US 3009459 A
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Nov. 21, 1961 H. RUBEN 3,009,459
APPARATUS FOR ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION Filed Sept. 12, 1957 INVENTOR Henning Ruben ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,009 459 APPARATUS FOR ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION Henning Ruben, Vinkelvej 3, Vedbaek,-Denmark Filed Sept. 12, 1957, Ser. No. 683,580 Claims priority, application Sweden Nov. 5, 1956 8 Claims. (Cl. 128-29) The present invention relates to an apparatus for artificial respiration for life-saving purposes. Such an ap paratus generates rhythmic air currents towards the lungs and usually consists of manually driven bellows. These bellows are either placed on the breathing mask itself, or on a table, or they are attached to the body of the life-saver by means of a belt. An apparatus in which the bellows is positioned on the breathing mask has the disadvantage that the bellows is rhythmically pressed against the mouth of the patient by the pumping movement, which may result in an obstruction of the free air passage through the respiratory channels. The operation of the bellows moreover requires strenuous arm movements so that the life-saver will soon feel exhausted and the artificial respiration cannot be carried out by the same person for a long period of time. Furthermore, the resistance to the pumping movements of the bellows is usually so great that the life-saver cannot feel any resistance in the respiratory channels of the patient and thus during the pumping cannot observe if the air current passage is obstructed. However, if further air is pressed into the patients respiratory system even though the air channels have been obstructed the attempt of reviving the person may fail for this reason.
In view of these circumstances such an apparatus has up to now not been used in practice to any major extent, and instead more convenient but less preferable methods are being applied, e.g. rhythmic compression of the chest.
The aforesaid drawbacks will not occur in respiratory apparatus of another type, namely the gas bags for anesthetics apparatus. However, those bags have to be blown up by the compressed gas. By compressing the bag the anesthetist can rhythmically introduce the gas into the patients breathing channels and at the same time feel, with the tips of his fingers, any resistance to the compressing movement that may arise due to obstruction of the patients respiratory channels. The pressure required is so weak that the anesthetists finger muscles will not be tired. The bag on the other hand is so small and so independent of its position that it can without any difficulty be placed on the mask or on some other convenient support. However, such bags can be used only if flasks filled with compressed gas or pumps are at hand for blowing up the bags.
It should be obvious to make the bag in the manner of an aspirator for a perfume sprayer. However, as the bags must have a very large volume the wall of the bag must be very thick to an extent which would prevent the operator from feeling with his fingers the resistance in the breathing channels of the patient. Furthermore the operators fingers would be tired too soon.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an aspirator bag in an apparatus for artificial respiration which will operate independently of a supply of com-.
pressed gas or of pumps for blowing up the bags and to make it sensitive to the pressure of the fingers of the operator.
Another object of the invention is to provide an aspirator bag of thin rubber, air-tight fabric or a plastic material or the like, equipped inside with an elastic insert which expands the bag and comprises a foam rubber sponge having an ellipsoidal shape. On expansion of the bag, air is sucked in via a suction valve, on the subsequent compression by the hand this air is pressed into the respirator mask which may be provided with valves "ice for conducting the air from the bag to the lungs of the patient and for conducting the exhaled air to the atmosphere. Owing to the special lining of foam rubber the bag is self-inflating.
Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals designate like parts throughout the figures thereof and wherein:
FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 are cross sectional views of aspirator bags with inserts or linings comprising foam rubber to be connected to a conventional breathing mask.
In FIG, 1 the air bag is designated by 1 and the elastic insert or lining inside the bag is designated by 2. This lining is made of a sponge of foam rubber, foamed nylon or similar resilient material. The wall of the sponge, may in itself be so strong and resilient that it will reopen the bag by expansion. Preferably, however, the lining is profiled with one or more ribs 3, in the vicinity of the air inlet and outlet valves 4 and 5. The ribs are adapted to promote the opening movement while the lining portion between these ribs, forming a thin, elastic wall 3a, will keep the ribs apart and prevent the central portion of the bag from collapsing. The wall 3a is designed to be very thin. This enables the operator to feel easily the air resistance with his fingers and tiredness of the finger muscles is minimized.
The ribs are provided with air channels 6.
Instead of having ribs, the rubber sponge may be provided with a profiled inner side, the central portion 3a of which is thinner than the end portions 3b, as is shown in FIG. 2. In a similar alternative embodiment the skin of the bag may be profiled in a like manner, in which case the lining is made without any profiled portions.
In the embodiment according to FIG. 3, the lining 2 comprises two symmetrical parts which are glued together, each part having a thin portion 7 and two reinforcing ribs 8 and 9, the gluing being elfected along the reinforcing ribs 9. These ribs 9 make the bag more stable and facilitate manufacturing the lining by gluing together its symmetrical halves. The portion of the lining between ribs 8 and 9 is so thin it offers very little resistance, making it possible for the operator to feel any mucous or other obstruction in the respiratory channels through his finger tips.
A conventional breathing mask 11 is fixed on the outlet valve 5 and is arranged in a angle to the longitudinal axis through the bag and the valves as shown in the drawings. Thereby the operator is prevented from exercising excessive pressures against the face of the patient during the resuscitation work.
It should be understood, of course, that the foregoing disclosure relates to only preferred embodiments of the invention and that it is intended to cover all changes and modifications of the examples of the invention herein chosen for the purposes of the disclosure, which do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the invention set forth in the appended claims.
1. For use with a breathing mask, a bag provided with air outlet and inlet means out of which bag air is expelled during compression of the bag and into which bag air is sucked upon release of compression, said air outlet and inlet means comprising valve means automatically operative to permit flow out of the bag during compression and to permit flow into the bag upon release of compression, said bag comprising an airtight outer skin which is provided with an internal lining made of an elastic sponge-like porous and cellular material, said lining being so configured that there is formed within 3 said bag an inner cavity which is of substantial size with respect to the thickness of said lining, which cavity communicates directly with said air inlet and outlet means, whereby said bag is easily compressible, is sensitive to the fingers of the operator, and is self-inflating after termination of the compression.
2. A bag as defined in claim 1 wherein said outer skin is in the form of a thin layer of a material selected from the group consisting of rubber, an air-tight fabric, and plastic.
3. A bag as defined in claim 1 wherein said lining is arranged loosely within said outer skin.
4. A bag as defined in claim 1 wherein said outer skin and said lining are firmly bonded with one another.
5. A bag as defined in claim 4 wherein said lining is secured to said outer skin by an adhesive.
6. A bag as defined in claim 1 wherein the inner surface of said lining is so profiled that said lining has integral rib portions.
7. A bag as defined in claim 1, said bag having the shape of an ellipsoid of revolution, said air inlet and outlet valve means being arranged in the major axis of said ellipsoid of revolution.
8. A rescue breathing apparatus, comprising, in com bination: a bag as defined in claim 7; and a breathing mask communicating with said air outlet valve means and arranged at a angle relative to said major axis of said ellipsoid of revolution.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,184,371 Myers May 23, 1916 1,337,225 Heald Apr. 20, 1920 1,991,278 Heintz Feb. 12, 1935 2,834,339 Bennett May 13, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS 171,584 Austria June 10, 1952 207,431 Germany Mar. 1, 1909 413,944 Germany May 23,1925