|Publication number||US3007524 A|
|Publication date||Nov 7, 1961|
|Filing date||Nov 7, 1961|
|Priority date||Nov 7, 1961|
|Publication number||US 3007524 A, US 3007524A, US-A-3007524, US3007524 A, US3007524A|
|Inventors||George Boer, Harry Pistole, Morse Joe V, Pitts William A|
|Original Assignee||Jersey Prod Res Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (13), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Nov. 7, 1961 H. Pls-rou: ErAL SUBSURFACE VALVE 2 sneetshsneet 1 WELL FLUI Filed April 23, 1959 WELL FLums" INVENTORS'. HARRY PISTOLE, WILLIAM A.PITTS,
JOE V. MORSE, GEORGE BOER, BY MJJHJW ATTORNEK SUBSURF'ACE VALVE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG.8.
s R.. GEH TLT 1 O N I.E 5 9- ETPS 7 lm 7 S R VMAO N vM R l ,M lu Y A V. V\ RL R E R L 6 E AIO 7 S HWJ E E I R i.. P L l M U W P w 7 F llllllllllll. l r/ w :illllllL BY GEORGE BOER, K
Nov. 7, 1961 Filed April 25, 1959 A I W 3,007,524 SUBSURFACE VALVE Harry liistole, Houston, William A. Pitts, Bellaire, and
.loe V. Morse and George Boer, Houston, Tex., assignors, by mesne assignments, to Jersey Production Research Company, rifulsa, Okla., a corporation of Dela- Ware 4 Claims. (Cl. 16o-72) is, they are designed to close olf the production flow conduit when the velocity of the fluids flowing through the valve reaches a predetermined value. These velocity type valves are disadvantageous in that they cannot be periodically tested without flowing the well at a high rate for a short period of time to cause closure of the valve.
Other type safety valves employ an external fluid pressure originating at the surface to maintain the valve open and depend upon release of this fluid pressure to cause the valve to automatically close.
The safety valve of the invention, which is an improvement in this latter type valve, comprises brieiiy, a tubular conduit for carrying production fluids to the surface arranged in a Well pipe; a subsurface closure means for permitting and preventing fluid flow through the conduit; pressure responsive means for actuating the closure means; means for tluidly communicating the annulus between the conduit and the well pipe and the pressure responsive means; packer means for closing off the annulus; means at the surface for supplying fluid pressure to the annulus whereby fluid pressure applied to the annulus actuates the closure means to open position and release of annulus fluid pressure actuates the closure means to closed position. The invention includes a pressure equalizing opening positioned below the packer means to tluidly communicate the annulus and the ow path through the tubular conduit. The invention also includes a control system at the surface for bleeding the fluid pressure in the annulus when surface conditions, as, for example, excessive heat, excessive wind velocity, excessive wave height or force, impact, etc., require closing off the flow of production fluids. The flow path provided by the tubular conduit is preferably of substantially constant cross-sectional area throughout its length. This feature is important since it prevents the accumulation of sand carried by the production iuids. Since the produc tion fluids from many wells contain free sand, accumulation of this sand along any part of the ow path presents a problem. Sand accumulation is a disadvantageous feature in many of the velocity type safety valve installations.
Another important aspect of the present invention is the use of the annulus between the production fluid flow passage or conduit and the tubing or Well pipe as the path for the external uid pressure used to actuate the safety valve. This construction eliminates the need for an additional tubing string or pipe to conduct the valve actuating iluid pressure from the surface to the valve which is the manner of operation in all known valves of this type.
An object of the present invention is to provide a subsurface safety valve that is easily installed and oper- Patent O l' 1 3,0%?,524 Patented Nov. 7, 1961 ated; that overcomes the problem of sand accumulation; that eliminates the need for a separate valve actuating fluid pressure pipe string; that is reliable; and that has other improvements and advantages over known safety valves which will be apparent from a more detailed description of the invention which follows.
Referring briefly to the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a vertical, partly sectional View of the upper portion of the valve assembly of the invention connected to a running tool;
FIG. 2 is a view taken on lines 2-2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a View similar to that of FIG. 1 showing the lower portion of the valve assembly;
FIG. 4 is a vertical, partly sectional view of the upper portion of the valve assembly showing the slips set and the running tool replaced by a detachable conduit extending to the earths surface; Y
FIG. 5 is a view taken on lines 5-5 of FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is a view similar to that of FIG. 4 showing the lower portion of the tool;
FIG. 7 is another view similar to that of FIG. 6 showing the Valve in a diiferent position;
FIG. 8 is a partly schematic view illustrating the surface apparatus connected to the well head equipment.
The valve assembly of the invention, generally designated 11i, is shown in FIGS. l to 7 arranged in a tubing string 11. As seen in FIG. l a running tool 12 suspended on a Wire line 13 and which may be suitably a modification of the type shown on page 4015 of the 21st ed. of the Composite Catalog of Oil Field and Pipe Line Equipment is `connected to the upper end of valve assembly 10.
Valve assembly 1t) includes a housing 14 having a bore therethrough. A collar 15 having a downwardly and inwardly tapering annular lower shoulder 16 is connected to the upper end of housing 14. Spring biased arms 17 connected to the lower end of running tool 12 releasably engage shoulder 16. Housing 14 is provided with an inwardly, upwardly tapering exterior surface 18 along the upper portion thereof. A sleeve 19 provided with a fishing head 20 adapted to engage with a fishing tool and `carrying a plurality of radially spaced slip arms 21 (see FIG. 2) having serrations 22 on their lower ends is slidably arranged on housing 14. Slip arms 21 engage inclined surface 18 in a manner such that downward movement of sleeve 19 relative to housing 14 causes slip arms 21 to move outwardly and embed serrations 22 in the Wall of tubing string 11. Opposed cup packers 2S and 26 are arranged on housing 14 and function to seal off the annulus A between housing 114 and tubing string 11. Above opposed cup packers 25, 26 housing 14 is provided With a port 27 which fluidly communicates the interior and exterior thereof. Also adjacent port 27, housing 14 is provided with a recessed portion 28.
A tubular member or mandrel 30 is movably arranged in the bore of housing 14. Adjacent the recessed portion 28 of housing 14, mandrel 30 is provided with a piston member 31 which forms an expansible pressure Chamber 32 between port 27 and piston member 31. Sealing members 33 are provided on piston member 31 to seal off the space between the interior of housing 14 and piston member 31 and sealing members 34 are provided on housing 14 above recessed portion 28 to seal oif the space between mandrel Sti and the interior of housing 14. Housing 14 is provided with another opening 36 adapted to fluidly communicate the interior and exterior thereof below opposed cup packers 25, 26. Mandrel 30 is provided with openings 37 adjacent opening 36. Sealing members 38 and 39 are adapted to seal off the space between mandrel 30 and the interior of housing 14 above and below openings 37 and an additional sealing member 40 is arranged on mandrel 30 adapted to seal olf the space between mandrel 30 and the interior of housing 14 below opening 36. Mandrel 30 is provided with an exterior shoulder 41 and housing 14 is provided with an interior shoulder 42. Spring 43 adapted to bias mandrel 30 upwardly is positioned between shoulders 41 and 42. A movable valve sleeve or mandrel 45 is arranged in the lower end of housing 14 below mandrel 30. The lower end of mandrel 45 is provided with an opening 46 and a valve seating surface 47 which is adapted to sealingly engage a cooperating seat surface 48 provided on the lower end of housing 14. Mandrel 45 is provided with an exterior shoulder 49 and housing 14 is provided with an interior shoulder 50. A spring 51 is adapted to bias mandrel 45 upwardly is positioned between shoulders 49 and 50. A rod stinger 52 connected to running tool 12 extends through mandrel 3i) and into mandrel 45.
As seen in FIGS. 4 to 6, running tool 12 and stinger 52 connected thereto have been disconnected from collar 15 and removed from tubing string 11. A production pipe string 55, the diameter of which is substantially the same as the diameters of mandrels 30 and 45 has connected to the lower end thereof an adapter latching sub 56 provided with latching arms 57 (see FIG. 5) adapted to releasably engage surface 16 of collar 15. Sub 56 is provided with a sealing member 58 adapted to seal off the space between collar 15 and sub 56. Slip arms 21 are engaged with tubing string 11 and mandrels 30 and 45 are shown in different positions. Opening 37 is aligned with opening 36 and the seating surfaces 47 and 48 are engaged.
In FIG. 7, mandrels 30 and 45 are in still another position. Opening 37 is below opening 36 and the seating surfaces 47 and 48 are spaced apart.
The control system, shown in FIG. 8, includes a well head, generally designated 60, mounted on a casing 61 and provided with a suitable hanger assembly 62 for supporting tubing string 11. Any desired packer arrangement for closing oif the annulus surrounding pipe string 55 may be provided. For example, as shown, a blowout preventer 63 provided with a suitable packoi 64 is arranged on well head 60. Master valve 65, a pressure gauge 66, and flanges 67 and 68 to which are connected a ow conduit 69 and a pressurizing or control conduit 70, respectively, are provided on well head 60. Conduit 69 which uidly communicates with the open upper end of pipe string 55, as shown, is provided with a valve 71. Conduit 70 connects at one end to annulus A below packoff 64 and at the other end to a 2-way control valve, generally designated 72. A hydraulic pump 73 connects to valve 72 by means of conduit 74 and a reservoir 79 of pump 73 connects to valve 72 by way of a conduit 75. A fluid pressure actuated spring biased diaphragm type valve 76 adapted to open upon release of iiuid pressure on the diaphragm is connected in conduit 75. A conduit 77 connects the diaphragm of valve 76 to ow conduit 69. The two positions of valve 72 are designated 1 and 2. When in position 1, conduits 70 and 74 are interconnected and hydraulic pressure from pump 73 uidly communicates with yannulus A. In position 2, conduits 70 and 75 are interconnected thereby uidly communicating reservoir 79 and annulus A when valve 76 is open.
A production casing also would be mounted in well head 60; however, for purposes of simplicity, only casing 61 has been shown. Also, -although not shown, tubing string 11 is provided with a tubing casing packer above the production zone in order to direct production uid flow upwardly through the tubing string to the safety valve.
4In operation, the valve assembly 10 connected to running tool 12 is lowered on wire line 13 to the desired depth for setting the subsurface valve. Stinger 52 holds mandrel 45 down in the valve open position against the bias of spring 51 during the running-in operation. Thus, in this position, well fluids can circulate through opening 46 upwardly through mandrels 45 and 30 and into the tubing string 11 above opposed cup packers 25 and 26, as indicated by the arrows. To set slip arms 21, wire line 13 is jerked upwardly which causes upward movement of housing 14 and outward movement of the serrated ends 22 of slip arms 21 as these members ride on surface 13 of housing 14 until serrations 22 engage the interior wall of tubing string 11. Then additional upward pull on wire line 13 causes arms 17 to disengage from surface 16 of collar 15 and the running tool 12 and stinger 52 are removed upwardly through tubing string 11. Removal of stinger 52 permits spring 51 to move mandrel 45 upwardly to cause the valve to close when seating surfaces 47 and 48 engage, as shown in FIG. 6. The pressure of the well uids acting on the undersurface of mandrel 45 cause an upward force to be transmitted to housing 14 which causes serrations 22 of slip arms 21 to more firmly engage the wall of tubing string 11.
Pipe string 55 and connecting latching sub 56 are then run in tubing string 11 until latching arms 57 engage collar 15 and sealing member 58 seals otf the space between the sub 56 and collar 15, as seen in FIG. 4.
Then, the surface connections are made, as seen in FIG. 8. Valve 72 is placed in position 1 which uidly communicates pump pressure and annulus A. As indicated by the dark arrows in FIGS. 4 and 6, fluid pressure is pumped down `annulus A and enters housing 14 to act on piston member 31 and move mandrel 30 downwardly (from its initial operating position shown in FIG. 3) until opening 37 is aligned with opening 36. In moving mandrel 30 downwardly the fluid pressure required is only that suicient to act against the bias of spring 43. When openings 37 and 36 are aligned, the well pressure below opposed cup packers 25, 26 inside and outside of housing 14 is equalized. Then additional pressure is applied to the annulus which, as seen in FIG. 7, moves piston member 31 and mandrel 30 downwardly which, in turn, rnoves mandrel 45 downwardly to open the valve passage through opening 46 in mandrel 45.
When valve sleeve 45 is in the down or open position, as illustrated in FIG. 7, valve 72 is placed in position 2. In this position of valve 72, well fluids are produced through opening 46 upwardly through mandrels 45 and 30 and through surface ilow conduit 69 'when valve 71 is open. A decrease in fluid pressure in conduit 69 to a predetermined value decreases the pressure in conduit 77, causing diaphragm valve 76 to open. When this occurs, annulus pressure bleeds or exhausts through conduit 70 and conduit 75 to reservoir 79. Upon release of tluid pressure in annulus A, mandrel 30 including piston member 31 moves upwardly under the bias of spring 43. Upward movement of mandrelV 30 permits mandrel 45 to move upwardly under the bias of spring 51, thereby permitting valve seating surfaces 47 and 48 to engage and close olf fluid ow upwardly through port 46 and mandrels 45 and 30. Although operation of the safety valve, as described, provides for valve 76 to open only in response to a `decrease in fluid pressure, this valve may be of the type which opens in response to increased pressure as well as decreased pressure. Additionally, while the control system is described with regard to preventing blowouts or other pressure changes, any other type control system is to be considered as falling within the scope of the invention. For example, the surface apparatus may provide for bleeding hydraulic tluid pressure from the annulus when excessive heat or excessive wind velocity or excessive wave height or excessive wave force or impact from surface objects or any combination of these forces or from other factors, not mentioned, require closing olf of production fluids.
Because the bores of mandrels 45 and 30, sub 56 and pipe string 55 are yall of substantially the same diameter, sand cannot settle on the valve or within the valve because this straight-through type design does not have an increased flow area to cause sand accumulation.
When it is desired to remove the safety valve from tubing string-11, arms 57 of sub 56 are disengaged from collar 15 by pulling up on pipe string 55 and removing this detachable apparatus from the borehole. Then a fishing tool is lowered through tubing string 11 and engaged with fishing head 20. Slip arms Z1 are disengaged `from tubing string 11 and valve assembly 10 is removed .through tubing string 11 to the surface.
yI-I-aving fully described the objects, nature, and app-aratus of our invention, we claim:
1. Apparatus for controlling fluid ilow through a tubing arranged in a borehole comprising a housing having a bore therethrough and provided with an upwardly, inwardiy tapering exterior surface positioned in said tubing, slip means supported on said housing and movable relative thereto, said slip means being engageable with said tapering surface and adapted to move into engagement with said tubing in response to relative movement between said housing and said slip means, said housing being provided with a port fiuidtly communicating the annulus between said tubing and said housing and the interior of said housing, packer means `arranged on said housing below said port adapted to engage the inner Wall of said tubing and prevent fluid How therepast in said annulus, a rst longitudinally movable tubular member arranged in said housing, a piston member provided on said first tubular member below said port, said first tubular member and said housing forming a pressure chamber between said piston member and said port, rst biasing means arranged in said housing and engaging said first tubular member adapted to urge said iirst tubular member upwardly against fluid pressure acting on said piston member in said pressure chamber, a second longitudinally movable tubular member arranged in said housing and provided with a closed lower end, an opening above said closed lower end and a seating surface therebetween, said seating surface being adapted to sealingly engage the lower end of said housing to prevent fluid flow from the interior of said tubing to said housing through said opening when said second tubular member is moved upwardly, second biasing means arranged in said housing and engaging said second tubular member adapted to urge said second tubular member upwardly, said housing being provided with an opening below said packer means, said first tubular member being provided with an opening uidly communicating the interior of said first tubular member and said housing opening at an intermediate position between the uppermost and lowermost positions of said first tubular member, said first tubular member engaging said second tubular member when said irst tubular member is in a lower position and said second tubular member is in an upper position, downward movement of said yrst tubular member to its lowermost position moving said second tubular member from its uppermost to its lowermost positions, a production pipe string releasably connected to the upper end of said housing and extending to the earths surface adapted to provide an isolated ilow path for said well fluids, and fluid pressure supply means connected to said tubing at the earths surface adapted to supply fluid pressureto 6 said piston member via said housing port and said annulus.
2. Apparatus as recited in claim 1 including means connected to said fluid pressure supply means adapted to release fluid pressure in said annulus in response to vaniation in the pressure of said produced well fluids to permit said first tubular member to be moved upwardly under the bias of said first biasing means and said second tubular member to be moved upwardly under the bias of said second biasing means to prevent fluid ilow through said housing.
3. Apparatus for controlling uid flow through a tubing arranged in a borehole comprising a housing having a bore therethrough positioned in said tubing, anchoring means connected to said housing adapted to releasably secure said housing in said tubing, packer means arranged on said housing adapted to engage the inner wail of said tubing to prevent uid flow therepast in the annulus between said housing and said tubing, means arranged in said housing movable downwardly in response to uid pressure in said annulus, means located in said housing above said packer means fluidly communicating said annulus and said fluid pressure responsive movable means, a sleeve valve arranged tin said housing adjacent the lower end thereof movable downwardly from an upper position by and in response to downward movement of said fluid pressure responsive movable means adapted to permit o'w of iluid upwardly through said housing from said tubing interior when said sleeve valve is in a lower position and to prevent ow of fluid upwardly through said housing from the tubing interior when said sleeve valve is in said upper position, means located in said housing below said packer means and means in said fluid pressure responsive movable means cooperating when said fluid pressure responsive movable means mov downwardly to align said means in said housing and said means in said fluid pressure responsive movable means to equalize pressure between the interior of said fluid pressure responsive movable means and the exterior of said housing below said packer means, a production pipe string connected to said housing and extending to the earths surface and fluid pressure supply means connected to said tubing at the earths surface adapted to supply fluid pressure to said fluid pressure responsive movable means via said annulus.
4. Apparatus as recited in claim 3 including means connected to said uid pressure supply means adapted to release fluid pressure in said annulus above said packer means in response to variation in uid pressure of said produced well uids.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,033,563 Wells Mar. 10, 1936 2,104,660 Long et al. Jan. 4, 1938 2,351,322 Crake June 13, 1944 2,780,290 Natho Feb. 5, 1957 2,780,291 Westling Feb. 5, 1957 2,785,755 Endean Mar. 19, 1957 2,813,588 OReilly Nov. 19, 1957
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|U.S. Classification||166/72, 166/322|
|International Classification||E21B34/00, E21B34/10, F16K17/20|
|Cooperative Classification||F16K17/20, E21B34/10|
|European Classification||E21B34/10, F16K17/20|