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Publication numberUS3017287 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 16, 1962
Filing dateMay 20, 1959
Priority dateMay 20, 1959
Publication numberUS 3017287 A, US 3017287A, US-A-3017287, US3017287 A, US3017287A
InventorsJohn M Berry, Everette E Witt
Original AssigneeMidland Chemical Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Wood finishing method and product
US 3017287 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


ATTORNEYS Jan. 16, 1962 Y J. M BERRY ETAL 3,017,287


EEWHYT ATTO R N EYS' Jan. 16, 1962 J. M. BERRY ETAL 3,017,287

WOOD FINISHING METHOD AND PRODUCT Filed May 20. 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 FIG-5 INVEN TOR. JOHN M. BERRY EVERETTE E. WITT BYM/m ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,017,287 WOOD FINHSHING METHQB AND PRQDUQT John M. Berry, Martiusville, Va, and Everette E. Witt,

Miamisburg, Ohio, assignors to Midland Chemical Corporation, Dayton, (lhio a corporation or Delaware Filed May 20, 1959, Ser. No. 814,538 3 Claims. (Cl. 117-72) This invention relates to wood finishing systems wherein the wood is provided with a surface adapted for the decoration and preservation of the wood; more particularly the invention relates to wood finishing systems provided to greatly accentuate differences in color between the pore and flake of the wood.

Contrasting shades, and contrasting colorations such as black and white, sometimes termed a sea foam finish, are desired on decorative furniture pieces, and such finishes must also exhibit protective and preservation qualities. Normally aqueous materials are avoided for such purposes, as Water stains, for example, tend to raise the grain of the wood, resulting in much labor and expense in overcoming the raised grain efiect. Consequently aqueous treating materials have been limited in their application even though the water stains, such as aniline dyes, have long been considered more desirable than the oil and spirit stains.

In the co-pending application of John M. Berry, Serial No. 735,239, filed May 14, 1958, there are described aqueous system wood finishing methods which materially reduce the costs involved while permitting the attainment of the advantages of an aqueous system.

It has now been found that such aqueous methods may be employed in connection with the preparation of Wood surfaces having greatly improved contrast between the pore areas and the flake areas of the wood. The system is effective to emphasize naturally occurring diiferences between the pore and flake as well as to produce contrasting colorations in the pore and fiake areas. Further, while flake areas are eccentuated the surface is itself smooth and the high labor costs attendant other aqueous systems are eliminated.

Accordingly, a primary object of this invention is to provide an improved economical wood finishing process whereby the naturally occurring differences in the pore and flake areas of the wood are greatly accentuated.

A particular object of the invention is to provide a process which accentuates naturally occurring ditferences in the pore and flake areas of the wood and which wood may have a clear, pigmented, or contrasting color finish.

In the practice of the method of the copending application referred to hereinbefore the wood treatment involves essentially the application to a smooth. wood surface of a fixing agent followed by a filler-sealer coat which provides on the wood a hard, translucent film. Over this film protective lacquer coats or varnish, for example, may be applied.

In the practice of the present invention at least one coloring material is utilized; this coloring material is applied and rag wiped in a glazing operation prior to the application of the filler-sealer which effects the final filling and sealing of the pores of the wood. It may suitably be applied independently of the fixing agent or with the fixing agent.

In instances where two contrasting materials are applied to the wood one is usually applied with the fixing agent and over a first applied coloring material. In any event the wiping operation is effected after the coloring matter is applied and prior to the completion of filling and sealing.

The glazing operation is effective to afford sharp accentuation of the pore areas of the wood and a smooth surface with no grain raising apparent results. To this resultant surface when dry the filler-sealer is applied and cured, and this is suitably followed by the usual finish coats. The product is a hard film on the wood through which the distinctions between the pore and flake areas are apparent in either clear or pigmented finishes.

The invention will be more fully understood by reference to the following detailed description and accompanying drawing wherein:

FIGURE 1 illustrates the steps of the procedure to achieve a black and white (so-called Sea Foam finish);

FIGURE 2 illustrates the steps of the process for attaining a clear finish;

FIGURE 3 illustrates the product;

FIGURE 4 is a diagrammatic, greatly enlarged and fragmentary view of the product illustrating in crosssection a wood surface in accordance with the invention.

The numeral 1 in FIGURES 3 and 4 designates a wood base which has thereon a durable, substantially insoluble, transparent coating designated generally at 2. The coating includes a first film 3 containing a coloring material of whitish coloration and a second film 4 of darker coloration, and a final coating 5 of nitrocellulose lacquer.

EXAMPLE I wood grain is apparentthe wood surface is not there fore completely obscured.

The toner is prepared by diluting one quart of a /2 second plasticized nitrocellulose solution containing 20 percent nitrocellulose by weight in a lacquer thinner to 1 gallon, and pigmenting the solution with 2 pounds of titanium dioxide by grinding in a pebble mill to secure the dispersion of the dioxide; such toner then may contain:

Toner A Parts by weight Nitrocellulose 5 Lacquer thinner lgallon. Plasticizer (dibutylphthalate) 1 Titanium dioxide 2# A light spray of this toner is applied to the wood giving the wood a whitish appearance. The wood is then over dried for about /z hour at about F. and then lightly sanded.

A wiping glaze is appliedsuitably by spraying-over the wood; this glaze is prepared by first forming an aqueous fixing agent and then plgmenting the fixing agent. The fixing agent contains:

Fixing agent A Powdered boric acid 1.5 lbs. Powdered alum 1.5 lbs. Sucrose (sugar) 10 lbs. Water 3.5 gallons (29 lbs.).

Wetting agent (Triton X-IOO) 6.4 liq. ounces (0.42 lb.).

The above are mixed together with simple agitation; then 5 liquid ounces of H 80 (0.63 lb.) are added to yield approximately 5 gallons of the fixing agent A.

To prepare the glaze:

Glaze "A allon 1 Fixing agent A" Raw umber ounces..

The fixing agent and umber are mixed with simple agitation.

This glaze is sprayed in a heavy wet coat over the dried white toner. A 3-5 minute air dry period is followed by a wiping of the glaze across the grain of the wood; rag wiping provides a smooth even colored surface with the dark coloring agent-umber in the pores of the wood. This is achieved because the initial light spray of the pigmented toner is insuificient to fill the pores. The dark aqueous coloring agent wipes without disturbing the white undercoat. After wiping, the wood is air dried for approximately 10 minutes and then sprayed with filler sealer.

The filler sealer is also applied by spray and is formed as follows:

Filler-sealer "A Urea formaldehyde 15#. Water 2 gallons (16.6 lbs.).

Mix these components by simple agitation.


Sucrose (sugar) 7#.

Water 0.5 gallon (4.1 lbs).

and combine the two solutions.


Glycerine 64 liq. ounces (5.0 lbs).

Wetting agent (Triton X-100) v 6.4 liq. ounces (0.42 lb.).

and mix with simple agitation.

This filler sealer is sprayed over the dried glaze and airdried for 20-30 minutes, then oven dried for 30-60 minutes at 110 F.-l40 F.

The product of the filler-sealer drying is a hard, translucent, smooth film which does not require sanding prior to the application of finish top coats; such finish coats suitably are three coats of a nitrocellulose lacquer; or, alternatively, urea-alkyd varnishes or natural resin varnishes may serve as the finish.

The black coloration in the pores of the wood contrasts sharply with the white background on the wood flake; an important advantage in addition to the appearance of the product is the adhesion of the undercoats to the top coats. This is readily ascertained as by simply puncturing a conventional finish with a knife and stripping the finish peels readily. In contrast the undercoats and top coats of this invention adhere together in a tight bond.

EXAMPLE It To provide a clear finish on walnut, for example, the procedure is similar except that no initial fixing toner is utilized. To the bare sanded wood first apply a glaze made of:

Wiping glaze B Fixing agent A gal Raw umber "ounces...

EXAMPLE III A glaze for cherry wood contained:

Cherry glaze Fixing agent A gal 0.5 Burnt umber ..ounce 1.0 Burnt sienna do 1.0

The procedure was as in Example II, the cherry glaze being substituted for the walnut.

4 EXAMPLE IV A glaze for mahogany contained:

Mahogany glaze The procedure for application is as in Example 11, the mahogany glaze being substituted for the walnut.

The glaze in each instance, since it contains the fixing agent, combines the functions of partially filling the pores of the Wood Without occasioning grain raising to any substantial extent and therefore no sanding is required before applying the fill-seal; the film provided over the wood by the fixing agent is homogeneous, water soluble, continuous and hard; the earth colors of the glaze distribute evenly but are retained substantially only by the pore areas after the wiping. The glaze it itself acidic and reacts with the fill-sealer composition.

The fill-sealer composition wets the dried fixing agent film, provides by virtue of its sugar content some additional filling of the pores and provides a sealing which results in the hard transparent film through which the emphasized differential pore and flake areas are visible.

In the system described the principal function of the sugar is to fill the pores of the wood; in addition the sugar contributes to the viscosity of the liquid necessary for appropriate spraying, and is a further advantage in the formation of a continuous film on the surface of the wood.

The boric acid, sulfuric acid and aluminum sulfate act as acid catalysts for the polymerization of the urea formaldehyde and the filler sealer. Further the boric acid and aluminum sulfate assist in inhibiting grain raising. This grain raising, as already noted, is a common defect in aqueous wood finishing systems.

The wetting agent found to be most desirable is Triton X-100, which is employed in both fixing agent or wiping glaze and the filler sealer, is an alkyl aryl polyether alcohol which is non-ionic. The most suitable wetting agents are those having non-ionic characteristics.

The urea formaldehyde of the filler sealer performs the dual functions of filling and of sealing or insolubilizing. By curing the urea formaldehyde is reacted to form a hard transparent insoluble surface, suitable for the application of lacquer topcoats.

A very suitable urea formaldehyde is that which is sold as a dry partially polymerizable powder having a particle size of about 30 mesh. Other characteristics of such suitable resin include a Stormer viscosity of 20-70 r.p.m. at 21 C. (50 grams of water plus 100 grams of the resin); a gel time at 70 F. of -140 minutes grams of the resin and 50 grams 4% ammonium chloride solution).

Glycerin serves as a plasticizer in the filler sealer. It has been found that preferably the weight of glycerin in the filler sealer should be limited to between about 5-10 percent by weight of the filler sealer. Such a plasticizer as the glycerin tends to avoid any crazing of the finished film; with a large excess of the glycerine the rate of cure is reduced.

The coloring agents and pigments employed by the usual commercial trade need not be described in detail.

It will be understood that this invention is susceptible to modification in order to adapt it to different usages and conditions and accordingly, it is desired to comprehend such modifications within this invention as may fall within the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. The process of finishing wood to produce a wood finish surface in which color contrast between the pore and flake areas of the wood is accentuated, comprising the steps of successively treating the wood surface to a Burnt sienna toner, a wiping glaze and an aqueous resin-containing dispersion; said toner being composed of- Nitrocellulose 5 parts by weight Lacquer thinner 95 parts by weight 1 gallon. Dibutyl-phthalate 1 part by weight Titanium dioxide 2 lbs.

said wiping glaze being composed of 2. The process of finishing wood to produce a finish as set forth in claim 1, and wherein said toner is applied to the wood and dried prior to the application of the wiping glaze, and wiping the glaze from the flake area of the wood and into the pore area, applying the resin dispersion thereover, and drying the thus treated wood to produce a hard finish on the wood.

3. The process of finishing wood to produce a wood finish surface in which color contrast between the pore and flake areas of the wood is accentuated, comprising the steps of successively applying to the wood surface to a wiping glaze and an aqueous resin containing dispersion, said wiping glaze containing Powdered boric acid lbs 1.5 Powdered alum ....lbs 1.5 Sucrose lbs 10 Water gal 3.5 Wetting agent (Triton X-100) liq. ounces 6.4 Raw umber 20 said aqueous dispersion containing Urea formaldehyde lbs 15 Water 2.5 Glycerin liq. ounces 64 Wetting agent (Triton X-l00) do 6.4

wiping and drying the glaze prior to the application of the dispersion to provide the glaze in the pore area of the wood and to substantially completely remove the glaze from the flake area of the wood, and drying the applied dispersion to a hard insoluble film.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PilTENTs 1,548,528 Hiltz Aug. 4, 1925 2,015,806 Menger Oct. 1, 1935 2,565,602 Fisher et a1 Aug. 28, 1951 2,573,105 Lehman Oct. 30, 1951 2,630,395 McCullough et a1 Mar. 3, 1953 2,648,641 Robison Aug. 11, 1953 OTHER REFERENCES Wood Finishing, Vanderwalker, Drake and Co., 1944, pp. 340 and 341.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1548528 *Oct 5, 1921Aug 4, 1925Reginald HiltzProcess for finishing wood surfaces
US2015806 *Mar 3, 1934Oct 1, 1935Unyte CorpProcess for effecting adhesion
US2565602 *Feb 24, 1947Aug 28, 1951Chadeloid CorpStain-filler emulsion and method of applying same
US2573105 *Jan 27, 1948Oct 30, 1951David P LehmanWood finishing process
US2630395 *Jun 6, 1947Mar 3, 1953Union Carbide & Carbon CorpThermosetting wood filler composition
US2648641 *Aug 3, 1950Aug 11, 1953Fir Tex Insulating Board CoFire retardant coating containing a carbohydrate, urea or melamineformaldehyde and dicyandiamide or melamine
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3143415 *Dec 5, 1960Aug 4, 1964Sasaki MasaharuMethod of preparing positives comprising a hydrophilic nitrocellulose layer for printing and platemaking use
US4101694 *Jun 20, 1977Jul 18, 1978Kraus Wayne AWood finishing process
US4169005 *Sep 1, 1977Sep 25, 1979Champion International CorporationMethod for surfacing a wood panel with a plastic film
US4764400 *Sep 3, 1986Aug 16, 1988Kunio YamadaWooden pattern applying method
US5480680 *Sep 9, 1993Jan 2, 1996Furniture Medic, Inc.Method for refinishing wood
US6978814 *Apr 24, 2002Dec 27, 2005Houtindustrie Schijndel B.V.Method for manufacturing floor boards
US20020152714 *Apr 24, 2002Oct 24, 2002Van Capelleveen Albert Eltjo DoeweMethod for manufacturing floor boards
US20060289087 *Sep 17, 2004Dec 28, 2006Robert LachanceProcess and system for factory production of pre-oiled wood planks
WO2000015400A1 *Sep 15, 1999Mar 23, 2000Tudor Lodge Pty. Ltd.Method for surface treating engineered composite board
WO2005025826A1 *Sep 17, 2004Mar 24, 2005Groupe Bob, Inc.Process and system for factory production of pre-oiled wood planks
U.S. Classification427/382, 427/419.1, 427/408, 427/419.5, 427/415, 427/402, 427/393
International ClassificationB05D7/10, B05D7/08
Cooperative ClassificationB05D7/08, B05D7/10
European ClassificationB05D7/08, B05D7/10