US 3009265 A
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Nov. 21, 1961 R. s. BEZARK 3,009,265
ANATOMICAL. DEVICE Filed May 9, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR. RICHARD S. BEZARK A TYS.
- Unite States This invention relates to a novel anatomical device, and particularly to a simulated human skull composed of molded synthetic plastic material adapted for demonstrating the contours, parts and construction of a human skull and the various components thereof.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a simulated human skull comprised of detachable or separable components adapted for quick assembly or separation for use by students of anatomy, science, medicine, modeling, sculpturing, sketching, painting, etc.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a simulated human skull composed largely of one molded section but formed with a separable skull cap portion whereby ready access may be had to the interior of the skull and the components and contours thereof.
A further object of the present invention is to provide novel means whereby such separable cap portion may be located on and engaged to the remaining base skull portion.
Another object of the present invention is to provide novel articulated means whereby the lower jaw portion may be separably and pivotally engaged to the skull.
A further object of the present invention relates to novel animated means providing a resilient connection or support for the aforesaid lower jaw portion.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention, the arrangements of parts and the economies thereof will be apparent from a consideration of the following specification and accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a skull formed in accordance with the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof.
FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view of the skull shown in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 4 is a plan view thereof with parts broken away.
FIG. 5 is a section on the line 55 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 6 is a section on the line 66 of FIG. 5.
FIG. 7 is an exploded perspective view of a portion of the cranium of the skull of the present invention, showing the cap portion spaced in relation to the base portion of the skull.
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary sectional detail view on the line 88 of FIG. 1.
Referring to the drawings, the skull of the present invention comprises a separable cap portion 10 for seating on and closing the normally upwardly open base skull portion 11 of the skull. The two are separated along a transverse unnatural line of severance, one of the parts being provided with points projecting therefrom and the other with apertures for the reception of said pins and for aligning and holding the parts together.
Thus, as illustrated, the cap portion 10 is formed with a plurality of spaced pins 12, which may be of the same plastic material and molded integrally with the cap 10, and projecting generally normally to the plane of severance or edge indicated as 13. As shown in FIG. 7, these pins 12 may be suitably spaced in substantially diametrically opposite positions and the skull may be thickened adjacent the areas at which the pins 12 are provided, as at 14, to provide better foundation or structural support for the pins 12.
The skull base portion 11 which seats the cap 10 is provided with a plurality of recesses or apertures 15, preferably formed in relatively thickened wall portions 28, the
3,d09,25 Patented Nov. 21, 1961 apertures 15 being thus adapted to receive the pins 12 and to securely seat the cap and align it in smooth, natural contour relationship with the base skull portion '11. Provision of a severed cranium or cap portion separable from the remaining portion of the skull permits ingress to the interior of the skull.
Due to the size and complexity of the center or major part of the skull, it is desirably molded in one piece with the aid of split cavities and side core actions in the mold, not shown. If desired, the skull cap can be subsequently cemented into place for permanence or left free and held in position by the aforementioned pins, as desired.
In accordance with the present invention, there is provided a separate and separable lower jaw or mandible 16 provided with a pair of relatively flexible arm portions 17 terminating in the inwardly extending ends or pivots 18, 13 receivable in holes or sockets 19, W formed under the ear holes of the skull.
Thus, the lower jaw or mandible 16 is adapted to be engaged in articulated movable engagement with the skull to the extent that natural movement of the lower jaw may be simulated. Section 16 can be engaged to or disengaged from the skull portion ill by merely flexing outwardly the arm portions l7, l7.
The'skull of the present invention and its component parts are suitably made of a plastic material such as high density polyethylene. The lower jaw or mandible portion 16 is molded from such plastic for the purpose of giving it the indicated flexibility to enable joining it to the skull proper. For facilitating molding, this lower portion is preferably made of two components. Thus, the outermost continuous jawbone portions l6, l7 and 18 are formed in one piece of relatively thin cross'section, whereby when removed from the mold the arms 17 will have the indicated flexible character and the whole substantially retain its desired contour without shrinkage, as would be the case if it were molded of the finally employed thickness.
Thus, in order to provide desirable structural strength, to provide means for preventing shrinkage and for faithful contour, I provide a separate molded inner jaw portion 29 which is adhesively secured against the inner face of the jaw portion lid, this portion 19 being substantially U-shaped and conforming thereto.
In order to hold the lower jaw 16 against the upper jaw portion 26, but to maintain them in yieldable pivotal relationship, I further provide resilient means such as 21, which may be a coil spring or rubber band, extending between and anchored to the pin 22 extending from the jaw portion 19 and the pin 23 extending in the roof of the mouth 24. These pins 22 and 23 may be integrally molded with the skull portions 29 and 24, respectively, or separately engaged.
When the skull is disposed in upright position, either by being so held or by being mounted on a suitable stand, not shown, so that the lower jaw 16 is free, it would normally hang down on its pivots 18, 18. The resilient means 21 extending between the lower jaw and the roof of the mouth tends to draw the lower jaw into normal position against the upper jaw. However, this resilient connection permits animation so that the lower jaw may be pivoted downwardly against the action of the resilient means 21 by slight pressure and permitted to return upwardly by means of the tension of the band or spring 21.
It will be understood that the tension of the resilient means 21 may be of such character or be so regulated as to permit the jaw 16 to pivot upwardly and downwardly substantially freely by slight movement of the surroundings or by slight jarring.
Although the drawings show teeth in place on the upper and lower jaws as at 25 and 26, respectively, these may be provided in separated or knock-down form in a kit and subsequently secured in place as by adhesive means, not shown. This may be facilitated by molding numbers into each jaw section with corresponding numbers molded into the teeth in groups of three to four to a section. Thus, as indicated, the teeth may be pro vided separately and the entire anatomical skull device may be vended in a package or kit form with the parts hereinbetore referred to separated and adapted to be subsequently assembled by the user.
Similarly, although not shown, it will be understood that the assembled skull may be mounted on a suitable support such as a rod extending vertically from a stand adapted to be received and wedged into the base skull cavity 27.
1. An anatomical kit comprising a plurality of components composed of synthetic resinous material adapted to be secured together to form a simulated human skull anatomical device, comprising a normally upwardly open main skull portion, a cap closure portion for said main skull portion adapted to be seated thereon in edgewise disposition, pin means on the mating edge portion of one of said components receivable in socket means formed in the other of said portions, and a lower jaw portion including a U-shaped portion, a pair of parallel relatively flexible arm portions and a terminal pair of aligned pivots projecting toward each other and frictionally and pivotally receivable in sockets formed in said main skull portion.
2. An anatomical kit comprising a plurality of components composed of synthetic resinous material adapted to be secured together to form a simulated human skull anatomical device, comprising a normally upwardly open main skull portion, a cap closure portion for said main skull portion adapted to be seated thereon in edgewise disposition, pin means on the mating edge portion of one of said components receivable in socket means formed in the other of said portions, a lower jaw portion including a U-shaped portion, a pair of parallel relatively flexible arm portions and a terminal pair of aligned pivots projecting toward each other and frictionally and pivotally receivable in sockets formed in said main skull portion, and resilient means adapted to be secured to and to eX- tend between anchor means projecting from the interior of said mandible and from the roof of the mouth of said main skull portion.
3. An anatomical device comprising a plurality of separately joined simulated human skull components composed of synthetic resinous material including a normally upwardly open main skull portion, a mandible portion, and a cap closure portion, a plurality of spaced pin portions projecting from the defining mating edge of one of said skull and cap closure portions receivable in companion sockets formed in the wall thickness of the other portion opening to its defining mating edge for reception of said pins, said mandible comprising a U-shaped portion and a pair of parallel flexible arm portions each terminating in an axially aligned pivot projecting toward each other and disposed in sockets formed in said main skull portion, and resilient means secured to and extend ing between anchor means projecting from the inner face of the U-shaped portion of said mandible and from the roof of the mouth of said main skull portion maintaining said mandible in yieldable disposition against the upper jaw portion of the skull.
4. An anatomical device comprising a plurality of separately joined simulated human skull components composed of synthetic resinous material including a main skull portion and a separable lower jaw comprising a U-shaped portion and a pair of flexible parallel arm portions terminating in a pair of axially aligned pivots projecting toward each other and disposed in sockets formed in said main skull portion, a complementary U-shaped reinforcement secured to the inner face of said jaw, and anchor means projecting from said reinforcement and from the roof of the mouth of said skull for engagement by resilient means adapted to maintain said jaw in yieldably closed position.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 760,943 Wright May 24, 1904 2,633,667 Brown et al. Apr. 7, 1953 2,856,729 Clintsman Oct. 21, 1958 OTHER REFERENCES British Plastics, December 1949, -17.1 (Periodical), pages 634-637 only. Title: Plastics aid in Medical Teachings.
Clay-Adams: Received Feb. 15, 1949 (Catalog), Title: Instruments, Lab. Specialties and Teaching Aids for Medical and Allied Sciences. Scientific Library Class: R/717/C6/1949 (Division Book Case). Only pages 142 and 143.