US 3016052 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 9, 1962 L. L. ZUBREN 3,016,052
MOUTH PROTECTOR Filed Dec. 9, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTQOR LOUIS L. ZUBREN ATTORNEYS L. L. ZUBREN MOUTH PROTECTOR Jan. 9, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 9, 1959 N E R B mu T2 WM. m mu 0 L M Y B ATTORNEYS United States Patent O 3,016,052 MOUTH PROTECTOR Louis L. Zubren, 5500 W. Capitol Drive, Milwaukee, Wis. Filed Dec. 9, 1959, Ser. No. 858,417 2 Claims. (Cl. 128-436) This invention appertains to a mouth guard and more particularly to a contoured intra-oral dental appliance, and is a continuation in part of my prior application entitled Mouth Protector, Serial No. 744,393, filed June 25, 1958, and said pending application is hereby abandoned in favor of this continuing application.
There is a definite need for an all purpose mouth guard, that can be safely and comfortably worn'by persons both during sleep and wake periods. The need for mouth protection in contact sports, particularly where an individual has teeth restoration, has long been recognized. Where orthodontic appliances are worn incident to the straightening of teeth, injury is often caused by such bracing during sleep to the lips, cheeks and tongue, due to the constant changing of position by the sleeper. The need of tooth and lip protection for musicians playing reed instruments is also known. It is also highly important, that any guard worn, be firmly anchored in place against accidental displacement of dislodgement caused by a forcible blow and at the same time allow free normal movement of the lower jaw. Due to changing football tactics and protecting helmets for players with face bars for intercepting horizontal blows, principal injuries to players are now caused to the unprotected lower jaw and from upward rising blows starting blow the chin.
Drawing from my knowledge of anatomy, principles of application, occulsion, articulation, dental materials, etc., obtained as a doctor of dental surgery and also from my experience in contact sports, I have provided a mouth guard which has as a principal object of the invention, a construction which conforms to the anatomy of the month, including tooth, gum and surrounding tissue area, and which will give a maximum amount of protection from blows and stresses coming from all points toward the jaw or mouth and particularly from upward rising blows.
Working on the premise that the factors mentioned above are variable, my invention seeks and has as one of its principal objects, to provide a device which will initially conform to the general characteristics of an average mouth, but which can be varied from person to person and then finally fitted to the exact characteristics of the mouth of one indiw'dual.
A further important object of my invention is the provision of a contoured intra-oral dental device embodying a preformed resilient plastic tray scientifically designed to conform to the known characteristics of an average mouth for receiving the teeth and adjacent gum areas of a person and a mix of the same material as the tray and placed in a moldable form directly in the tray or base, whereby the tray or base with the mix can be placed in the mouth by the. person himself, to receive the teeth and adjacent gum areas, sothat a correct and individual impression of the persons mouth can be obtained, the mix readily curing when exposed to the atmosphere at room temperature and combining with the material of the preformed trayor base to form an integral homogeneous whole.
A further salient object of my invention is to provide a mouth guard in which dental principles, such as Bonwills triangle, curve of spec, adjustable peripheral border etc. are variable in the tray, owing to the nature of the material being used, the tray being bendable to the shape of a particular persons mouth and being adapted to receive the mix for the correct impression of a persons mouth, the 'border of the tray or base being capable of being trimmed by a pair of scissors or the like to conform to adjacent gum and cheek tissue.
A further important object of my invention is to not only provide a tray which will conform to the average mouth configuration, and one which can be formed with the fingers to conform to a certain mouth structure, but one which will also conform to the terminals of the gums; the formation and configuration of the tray being such as to form a complete receptacle for receiving the mix or impression material.
A still further object of my invention is to form the preformed tray in such a manner as to protrude above the tooth line and then over adjacent gum areas and merge therewith, the marginal edges of the tray tapering to a zero radius, so that there will be no appreciable thickness between the juncture of the lips and the gums.
A still further important object of my invention is to provide a light, durable mouth guard which will effectively absorb and distribute shock, one which will prevent contact of an orthodontic appliance with the lips, cheeks and tongue of the wearer and one which will be comfortable to wear and not particularly noticeable to the casual observer, so that same can be worn by musicians playing reed instruments, with confidence.
A still further important object of my invention is the provision of a resilient, moldable mouth guard which conforms exactly to the teeth and gum formation of a particular wearers mouth, whereby to afford maximum protection and to prevent accidental displacement of the guard from the month.
With these and other objects in view, the invention consists in the novel construction, arrangement and formation of parts, as will be hereinafter more specifically described and claimed, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which drawings,
FIGURE 1 is a top plan view of the preformed base or tray;
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view through the base memmer or tray, taken on the line 22 of FIGURE 1, looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary, longitudinal sectional view through one side of the tray, the section being taken on the line 3-3 of FIG. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows, the View showing more particularly the maxillary and mandibular compensating curvatures;
partly broken away and in section showing the guard in a persons mouth, with the impression material combining with the tray and curing and conforming to the configuration of the teeth and adjacent gum and cheek areas;
FIGURE 7 is a top plan view of the completed guard removed from the mouth of a person with parts thereof broken away and in section to illustrate the union between the impression material and the material from which the tray is formed; g
FIGURE 8 is a side elevational'view showing the trimming of the marginal gum areas of the guard to conform to the exact tissue contour at the juncture of the gum and cheek areas, and
FIGURE 9 is a transverse sectional view through one side of the completed device.
Referring to the drawings in detail, wherein similar reference characters designate corresponding parts throughout the several views, the letter G generally in' dicates my novel mouth guard and the same includes .a base or tray 16 and a filler 11. I
The. base or tray is formed from a relatively soft, resilient plastic material and this materialis of sufiicient rigidity to hold its preformed shape, and an example of this material will be later set forth. It is to be also understood that this soft, resilient plastic material can be bent or pressed into a desired shape and that the material will maintain such pressed shape. The base or tray 16 "is preformed and shaped to conformto the average The rear terminals of the base or tray are closed by end walls 15 which fit rear gum terminals and so that a complete receptacle for the fillerll will be had.
The base or tray ltl has been scientifically designed to "conform to the known general characteristics of an average mouth. .Hence, the tray conforms to known mouth characteristics and the sides of the base extend upwardly along a parabolic curve. The peripheral size of the tray corresponds to the Bonwill triangle,-which describes the mandible and mandibular arch as adapting itself to an equilateral triangle. Posteriorly, the maxillary alveolar process ends with the maxillary tuberosity (walls Particular attention'is-called to the outer wall 13 and this wall conforms to known gum and lip contours. The walls 12 and 13 due to, the nature of the material can be readily trimmed, as will be later pointed out, to conform to the characteristics of a certain mouth. The upper edges'of the walls 12 'and'13 gradually taper to a zero radius, as indicated by the reference character 16, so
that maximum comfort will be bad. This taper is maintained during the trimming of the walls. be noted that the outer wall 13is of a greater height than it is also to the inner wall 12 so that the guard at the front and sides will effectively protect and conform to outer gum areas. Again referring to the bottom wall 14, and as heretofore brought out, the samev inclines upwardly and rearwardly inorder to correspond to the maxillary and mandibular curvatures and graduallyincreases in thickness toward the front or incisor region. The inner and outer surfaces of the walls 15 are inclined to conform to the maxillary and mandibular plane of inclination and this is important to the invention.
The filler 11 is formed from a material identical with or having the same characteristics as the material from which the base or tray 10 is formed With the base member or tray 14) in its preformed molded shape, then the elements of the filler 11 are poured into the tray and combined together. The material immediately starts to cure and combine with the material of the tray 10, and the tray 10 with the filler 11 is placed in the mouthfirm against the teeth, whereby the cusp impressions extend down to the bottom wall 14 and the material flows around adjacent gum areas, maxillae and muco buccal fold; and the filler 11 is allowed to cure. and take the impression of the teeth and adjacent gum areas. As the filler is of the same material as the tray, the filler material combines directly with the material of the tray and forms a unitary, homogeneous unit. the impression has beencompleted the guard is removed from the mouth and allowed to further cure and congeal. The guard thus formed can be used over and over again. r
- As shown'in FIGURE 8, the marginal walls 12 and 13 and particularly the wall 13 can be trimmed off, as indi- Obviously, when r from various types of material. preferred type of material, I use an acrylic resin. The
teeth and gingival. tissues.
' 4 cated by the reference character 17, so that this will conform to gum tissues and thus give a maximum amount of comfort to the wearer.
Due to the fact, that the guard G conforms exactly to an individual mouth, the guard will cling to adjacent areas and thus the guard will effectively be held in place against accidental movement.
The guard G is of an extremely light weight and as it conforms to the mouth and tooth configuration, the same forms an effective means for preventing injury both to tissues and upper and lower teeth, and the guard will effectively absorb and distribute shock. My device has "been especially designed to protect the lower jaw from upward rising blows and to absorb and distribute the force of the blow. The curvature of the outer surface of the base or tray is suchas to allow all normal movements of the mandible or lower jaw.
The base or tray 10 and the filler 11 can be formed As an example of a material used is;
Lucite 4 F pink colored powdermethyhmethacrylate finepowder (a) Methyl methycrylatemonomer (b) Plasticizerdibutyl adipate or dibutylsebacate (0) Oil of Wintergreen V (d) Accelerator: dimethyl aniline or N,N, dimethyl- P- Toluidine (e) Mineral oil his material, due to the accelerator (d) has a cure at substantially room temperature.
The components as outlined are mixed, the powder added to the liquid in aratio of 30 cc. powder to 17 cc. liquid. The mixture is placed in the mold and compressed at room temperature. :The time for polymerization, chemical reaction is 12 minutes. The dies are separated and the guard is ejected and trimmed. The dies are sprayed with a silicone separating agent. The filler material, or impression material, as n chairside, or do-it-yourself projecn'is then proportioned and ready for use. This mixture is the same as outlinedabove andthe proportions are 20 cc. powder to 11 cc. liquid; The liquid content is increased to give a softer texture against the An alternate'filler or impression material is Lucite 4 F in pink plus isopropyl or ethel alcohol plus mineral oil, plus oil of intergreen, plus dibutyl sebacate or dibutyl adipate plus dime-thyl aniline or N,N, dimethyl-P-toluidine. Either filler will mechanically join the base form and form a homogeneous union. Thus the mouth protector is composed of one single material which produces the new or different mouth protector. The acrylic resin composition producing the guard blank, and the filler to obtain an impression composed of acrylic resin, due to the chemical composition of the aniline added, gives a substantial room temperature cure. r
The resilient acrylic resin has specific characteristics which particularly lends itself to the novel design of my guard and the molds from which the various tray sizes are fabricated. The trays can be made in different sizes and contours, namely, wider, longer, shorter or higher, with various indentations for conforming to gum maxillae anatomy and muscle attachments. s
The tray formed from: the resilient acrylic resin retains its resilient properties and thus, during the process of taking the impression, the tray can conform to the compensating curve and adjust itself to the plane or orientation. The space in the tray for receiving the filler 11 assures a proper freeway to provide a perfectly balanced occlusion for the tray.
Owing to the type of material used in the tray and.
can be made so that the guard will adapt itself to changes in a persons mouth. Thus, for instance, say a guard is initially used by a boy fifteen, and as additional teeth become present, the new impressions can be made.
My guard differs in technique, principle of application, construction, adaptation, principle of stability and adhesion and occlusion from all prior mouth guards with which I am familiar.
Particular attention is invited to the fact that the variable principles in my design are as follows:
(1) The compensating curvature, the maxillary compensating curvature, the mandibular compensating curvature and the combined compensating curvatures adapting to a certain individual, the curvatures and specific shapes being present on the inside and outside surfaces of the base or tray.
(2) The convex curvature, which also becomes a changeable curvature.
(3) The plane of orientation-incline for the mandibular and maxillary combined to form the variable inclined plane for a certain user.
(4) Peripheral border adaptation.
(5) Tensile strength and difference in distances of the mandibular compensating curvature and maxillary compensating curvature, the parts of which operate independently, yet as a Whole entity.
(6) The zero radius and the structures designed to preserve the zero radius.
(7) The open chain polymer, plasticizer in monomer and the self-cure feature when combined retain the above characteristics, yet result in a new alignment and which can take the form and be applied to principles of design. The form and design in part and in total can be altered and varied yet retain the form and design of the original, yet can be adapted to the natural anatomy of a particular individual.
The height of the outer Walls 12 and 13 and the end walls 15 and the particular design of the periphery are measurable and determinable by dental techniques. One of the unique and novel features herein is that the walls of the tray are variable by stretching and deforming the walls, and by opening mechanically the polymer chain, and by approximating and adjusting to the anatomy and muscle attachments of the maxillae. The adjustments are trimming and cutting of the peripheral border in a manner preserving the correct outline of the border tissues, and the stretched and corrected peripheral border will now closely approximate the muco buccal fold and muscle attachments of a particular maxillae in a certain individual. This feature is unique and important in my guard inasmuch as the tray guard is initially applicable universally and then applicable individually.
Changes in details may be made without departing from the spirit or the scope of this invention, but what I claim as new is:
1. A contoured intra-oral dental mouth guard comprising a preformed base shaped to conform to the general characteri" ics of an average persons mouth and of a general U-shape in plan and of a U-shape in crosssection formed from flexible resilient material capable of being flexed and shaped by the fingers to initially conform generally to a certain persons mouth and including an inner lingual side Wall and an outer buccal side wall, a connecting bottom wall and rear walls uniting the side walls and bottom Wall, the sides or" the U-shaped base curving upwardly from the anterior toward the rear walls to provide a mandibular compensating curvature and said outer wall extending above the inner wall and deformable to gum areas adjacent to teeth roots, said bottom wall having its inner and outer surfaces inclined upwardly and inwardly from the outer side wall to the inner side Wall to conform to the maxillary and mandibular plane of inclination of a persons mouth, whereby the outer surface conforms to the lower jaw teeth cusps and provides a self-centering and balanced device when placed in the mouth, the preformed base having combined therewith an inner material having the same properties as the material from which the base is formed, said inner material having impressions of the upper teeth and adjacent gum areas with the cusp portions of the inipressions extending down to the bottom wall of the base, and said bottom wall gradually increasing in thickness toward the front of base in the region of the incisor teeth.
2. A contoured intra-oral dental mouth guard as defined in claim 1, wherein the material from which the base and mix is made is an open polymer resilient acrylic resin providing the deformable base capable of being trimmed with a sharp instrument without destroying the curvatures of the base and its Walls.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS