly aligned for deflection by deflector 35.

Operation From the foregoing description, the operation of my biopsy instrument should be apparent. When a physician desires to obtain a sample or specimen of a sub-dermal tissue, the skin area thereof is anesthetized. Then the tube 25 of outer needle is passed through the anesthetized area and into the interior of the body of the patient until the end is within the region to be examined. Next, the tip 60 of a conventional syringe 61 is inserted within bore portion 29 of needle 20, as shown in FIG. 9, and the plunger (not shown) of syringe 61 Withdrawn so as to apply suction or a partial vacuum to the bore of needle 20. This vacuum tends to draw the tissue sample 70 within bore portion 26, as seen in FIGS. 9, 10 and 11.

After removal of syringe 61 from needle 20, the stylet 40 is passed, point 56 first down the bore of needle 20. It is important that, as the stylet 40 approaches its lowermost or completely inserted position, as shown in FIG. 1, care be exercised to align the stylet 40 in needle 20. Proper alignment may be accomplished by viewing the alignment member 71 and its complementary recess 72 and pivoting the stylet 40 until they are aligned.

As the stylet 40 is inserted in the bore of needle 20, the blade 52 travels downwardly along the periphery of bore 26 and engages surface 37 of deflector 35. Continued insertion of the stylet 40 causes the blade 52 to be cammed inwardly by surface 37, as shown in FIG. 10, so that the curved outer surface 55 of blade 52 rides on inner edge 36 of deflector 35 and the blade 52. is flexed inwardly, pivoting about the end of blade guide member 50, so as to assume the obtuse angle with respect to the axis of stylet 40.

Further insertion of the stylet 40 to its lowermost or completely inserted position, whereby shoulders 47 and 48 abut ledges and 28, respectively, and alignment member 71 is Within recess 72, causes the rounded point 56 of blade 52 to pass through the tissue sample 70 as 4 indicated in FIG. 11 and thereby substantially sever the tissue sample 70 from the remaining tissue.

Since there is a slight clearance between the blade 52 and the bore 26, as the blade 52 is deflected across the bore 26, I have found it preferable to rotate the needle 20 and stylet at) as a unit, before they are removed, so as to sever any unsevered tissue within tube 24, the relatively sharp parallel edges 53 assisting therein.

After this operation, the needle 20 is removed from the patients body and the stylet 40 removed from needle 20. Thereafter, an air blast, by means of a syringe or a plunger passed through the bore of needle 29, will remove the tissue sample 7%! for microscopic examination.

It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that many variations may be made in the embodiments chosen for purpose of illustrating the present invention without departing from the scope of my invention as delincd by the appended claims.

I claim:

1. A biopsy instrument comprising a needle having a bore therethrough, a deflector projecting into the bore of said needle and spaced from the end of said needle, a stylet having a handle at one end and a shaft extending from said handle for slidable movement with respect to the bore of said needle, and a blade carried on the end of said shaft and adapted. When said stylet is moved toward its completely inserted position to be deflected by said deflector across said bore.

2. A biopsy instrument comprising a needle having a bore therethrough, the end of said needle being bevelled with respect to said needle axis to provide an opening with a point at the outer end of said needle, a deflector projecting into the bore of said needle, a stylet having a handle at one end and a shaft extending from said handle for slidable movement with respect to the bore of said needle, and a flexible blade carried on the end of said shaft and adapted when said stylet is moved toward its completely inserted position to be deflected by said deflector across said bore.

3. A biopsy instrument comprising a needle having a bore therethrough, the end of said needle being bevelled With respect to said needle axis to provide an opening with a point at the outer end of said needle and an inner edge opposite said point, a deflector adjacent said inner edge and diametrically opposite said point, said deflector projecting into the bore of said needle, a stylet having a handle at one end and a shaft extending from said handle for axial slidable movement with respect to the bore of said needle, and a flexible blade carried on the end of said shaft and adapted when said stylet is moved toward its completely inserted position to be deflected by said deflector across said bore toward said point.

4. A biopsy instrument comprising a needle having a bore therethrough, the end of said needle being bevelled with respect to said needle axis to provide an elliptical opening with a point at the outer end of said needle and a concaved inner edge opposite said point, a deflector adjacent said concaved inner edge and diametrically opposite said point, said deflector projecting into the bore of said needle, a stylet having a handle at one end and a shaft extending from said handle for slidable movement with respect to the bore of said needle, and a flexible blade carried on the end of said shaft and adapted when said stylet is moved toward its completely inserted position to be deflected by said deflector at an obtuse angle across said bore toward said point.

5. A biopsy instrument comprising a needle having a bore therethrough, the end of said needle being bevelled with respect to said needle axis to provide an elliptical opening with a point at the outer end of said needle and a concaved inner edge opposite said point, a deflector adjacent said concave inner edge and diametrically opposite said point, said deflector projecting into the bore of said needle, a stylet having a handle at one end and a shaft extending from said handle for slidable movement with aces 71 respect to the bore of said needle, and a flexible blade carried on the end of said shaft, there being provided a rounded point on the end of said blade adapted when said stylet is moved toward its completely inserted position to be deflected by said deflector across said bore toward said point of said needle.

6. A biopsy instrument comprising a needle having a bore therethrough, the end of said needle being bevelled with respect to said needle axis and being bevelled inwardly to provide an elliptical opening with a point at the outer end of said needle and a concaved inner edge opposite said point, a deflector adjacent said concaved inner edge and diametrically opposite said point, said deflector projecting into the bore of said needle, a stylet having a handle at one end and a shaft extending from said handle for slidable movement with respect to the bore of said needle, and a flexible blade carried on the end of said shaft, there being provided a rounded point on the end of said blade adapted when stylet is moved toward its completely inserted position to be deflected by said deflector across said bore toward said point of said needle, said point being provided with a bevelled edge bevelled in the direction of said point of said needle, said bore being of sufficient diameter at its end opposite said point of said needle to receive the tip of a syringe.

References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,585,934 Muir May 25, 1926 1,867,624 Hoffman July 19, 1932 2,843,128 Storz July 15, 1958 2,850,007 Lingley Sept. 2, 1958 2,873,742 Shelden Feb. 17, 1959

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Classifications
U.S. Classification600/567
International ClassificationA61B10/00, A61B10/02
Cooperative ClassificationA61B10/0266, A61B2017/320064, A61B2017/32004
European ClassificationA61B10/02P6