US 3011527 A
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United States PatentO 3,011,527 PROSTHESIS CONSISTING' OF TEXTILE MATERIALS Paul Jacques Corbiere, Lyon, France, assignor to Societe Rhodiaceta, Paris, France, a French body corporate No Drawing. Filed May 23, 1957, Ser. No. 661,015 Claims priority, application France June 20, 1956 5 C aims, 39
This invention concerns a new prosthesis consisting of textile material for the grafting of tubular organs.
It is'already known to produce such prostheses by stitching flat fabric or knitting synthetic threads, either in the form of continuous filaments or in the form of dis continuous fibre yarns. However, it has been found that such prostheses have the disadvantage, in the case of continuous threads, of leaving excessively large pores between the threads whereby the passage of fluid, e.g. blood, therethrough is too great, or in the case of discontinuous fibre yarns of detaching fibrils when the tubular members are unclamped to permit free flow of blood, with all the danger to the blood circulation thereby involved. Moreover, stitching of the material causes bulges.
According to the present invention, a new form of prosthesis is formed of a fabric in which the warp and/or the weft consist at least in part of continuous synthetic threads having a bulky structure.
By continuous synthetic threads having a bulky structure are meant threads in which the continuous component filaments are formed with undulations and/or changes in direction such that their true length is distinctly greater than that of the yarn formed therefrom. Such threads are known in the art as voluminous (i.e. Helanca type) threads or textured threads. They can be produced by various means and are marketed under many trade marks.
Among the synthetic threads, those obtained by dry, moist or molten spinning of polymers containing at least 85% of acrylonitrile are particularly suitable for the production of prostheses according to the invention. However, other synthetic threads, such as those formed of polyamides, polyesters, polyolefines and their derivatives can also be used.
In carrying the present invention into practice, threads of any count, for example between 36 and 900 deniers (4 to 100 tex), may be used. It is generally advantageous to use threads having a fine count for prostheses of small diameter, and to use threads of large count for prostheses of large diameter.
The use of high-bulk threads ensures both a good re-, sistance to haemorrhage and a solid anchoring of the fibrin and it also prevents fraying of the ends; moreover, the use of continuous filaments obviates all danger of detached fibrils being carried along in the blood stream.
It has been found advantageous to use seamless tubular fabrics, whereas heretofore the only tubular prostheses known were obtained by stitching a flat fabric or by knitting, the latter method involving the danger of laddering. It has been observed that in tubular fabric the disposition of the weft as a spiral is particularly favourable to the re-establishment and maintenance of the blood circulation.
The texture of the fabric must be so compact that only fine, but numerous, pores are left between the threads. It is generally advantageous to keep the diameter of the pores below 0.10-0.15 mm. For example, a warp density of from 40 to 60 threads per centimetre and a weft density of from 25 to 35 threads per centimetre may, with advantage, be employed for a thread of from 90 to 135 deniers (10 to tex), but these densities may be increased or reduced as required, especially when threads of a finer or coarser count are employed. The weave of types.
The prostheses according to the invention may be used for the grafting of all tubular organs, e.g. blood vessels 1 or the oesophagus.
When, after use, the prostheses according to the invention are dissected, it is found that they are enveloped by fibrous tissue which continues on either side of the initial vessel, in close union with its conjunctivo-adventitial envelope, and that their internal appearance is astonishingly similar to that of a living vessel,-with a covering of a translucent, very adherent film, reminiscent of the endarterial coat. It is thus possible to consider the cicatrised prosthesis as a neo-vessel which is very read ily tolerated by the patient and which is conducive to the maintenance of a normal circulation.
The following examples will serve to illustrate the invention.
Example I A tube, 8 millimetres in diameter, is woven with a fourthread twill weave, warp density 54 thread/cm, weft density 27 thread/cm, using a polyacrylonitrile thread of 90 deniers (l0 tex), 32 individual filaments arranged in voluminous form (ie Helanca type), having a residual Z-twist of 40 turns/m. The tube obtained weighs 3.26 g. per linear metre. The thickness of the walls of this tube is 0.3 mm. and the diameter of the pores varies between 0.01 and 0.10 mm.
This tube, cut to the desired length, was sterilised by treatment for 1 hour in boiling water, whereby it underwent a shrinkage of 10%, and was then used successfully as an arterial prosthesis.
Examination of the upstream and downstream pulsations after cic-atrisation shows that they have substantially the same amplitudes and that the systolic pulsations transmitted on either side have the same aspects. Histological examination of a prosthesis of this type applied to a dog after survival for one year has shown a remarkable reconstitution of the blood vessel by way of the prosthesis.
According to the purpose of the graft and the particular state of the patient, a similar prosthesis consisting of threads of poly-amides, polyesters, polyolefines or derivatives may be employed.
Example II A tube, 12 millimetres in diameter, is woven with a 4-thread twill weave, warp density 33 thread/cm. and weft density 31 thread/cm., with a polyacrylonitrile thread of 180 deniers (20 tex), 64 individual filaments arranged in voluminous form (i.e. Helanca type) and retaining a residual Z-twist of 70 turns/m. The tube obtained weighs 4 g./m., its thickness is 0.4 mm. and the diameter of the pores varies between 0.04 and less than 0.01 mm. (by examination under the microscope).
A length of this very elastic tube exhibits a shrinkage of 6% after sterilisation as in Example I. It was used successfully as an arterial prosthesis.
Example III A Y-shape tube is woven, the base of which measures 12 millimetres in diameter, and the two arms of which each measure 6 millimetres in diameter. This tube is woven with the same thread and in the same manner as in Example I and is successfully used after sterilisation as a prosthesis for the iliac artery.
Example IV A tube, 10 millimetres in diameter, is woven with a taffeta weave comprising 37 warp threads per cm. and 27 weft threads per cm. from an acrylonitrile thread of deniers (10 tex), 32 individual filaments, brought into textured form by passage through a nozzle with an injection of compressed air in known manner. This tube weighs 3.15 g./m. and has pores of 0.03-0.09 mm. in diameter.
This tube is very flexible and was successfully used as an arterial prosthesis.
Similar prostheses can be produced with threads of polyamides, polyesters and polyvinyl chloride.
1. A prosthesis consisting of a tube of synthetic textile formed by a woven fabric in which at least one of the warp and weft consists of bulked yarns made up of continuous synthetic filaments.
2. A prosthesis consisting of a seamless tube of synthetic textile formed by a woven fabric in which at least one of the warp and weft consists of bulked yarns made up of continuous synthetic filaments.
3. A prosthesis consisting of a tube of synthetic textile formed by a woven fabric in which at least one of the warp and weft consists of bulked yarns made up of continuous polyacrylonitrile filaments.
4. A prosthesis consisting of a seamless tube of synthetic textile formed by a woven fabric in which at least one of the warp and weft consists of bulked yarns made References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,475,012 Cole July 5, 1949 2,789,340 Cresswell Apr. 23, 1957 2,810,184 Sherman Oct. 22, 1957 2,836,181 Tapp May 27, 1958 2,845,959 Sidebotham Aug. 5, 1958 OTHER REFERENCES Surgery, published by C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, Mo., 1955; vol. 37; pages 167 to 174.
Surgery, published by C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis Mo., 1955; vol. 38; pages 6 1 to 70. (Copy in Scientific Library.)
Surgery, published by C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, Mo., 1959; vol. No. 2; pages 298-304. (Copy in Scientific Library.)
, UNITED STATESIPATENT, OFFICE CERTIFICATE :OF CORRECTION Paul Jacques Corbiere in the above numbered petrtified that error appears ters Patent should ,read .as
It is hereby ce tion and that the said Let ent requiring correc corrected below.
Column l lines 33 and 3 strike out "(Lea Helanca type)"; column 2 line 24 and 5O strike out (i.e. Helanca type)" each occurrence, and insert instead by twisting twist setting and untwisting Signed and sealed thisv 2nd day of October 1962.
(SEAL) Attestz' ERNEST w. SWIDER DAVID L. D
Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer