US 3010444 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 28, 1961 J. c. FlNNlGAN 3,010,444
TOY SIMULATING A BALLISTIC MISSILE Filed April 10, 1959 5 Sheets-Sheet l mmvron. JOSEPH C. FINN I GAN ATTO RN EYS Nov. 28, 1961 J. c. FINNIGAN TOY SIMULATING A BALLISTIC MISSILE 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 10, 1959 INVENTOR. JOSEPH C. FINNIGAN FIGS ATTORNEYS Nov. 28, 1961 J. c. FINNIGAN 3,010,444
TOY SIMULATING A BALLISTIC MISSILE Filed April l0, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. JOSEPH C. FINNIGAN ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3 010,444 TOY SIR HEATING A BALLISTIC MISSILE Joseph C. Finnigan, 8332 Mona Ave, Norfolk, Va. Filed Apr. 10, 1959, Ser. No. 805,431 11 Claims. (Cl. 124-11) This invention relates to a toy which will simulate a ballistic missile.
One of the objects of this invention is to-provide a toy which may be operated in a manner similar to the operation of a ballistic missile.
Another object of this invention is to provide a toy comprising a platform and a missile which may be launched from the platform in simulation of the launching of a ballistic missile from a platform.
Another object of this invention is to provide a toy which will simulate a ballistic missile and have an arrangement for controlling the trajectory of the toy missile so that by manipulation the trajectory may be varied in a predetermined manner by the one operating or launching the ballistic missile.
Another object of the invention is to provide a launching platform so arranged as to provide assistance to launching the ballistic missile.
Another object of this invention is to provide a launching platform so arranged that assistance may be given to the launching of the missile by use of the ordinary garden hose which is readily available.
Another object of this invention is to provide a toy simulating a ballistic missile which will have a semi-rigid shell held in desired position by a gas thus rendering it somewhat flexible and shock absorbing should it engage any object.
Another object of this invention is to provide a toy nussile which will be propelled by a compressed gas, such as air, through a controllable discharge neck.
Another object of the invention is to provide propulsion for a toy missile in which the propulsion may be varied by an adjustment so as to control the speed of flight of the missile.
Another object of this invention is to provide a launching platform with the missile held ready to be put in flight by a trigger mechanism which may be easily 0perated to permit flight of the missile.
Another object of the invention is to provide fins on the toy missile which will control the flight of the missile.
Another object of the invention is to provide fins on the second stage on the toy missile which will cause a rotation of the missileabout its longitudinal axis so as to give a spinning efiect.
Another object of the invention is to provide a toy simulating a ballistic missile in which propulsion may be in two stages one operable after the other is expended.
With these and other objects in view, the invention consists of certain novel features of construction as will be more fully described and particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawings:
FIGURE 1 is an elevation showing the missile on its launching platform;
FIGURE 2 is a top plan view thereof;
FIGURE 3 is a sectional View through the trajectory controlling portion of one of the fins;
FIGURE 3A is a view showing a modified form of the trajectory controlling mechanism on one of the fins;
FIGURE 4 is a top plan view of the launching platform or device on a larger scale than shown in FIG- URE 1;
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view through this launching device showing a fragmental portion of the discharge neck of the propulsion unit for the missile;
FIGURE 6 is a section view on line 66 of FIGURE 5;
3,619,444 Patented Nov. 28, 1961 ice FIGURE 7 is a side elevation illustrating a two-stage missile showing the same in section; and
FIGURE 8 is an enlarged sectional view of a connection between the propulsion units of the two stages of the missile shown in FIGURE 7.
FIGURE 9 is a bottom view of a modified form of a part of the second stage missile.
In proceeding with this invention, I have provided a missile having two shells or walls of a non-elastic but flexible material, the shell being inflated to hold the two walls in spaced relation. Within the inner shell there is provided an elastic propulsion unit or an inflatable sack which tends to contract as pressure of the gas which it holds is expended, and I provide a neck through WlilCh the gas may be expelled so as to provide a jet action for propelling the missile. Fins are provided for controlling the flight of the missile, and in one of the fins there is formed a chamber for holding liquid. This fin being heavier than the other flns, when liquid is added, tends to direct the flight of the missile toward this side of the straight path of travel, and by varying the amount of the liquid in this chamber, I may control the trajectory of the flight of the missile. Afiter a certain inclination of the missile is had, the liquid is discharged and from that point on the missile takes a flight substantially straight, although I have provided in the nose of the missile a second container of liquid which shifts its position as the trajectory of the missile shifts and thus tends to cause some but a lesser amount of turning of the missile from a straight line path than was caused by the control liquid in the tin.
The launching of the missile is had by clamping it to a base or launching platform so that the gas under comprcmsion in the propulsion unit cannot escape. While clamped on this base, I provide a plurality of difieren-t ports closed by a part of the missile when on the base and these ports communicating with liquid under pressure. The pressure may be supplied by a garden hose so that when the missile is released from the base, this pressure initially starts the missile in flight after which as soon as the missile leaves the base, the escape of the gas under pressure takes over to cause the completion of the flight of the missile. A trigger action is provided to release the missile from the base. In some cases a two-stage missile may be provided by having two different shells arranged in tandem relation with such connection between them that the first propulsion unit, as it becomes nearly completely discharged, pulls upon a cord to release the discharge opening of the second propulsion unit of the second shell and cause it to move away from the first shell and continue the flight of the missile. The second unit may be given a spinning motion by having its fins curve sufficiently so that as the missile movm through the air, a turning about its longitudinal axis may be had.
With reference to the drawings, 10 designates an inner shell and 11 an outer shell of a missile, these shells being connected together at 12 at the trailing end, while at the leading end the two shells merge together and are sealed on to a sphere 13 which is hollow and which may con tain liquid 14. These shells and the nose 13 may be of a non-elastic, plastic, flexible material such as will hold gas under compression, and in the space 15 between these shells I provide a gas such as air under pressure which may be pumped in through a valve 16 in the side wall of the outer shell 11. At substantially the juncture of the straight wall 17 and the tapered wall 18 of the inner shell, I have provided a ring of a rigid material 19 to hold the inner shell in substantially the shape shown.
A propulsion unit 20 comprising an elastic sack of substantially the comparative size and shape shown in FIGURE 1 to the shell is inserted in the inner shell and held within the inner shell 10, and it contains a gas, such as air, under pressure which may be discharged through a reduced neck portion 21 which passes through a venturishaped tube 22 (see FIGURE which is provided with a flange 23 at this lower edge and also provided with a plurality of radially extending openings 24 through the narrowest portion of its formation. A tubular collar 25 surrounds the narrow portion of the venturi tube 22 at the location of the openings 24 and is provided with openings 26 of a size substantially the size of the openings 24. The collar 25 is rotatable about the neck portion of the venturi tube so that the openings 24 and 26 may be moved into or out of registry. By this arrangement as the gas under pressure in the propulsion unit 20 exhausts through the neck 21 for propulsion of the missile, the pressure on the wall of neck 21 at this location where the radial openings are located is very much diminished and if atmospheric pressure is admitted to this narrow neck portion, it will cause the walls of the neck of the propulsion unit 21 to be moved inwardly to diminish the exhaust opening and thus will slow down the discharge of the gas under pressure in the propulsion unit 20. The amount of slowing down will depend upon the amount of pressure which is admitted by varying the amount of registration of the openings 24 and 25 in this portion of the tube and thus the speed of flight of the missile may be controlled.
A discharge platform designated generally 27 is shown in FIGURES 4 and 5 where it will be noted that the platform is generally solid as at 28 to rest upon the ground 29 and is provided with a recess in its upper face 30 having a cone projection'Bl rising from the bottom wall at the center of this recess. This cone projection has an opening 32 through it which connects with an air conduit 33 extending radially from the lower end of this opening as seen in FIGURE 4 and is closed by an air valve 34 which may be uncapped for pumping a gas into the propulsion unit mounted on the. stand to the desired pressure.
' The venturi 22, as seen in FIGURE 5, fits over the cone projection 31 clamping the elastic propulsion unit neck 21 onto the cone. This arrangement is such that a good seal is provided between the cone and the elastic neck portion of the sack and also a seal is provided between the flange 23 of this venturi and the bottom of the recess 30 as at 35. The discharge neck is held in this position by a metal clamp 36 having generally pmallel arms of a size to squeeze the venturi against the tapered projection 31. These arms are connected by'an arcuate portion 37 with which an elastic band 38 or other resilient means engages, and also engages a post 39 so as to place the clamp 36 under tension tending to move it to the left as shown in FIGURE 4. These arms 36 are enlarged or spaced apart along their portions 40 a distance greater than the diameter of the flange 23 of the venturi of the propulsion unit. The clamp which is slidable in openings 41 in the base and when it is moved from the position shown in full lines in FIG. 4 to a position so that the arm portions 40 are about the venturi, the missile may take off from the base. In order to hold the clamp in clamping position, I have provided a cam trigger mechanism 42 as seen in FIG. 5 having a cam surface 43 which engages the side of the base with a notch 44 to engage the portion 45 which connects the arms 40. A pull rod 46 is connected to the a lower end of the trigger mechanism by a ring 47 so that ings 51- Which, as shown in FIG. 4, are three in number,-
and as liquid is supplied under pressure to the underside of the venturi flange 23 as soon as the clasp is released, this pressure will give the missile its initial start on its flight after which the pressure which is supplied through the hose 49 will be cut off.
In order to control the missile in flight, guiding fins, three in number, 55, 56 and 57 are provided on the outer trailing end of the shell 11. One of these fins 57 is provided with a tube 58 (see FIGURE 3) which is partially closed at its opposite ends as at 59 and 60. The tube is also formed with its wall opposite from its connection to the fin 57 with the step-like arrangement to form pockets 61, 62 and 63. The pockets 62 and 63 have openings 64 and which may be plugged as desired. The arrangement is such that a liquid such as water may be placed in one or two or all of the pockets. Water so placed will cause this side of the missile to be heavier and thus as the missile starts in flight, it will be swung in the direction toward this heavier or weighted fin. The more weight or Water that is put. in, the quicker and greater will be the inclination after this missile is in flight;
Thus, I may control the trajectory of the missile by varying the amount of liquid placed in this control tube. As the missile is tilted, assuming the openings 64 and 65 are closed, the liquid will flow from the compartment 62 to 63 and from 61 to 62 and then to 63 and then will be discharged through the opening 65 at the end of the tube, or if I desire a quicker discharge and a quicker straightening of the trajectory of the missile, I may open or pull the plugs from openings 64 and 65 to accomplish this. Thus, a considerable variation in the trajectory of the missile may be had by the one operating the toy.
In some cases a different form of control may be provided and here I have shown in FIG. 3A fin 57' with a tube 5-8 attached thereto. This tube has its axis parallel to the axis of the missile rather than at right angles to the axis as the tube 53 of FIGURE 3. Here pockets are provided by inclined walls 66 and 67 forming pockets 68 and 69 for containing water which may be supplied through the upper end of the tube which is now shown as closed by plug 70. In this case the operation is similar to that above described, water discharging from one pocket to the next pocket and thence out of the lower open end 71 as the missile tilts to the trajectory desired. By varying the number of pockets carrying water, the tilting may be varied.
In FIGURE 7 I have illustrated a two-stage missile, here the inner shell 75 and outer shell 7 6 are substantially parallel throughout their extent providing a space between them which may be inflated through a valve 77. The first propulsion unit 78 is contained within the inner shell 75 and has the same venturi discharge neck 22 as above explained and fits upon the same base 27 above explained. Two fins 79 and a fin 80 are provided with a control tube 81 on the fin 89 to act in a manner similar to that of the control tube 58' above described.
In the case of this twoastage ballistic missile, the second stage missile designated generally 82 is substantially the same as the missile shown in FIG. 1 having an inner wall It) and outer wall 11, a hollow ball 13 at one end with a portion 15 inflated to space the two shells apart. The same ring 19 as above described is also provided. In this case, however, the fins 83 instead of being as provided in FIG. 1, are each provided with an arc of twist similar to a propeller blade so that as the missile is moved through the air, it will be given a rotating motion about its longitudinal axis. -These fins will rest upon an upper closing edge 84 of the first missile 85, and the shell of this second stage will telescope for a short distance into the open end of the first stage shells as shown in FIG. 7.'- Here the venturi is also a little diflerent, it being designated 86 (FIG. 8) while the elastic neck of the second discharge stage 2% is drawn down through the venturi. The lower edge of the venturi is flanged as at 87 having a recess 88 into which the enlarged edge 89 of the neck 21 fits, while this flange is provided on its outer cylindrical edge with a rib 90. A cap or annular member 91 is of a shape to snugly fit the lower edge of this flange and is provided with a recess 92 to snap over the rib 90, while at the same time the inner portion 93 of this annular ring engages and holds the enlarged edge 89 of the elastic neck 21 between it and the wall of the recess of the venturi, thus clamping the elastic neck securely in position. This ring is also recessed as at 94 and receives the ends of a metal spring strap 95 which is arched sulficiently so as to press upon the plug 96 which enters the neck and serves to close off the entrance thereto. This plug is provided with an opening 97 into the propulsion unit, and is also provided at its lower end which extends through the strap 95 with an air valve 98 closed by a cap 99 which has a ring 100 therein to which a tether or flexible cord 101 is secured. This cord is attached at its other end to an anchor 102 which is cemented to the elastic propulsion unit 78 so as to tie the same securely thereto.
In some cases instead of providing fins as at 83 on the second stage 82, the cap 91 may have fins 103 directed inwardly of the annulus as seen in FIG. 9. These fins are deflected on an arc so that the exhausting gas from the second stage will strike these fins and cause a rotary motion about a longitudinal axis to be given to the second stage missile. The gas would be deflected as shown by the arrows 104 to give the missile a counter clockwise spin as viewed in FIG. 9.
In order that air will not be trapped in the nose of the missile, a small bleed hole 105 is located in the missile at the point where the two shells are amalgamated.
As the two-stage missile operates, the first stage 78 is first exhausted and as it is nearly exhausted and the elastic propulsion sack 78 contracts, it will pull upon the plug 96 in the second stage propulsion causing the strap 95 to become disengaged and the plug to pull from the neck, thus permitting discharge of the second stage and the second stage to become operative and to separate from the first stage. In this arrangement of two stages the second stage is given a rotary motion by reason of the fins 83 which are attached to it and the hollow ball at the nose of this missile will be supplied with a thin consistency liquid, such as water, which is found to operate better than a heavy viscose liquid when the missile is given a rotary motion.
1. A toy simulating a ballistic missile comprising a non-elastic elongated shell, an elastic propulsion unit for compressed gases within said shell having a neck extending from one end of the shell to direct discharge of the gas for propelling the shell and an imperforate hollow sphere at the other end of the shell partially filled with liquid whereby movement of said liquid controls the trajectory of said missile.
2. A toy as in claim 1 wherein the liquid in said sphere is a highly viscous liquid.
3. A toy simulating a ballistic missile comprising a non-elastic elongated shell, fins on said shell, an elastic propulsion unit for compressed gases within said shell having a neck extending from one end of the shell to direct discharge of the gas for propelling the shell, a pair of rigid tubes surrounding said neck and provided with openings, the inner of said tubes having a shape providing a venture, said tubes being relatively rotatable to move said openings out of or into registry to permit atmospheric pressure to reach the neck when the openings register and reduce the passage through the neck as the gas under pressure passes therethrough.
4. A toy as in claim 3 wherein the inner venturi tube has a recess in the inner surface thereof and said neck is elastic and extends through said venturi tube and is held in said recess by a resilient ring.
5. A toy simulating a ballistic missile comprising a non-elastic elongated shell, a propulsion unit carried by said shell to direct discharge of the gas for propelling the shell, guide fins secured to said shell in symmetrical arrangement, one of said fins carrying a tube for holding a liquid, said tube having a discharge opening for the discharge of the liquid upon tilting of the shell a predetermined amount.
6. A toy as in claim 5 wherein a plurality of liquid containing pockets are provided in said tube.
7. A toy as in claim 5 wherein a plurality of liquid containing pockets are provided in said tube, said pockets being dischargeable one into another.
8. A toy simulating a ballistic missile comprising an elongated shell, a propulsion unit in said shell, a loading and discharge neck extending from the unit axially of the shell, a launching base having a projection to enter said neck and receive the surrounding portion of the neck about said projection, said base having openings covered by said surrounding portions, a liquid in said openings and means to apply pressure on said liquid to assist launching said missile.
9. A toy as in claim 8 wherein said missile has a plurality of fins one of which provides a trajectory control, said base openings being omitted in one area of azimuth and said fin having the trajectory control being located in said area.
10. A toy simulating a ballistic missile comprising two elongated shells in tandem relation, 2. propulsion unit in each shell, said propulsion units each having "a discharge neck, the neck of the first propulsion unit extending axially from one shell, a discharge control for the neck of the second propulsion unit comprising a plug in said discharge neck and means comprising a tether connected to said plug and to the first propulsion unit which is an elastic collapsible member so that upon reduction in size of the member, said plug is pulled from the neck of the second propulsion unit.
11. A toy as in claim 10 wherein said plug is an elastic sack communicating with said second propulsion unit and is provided with an air valve through which gas may be injected into said second unit.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 865,419 Moorehead Sept. 10, 1907 2,186,587 Kleinberg Ian. 9, 1940 2,540,403 Meyers Feb. 6, 1951 2,927,398 Kaye et a1 Mar. 8, 1960 FOREIGN PATENTS 574,536 Great Britain Ian. 9, 1946 161,579 Australia Mar. 1, 1955