US 3015377 A
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Jan. 2, 1962 H. A. REITFORT 3,015,377
CONSOLE TYPEWRITER BIT PRINTING Filed March 25, 1960 11 Sheets-Sheet 1 0CP K0 Ni Q 2 v DR L ASR AWB FIG.20 FlG.2b FIG.2c F|G.2d FlG.2e
IN VE N TOR HENRY A. REITFORT ATTORNEY Jan. 2, 1962 H. A. REITFORT CONSOLE TYPEWRITER BIT PRINTING ll Sheets-Sheet 3 FIG. 2b
Filed March 25, 1960 TYPE RESE mod:
Jan. 2, 1962 H. A. REITFORT CONSOLE TYPEWRITER BIT PRINTING FIG. 2c
11 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed March 25, 1960 Jan. 2, 1962 H. A. REITFORT 3,
CONSOLE TYPEWRITER BIT PRINTING Filed March 25, l960 ll Sheets-Sheet 5 .IIL P 11 Sheets-Sheet 6 m H IIJ IJ L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 r be P 4 2d 0 R R w m w F1 FNL FJL 5 9 0 R m T. T. L r| 4 r 2 0 La 4 R *7 Jan. 2, 1962 H. A. REITFORT CONSOLE TYPEWRITER BIT PRINTING Filed March 25, 1960 Jan. 2, 19 62 H. A. REITFORT CONSOLE TYPEWRITER BIT PRINTING 11 Sheets-Sheet '7 Filed March 25, 1960 FIG. 2 f
Jan. 2, 1962 H. A. REITFORT CONSOLE TYPEWRITER BIT PRINTING ll Sheets-Sheet 8 Filed March 25, 1960 FIG. 29
Jan. 2, 1962 H. A. REITFORT cousoua TYPEWRITER BIT PRINTING ll Sheets-Sheet 9 Filed March 25, 1960 FIG. 2h
Jan. 2, 1962 H. A. REITFORT CONSOLE TYPEWRITER BIT PRINTING 11 SheetsSheet 10 Filed March 25, 1960 FIG. 2i
Jan. 2, 1962 H. A. REITFORT CONSOLE TYPEWRITER BIT PRINTING ll SheetsSheet 11 Filed March 25, 1960 L 2 w 5 1% WQE m P H m MM character designations.
United States Patent 3,015,377 CGNSOLE TYPEWRITER BIT PRINTENG Henry A. Reitfort, Vestal, N.Y., assignor to International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Fiied Mar. 25, 1960, Ser. No. 17,656 6 Claims. (Cl. 19719) This invention relates generally to typewriters, and it has reference in particular to controls for a typewriter console for a computer or the like.
More specifically, the purpose of the invention is to provide for simplifying the finding of an error in information being typed by a console typewriter used with a computer.
It is one object of this invention to provide that whenever any character to be typed by a typewriter has more Or less than the correct number of bits, the bits themselves wiil be type so that the nature of the error may be determined.
Another object of the invention is to provide in the event that a character to be typed has the Wrong number of bits therein for typing the actual bits together with an appropriate zone or numeric designation.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide in a system wherein a typewriter is operated by coded bit signals for typing the bits of a character having other than the correct number of bits and changing the color of the typing in order to readily locate the error.
it is also an important object of this invention to provide in a console typewriter for automatically typing an error designation preceding a faulty character and then following this designation by the individual bits.
The foregoing and other objects, features and advantages cf the invention will be apparent from the following more particular description of a preferred embodiment of the invention, as illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a block flow diagram illustrating the relationship cf the typewriter and the controls to the computer system.
FIGS. 2:: through 2 arranged with FIGS. 2a through 2e side by side above FIGS. 2 through 2 together provide a schematic diagram of the typewriter and console controls necessary for practicing the invention in one'of its forms.
FIG. 3 is a block diagram showing the arrangement of FIGS. 2:: through 21'.
Referring particularly to FIG. 1, it will be seen that a typewriter TW is used in conjunction with keyboard control KC and an operators control panel OCP for operating through console controls CC for typing information out of a computer system from an arithmetic register AR or the like via storage means such as an arithmetic word buffer AWE and a drum DR, as well as for typing information into means such as an address register ASR or address analysis unit AA of the system.
The typewriter TW, which may be of a well-known type, as shown in FIGS. 2a through 21', is provided with the usual plurality of keys for typing alphabetic, numeric,
' and special characters, these keys being operated by type magnets generally designated by the numeral 150 and bearing the respective alphabetic, numeric, and special I The keys are further provided with a plurality of contacts, designated generally by the numeral 152 and designated individually by the characters or numerals with which they are associated for transmitting signals to the computer system via a cable 154.
In order to read bit information into the typewriter TW from the buffer AWB or the drum DR, a plurality of zone bit relays Rtil through R65 and numeric bit relays R31 through R35 are provided which are operated in re- 3,015,377 Patented Jan. 2, 1 962 spouse to incoming bit signals to their respective latches L. The bit signals arrive from the system over bit lines 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 where they are gated with suitable alphabetic and numeric gating signals over lines Alpha and Numeric W-j-D from a console timing ring and a drum or other storage device timing signals to AND circuits A. The bit signals are then mixed in OR mixes O with suitable Space and Store signals for operating their respective latches L through suitable drivers D. A plurality of zone repeater relays R69, R71, R72, R74, and R are used in conjunction with the zone bit relays, and a plurality of numeric repeater relays R86, R39, R 2, R5 5, and R98 are used in conjunction with the numeric bit relays for normally controlling the energization of the alphabetic, numeric, and special character type magnets 150.
In order to provide for printing the individual bits insteadof the character whenever there are more or less than the prescribed number of bits for a character, which in the present instance may be set as two bits for each numeric character, and two zone bits and two numeric bits for each alphabetic and special character, a character select delay check relay R191 is provided for operating in conjunction with a character select noncheck relay R1133 and a character select check relay RIM under the control of contacts of the repeater relays. In order to further make an error in the number of bits more evident, provision is made for energizing the asterisk magnet 155 and a color detent relay R26 to effect operation of the color detent magnet 156 to shift the ribbon from black to red so as to type the asterisk and the bits in red. A color control transfer relay R27 is provided for operating a transfer magnet 158 and changing the ribbon from red back to black at the end of the operation. A carriage return back signal relay R47 is operated by carriage return contact CR-l. A character select delay relay R48 having a timed drop-out time is utilized for timing purposes in conjunction with a back signal relay R36 operating the relay R103 to indicate that no character has been typed within the predetermined time allowed for typing of a character. A line end relay R24) provides an automatic carriage return signal, and'a bit print relay R29 sets up a circuit for the printing of bits when there is other than a correct number of bits in a character. A plurality of advance relays R59, R53, R56, R55, R53, R52, and R49 are provided in conjunction with different ones of the bit relays for advancing the bit printing cycle to successively analyze the 6, 3, 2, l, 0, Z, and D bits for bit printing. The alpha relay R24 is utilized for indicating and printing of bits during an alphabetic operation. The end of a bit print or a normal operation is indicated by means of an end of print relay R35. A SCC relay R32 is picked by the selector common contact SOC-1 of the typewriter which closes during each typing cycle for a portion of the cycle. The carriage return back signal relay R47 is picked by the carriage return contact CR-l on the typewriter carriage at the end of the carriage travel, while the back signal relay R36 provides a signal for advancing the console rings, this signal being suppressed during bit print operation so as to prevent advancing of the rings on each typing operation since each typing operation involves the typing of a bit and not a character. A bit print start relay R is provided for controlling the bit print relay R29 in response to operation of the character select noncheck relay R103. 1
The bit print feature of the console typewriter TW enables the operator to determine which character bits were missing or what hits were present when the character was transferred from the drum to the typewriter. The bit print feature works equally well for both alphabetic and numeric characters. In either case, the bits that were present during the transfer are typed. A red asterisk is typed first, designating an error condition and and picks relay R32. Relay R32 combines with relays R29 and R103 to pick the advance Z relay R52 through armature R324n/0 and armature R1035n/o. Relay R52 then combines with the relays R49, R29, and R103 to pick the end of print relay R35 through armature R49-2n/o, armature R52-3n/o, armature R1035n/o, and through the chain of contacts including armature R293n/o. Relay R35 drops the bit print relay R29, opening the circuit at armature R35 1n/c, and picks the back signal relay R36 through armature R20ln/c, armature R35-2n/o and armature R32-1n/o. It also combines with relays R26 and R32 to pick the color transfer relay R27 through armature R26-1n/o, armature R353n/o, and armature R32-6n/o. A circuit is provided at armature R271n/o to energize the color control transfer magnet 158 which shifts the ribbon from red back to black.
When the SCC-l contact opens during the D typing cycle, relay R32 drops. With relay R32 down, the circuits to relays R52, R35, and R36 are broken at armature R32-4n/o, armature R523n/o and armature R35-2n/o. The circuit to relay R49 is interrupted at armature R35-1n/o of relay R35. The dropping of relay R36 interrupts the circuit to relay R26 at armature R36-ln/o, which tie-energizes the color control detent magnet 156 at armature R26-1n/o. A signal is sent to electronic equipment of the system through armature R363n/ c so that the next character can now be typed in the usual manner.
Ir" all the bits are missing, the asterisk is still typed in response to operation of relays R103, R80, and R29 followed by the character D. The character is not typed in this operation. The presence of extra zone or numeric bits still causes the pickup of the character select noncheck relay R103 in the usual manner. All the bits including the extra bits are typed. The transferred zone bits are typed first in the following order 6, 3, 2, l, and 0, the advance relays operating in the manner previously described so that any bits not transferred cause the circuitry to bypass that area and act on the next bit that was transferred. Typing of the asterisk, Z and D and ending the operation occur exactly as previously described.
Numeric bit print During the typing of the numeric character, there should be two bit relays and two bit repeater relays picked. The character select noncheck relay R103 picks whenever there are more or less than two numeric bit relays picked. With relay R103 picked, the red asterisk is typed exactly 'as described for an alphabetic bit print. During the asterisk typing cycle, the bit print start relay R80 and the bit print relay R29 are picked. As soon as relay R29 picks the advance D relay R49 also picks through armature R29-6n/o. Relay R49 combines with relay R29 and a bit relay to energize the print magnet for the following typing cycle. The typing of the D and the end of the operation occur exactly as described in the alphabetic bit print. Extra bits are typed as previously described, the typing of the extra bits being preceded by an asterisk and followed by the character D. If all the bits are missing, the asterisk is still typed, followed by the typing of the character D.
Relay R48 is de-energized during each typing cycle at armature R41-1 of relay R41 which responds to a signal to type from the system. If relay R36 operates in a normal cycle, relay R48 is held through armature R362n/o. If no back signal is received, a circuit is provided through R325n/ c, R48-1n/ c, and R102-1n/o to pick the magnet 160 to indicate a proper number of bits but no character available for the code.
In a normal print operation for an A, zone bit relays R65, R61, and numeric bitrelays R82, R81 are picked, completing obvious circuits for the related bit repeater relays R75, R69, and R89, R86, respectively. Alpha relay R24 is picked through R652n/o and R61-2n/o.
Character select delay relay Rlill is dropped by arma- 6 ture R86-1n/c and relay R102 is picked through R101-2n/ c, R29-7n/ c, R69-1n/o, R75-1n/o, R71-1n/c, R72-1n/c, R74-1n/c, R24-3n/o, R862n/o, R92-2n/c, R98-2n/ c, R892n/o, and R-2n/c.
A circuit is thereby provided through R32-6n/ c, R102-2n/o, R244n/o, R75-2n/o, R74-2n/c, R72-2n/c, R71-2n/c, R89-3n/o, R98-3n/o, R953n/ c, and R863n/o to the A type magnet. During typing SCC-l closes, picking relay R32. Back signal relay R36 picks through R32ln/o, R103-4n/ c, and R20-1n/c and operates to turn on a back signal latch (not shown) in the console electronic equipment through armature R364n/o.
When SCC-l opens, relay R32 drops, and the circuit to relay R36 is broken at R3Z1n/o. The circuit is now ready for the next character, the bit relays being dropped when the latches L are reset by a suitable reset signal over line 165.
From the above description and the accompanying drawing it will be apparent that an error and the nature thereof may be easily detected since the actual bits received are typed in red and indicated by an asterisk. This facilitates in not only detecting the error but determining the nature thereof so that the cause may be remedied.
While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to a preferred embodiment thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. The combination with a typewriter having a plurality of keys for typing characters and having operating magnets therefor, of input means including a plurality of bit mean selectively operable in different combinations to efiect operation of particular ones of said magnets in response to a bit code having difierent combinations of a prescribed number of bits for each character, check means controlled by said bit means in response to other than the prescribed number of bits in any character, and means controlled by the check means for efiecting operation of the magnets to print the actual bits.
2. In combination, a typewriter having a plurality of keys and magnets for actuating said keys to print characters including numeric characters, input means for said typewriter including a plurality of bit relays selectively operable in different combinations in response to a predetermined bit code for operating dificrent ones of said magnets to print their respective characters, check means including contacts of said bit relays for determining other than a prescribed number of bits for a character, and means controlled by the check means for connecting the input means to ditterent ones of said magnets for printing the actual bit content of the character.
3. In combination with a typewriter having a plurality of keys for typing numeric and alphabetic characters and having magnets for operating said keys, a plurality of numeric and zone bit relays operated by incoming numeric and zone bit signals, circuit means controlled by said bit relays connected to selectively operate said magnets to type characters in response to predetermined bit code signals, check means operated by other than a predetermined number of bit signals for zone or numeric portions of a signal, circuit means controlled by the check means for operating a particular one of the magnets to indicate an error, and additional circuit means controlled by the check means for changing the connections of the magnets to type the individual bits corresponding to the bit signals.
4 In a typewriter console, a typewriter having a plurality of keys for typing alphabetic and numeric characters and having magnets individual to each key for operating said keys, input means including a plurality of bit devices 1 connected to respond to incoming bit signals, circuit means controlled by the bit devices to selectively connect different ones of the magnets for operation in response l to different combinations of predetermined numbers .of bit signals, character check means controlled by said bit devices operable in response to other than a predetermined number of bits for a particular character, means controlled by the character check means to effect operation of a predetermined magnet to type a character designating an error, other means controlled by the check means for changing the type color from an initial value,
and circuit means controlled by the check means to change the connections of the magnets to type the actual bits for the particular character.
5. In combination, a typewriter having a plurality of keys with magnets for operating them to type characters, means including a plurality of bit relays normally connected to selectively control the magnets in response to different combinations of bit code signals, character check means operable under the control of the bit relays in response to more or less than a predetermined number of bit relays operated, means controlled by the check means and the bit relays for changing the connections of the magnets to type the actual bits for a particular character having more or less than a predetermined number 8 of bits, and means controlled by the check means for operating a selected one of the magnets to designate the kind of bits.
6. The combination with a typewriter having a plurality of keys for typing characters and having operating magnets therefor, of input means selectively responsive to input bit signals for effecting connection'of a predetermined one of said magnets in response to a valid code of bits, check means controlled by said input means for detecting other than valid code signals, means controlled by the check means for changing the connections of the magnets to print the actual bit signals, and other means controlled by the check means for indicating an error condition.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS V