US 3017931 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 23, 1962 J. a. JACKSON, JR., ErAL PIPE HANGER 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 23, 1958 dofzn 6. Jackson, L/l.
Al/en E fi/wo eJ INVENTORJ ATTORNEY Jan. 23, 1962 J. a. JACKSON, JR.. ETAL 3,017,931
PIPE HANGER Filed June 23, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 /4//@/? fP/70dsu 1 INVENTORS L/0/7/7 G. Jackie/7, (/l.
3,017,931 PIPE HANGER John G. Jackson, Jr., Angleton, and Allen F. Rhodes,
Houston, Tex., assignors to McEvoy Company, Houston, Tern, a corporation of Texas Filed June 23, 1958, Ser. No. 743,734 9 Claims. (Cl. 166-208) This invention pertains to apparatus for supporting vertical pipes in wells. More particularly, the invention pertains to apparatus useful for supporting vertically disposed pipes at random points along their lengths, the support being capable of control from a place remote from the point of support.
A principal object of the invention is to provide apparatus for supporting pipes in substantially vertical positions.
Another object of the invention is to provide such apparatus for use in drilling and completion of petroleum wells, particularly for use in Wells which are completed at in accessible locations, such as at the bottom of the ocean.
A second principal object of the invention is to provide apparatus for supporting well casings and tubings at random points along their lengths, such apparatus being either the primary supporting apparatus or auxiliary to another form of casing or tubing hanger, the auxiliary being used only when the casing or tubing has become stuck so that the other form of casing or tubing hanger becomes useless.
Briefly, the apparatus of preferred form as hereinafter described includes equipment for installing a slip typehanger means about a vertical pipe from a point remote from the point of installation, and a seat means below the hanger installing equipment for supporting the hanger means after it has engaged the pipe.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear from the following descriptions of preferred embodiments, reference being made to the accompanying drawings, of which:
FIGURE 1 is a partially schematically shown vertical quarter section showing a preferred embodiment of apparatus for use in supporting a tubing string in a well;
FIGURE 2 is a horizontal section of the apparatus depicted in FIGURE 1, taken at line 2-2 of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a partial elevation showing a latch included in the apparatus of FIGURES l and 2;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged partial vertical section, showing a slightly modified form of the apparatus shown in FIGURE 1 with some parts in moved positions; and,
FIGURE 5 is a partial vertical section showing an alternative form of the lower part of the apparatus as used for supporting a well casing string.
Referring now to the drawings in detail, and first to FIGURES 1-4, there is shown a modified pipe spool 10, or body, having at its upper end a flange 11 whereby the body 111 may be connected to other well equipment at its upper end, and having at its lower end a flange 12 for connection of the body to a lower member 13 having an upper connection flange 14, the connection being made by means of a plurality of the bolts 15 secured through bolt holes of the flanges. Member 13 may be any tubular well tool mandrel or pipe, and is shown as a flanged pipe.
Intermediate its length, body has a hollow lateral enlargement 20, which extends laterally outward of body 10 aired States Patent 0 i 3,017,931 Patented Jan. 23, 1962 at opposite sides. The hollow or opening 21 within enlargement 20 is in intersecting relation at its center with the middle part of cylindrical opening 22 through body 10. Opening 21 is usually of rectangular vertical section, but its vertical section may be otherwise if desired, such as eliptical or circular. Opening 21 has lateral flanged end outlets 23, 24 at its opposite ends, to each of which is bolted a rectangular flanged cover 25, 26, respectively. The covers 25, 26 are identical and each has an end extension 27 of opening 21 therewithin.
A rectangular plate 31 is slidingly disposed within each end of opening 21, these being to opposite sides of cylindrical opening 22. Each plate has, at its inner side toward opening 22, a concave recess 32 having a downwardly converging conical lower part 33, a semi-cylindrical central part 34 thereabove having intermediate its length a conical support shoulder 3 4a (shown only in FIG. 4), a downwardly converging conical shoulder or seat 35 above part 34, and a semi-cylindrical upper part 36 above the seat. Each plate 31 has at its outer surface a vertically slotted protrusion 40, the slot being widened at its inner portion so that it may function to hold an enlarged shaft end. A horizontal shaft 41 is slidingly received through an opening 42 through the center of cover 26, opening 42 having an outer enlargement 43 closed by screwed-in gland nut 44 to serve as a packing recess and an inner enlargement 45 to receive protrusion 44] so that plate 31 can be moved flush against cover 26. Suitable packing material to seal around shaft 41 is disposed within outer opening enlargement 43 and held in place by nut 44. The inner end of shaft 41 has a reduced portion 50 to fit past the reduced outer part of the slot of protrusion 40, the shaft end not being reduced so as to be held in the widened part of the slot to secure the shaft to plate 31.
A flanged hollow cylinder 51 is bolted to each cover 26 with one end concentrically about the opening 42 of the cover. The other end of each cylinder 51 is closed by a blank flange 52 bolted to the cylinder flange, each flange 52 having a tapped hole therethrough into which is screwed a pressure pipe 53 for delivering fluid pressure to cylinder 51. A second tapped hole is provided at a side of cylinder 51 near its inner end and a second pressure pipe 54 is screwed into this hole. A piston 55 is sealingly and slidingly received within cylinder 51 and shaft 41 is secured at its outer end to the piston. When pressured fluid is introduced into cylinder 51 through pipe 53, piston 55 is moved inwardly thereby toward cover 26, pressure at the inner side of piston 55 being relieved through pipe 54. Piston 55 may be moved in the opposite direction by introducing pressured fluid through pipe 54, pressure at the outer side of piston 55 than being relieved through pipe 53. These movements of the two pistons 5'5 cause similar movements of the plates 31 at the inner ends of shafts 41.
A pipe 61, for example a tubing string, is received concentrically through opening 22 of body 10, same to be supported by the described apparatus. A hanger assembly 64 consists of two hanger halves 65, 66, only the hanger half 65 being shown in full in the drawings. Hanger half 66 is identical with hanger half 65.
Each hanger half is initially supported within an end of opening 21 by one of the plates 31. Each plate 31 carries at its inner face an inwardly extending horizontal pin 67 which is received at one end in a hole in the inner plate face. A second such pin 68 is similarly carried by each plate 31 spaced above the pin 67 thereof. Each hanger half 65, 66 includes a hanger body 70 having inner slip taper 71 and upper inward protruding annular flange 72, slip segments 73 seated on tapers 71 and held in place by pins 67 extending into suitable perforations of body 70 and the slip segment, and sealing elements 7577 bolted to flange 72 by bolts extending therethrough and screwed into tapped flange openings. A perforate angle 78 is secured to the upper surface of sealing element 77 and the pin 68 extends through the angle perforation to support the Weight of the hanger half.
As has been mentioned, FIG. 1 of the drawings is in part schematic in its showing. Because of the relatively small size of FIG. 1, and because of the proximity of pin 67 thereto, a showing of tapered seat or shoulder 34a of the slips 73 has been omitted therefrom. In addition, a modification of the slip forms between FIGS. 1 and 4 appears in that in FIG. 1 the slips 73 have smooth outer, or hanger body contacting, surfaces, while in FIG. 4 the slips 73 have horizontally grooved or toothed outer surfaces to control the frictional engagement between slips and hanger body. Either form may be used in connection with this invention, both of these and other slip forms being known in the art.
The shoulder 34a is for supported engagement of the hanger bodies 70 in their corresponding plate 31, the hanger bodies each having a corresponding tapered seat portion for engagement therewith. The hanger seat 90 has a corresponding form.
Hanger half 65 (FIGURE 3) has, at one end of its semicircular hanger body 70, a recess 80 from which extends a latch pin 81 which is pivotally connected within the recess by a pin 82. Latch pin 81 has a downwardly projecting hook formation 83 at its end extending from the recess. Hanger half 66 has, at the end of its hanger body 70 which abuts recess 80 of hanger half 65 when the halves are put in position around a pipe, a recess 85 having a downward enlargement 86. A hook engaging surface 87 is provided at the side of enlargement 86 toward the mouth of the recess, and pin 81 when introduced into recess 85 latches at hook 83 behind shoulder 87 to hold the two hanger body ends together about the pipe. The diametrically opposite ends of the two hanger body members 70 are equipped in the same way, only with the recess 80 and pin 81 in body 70 of hanger half 66 and with the recess 85 in body 70 of hanger half 65 so that the two hanger halves are identical and interchangeable.
The support of the hanger halves 65, 66 on the pins 67, 68 of the opposite plates 31 has already been described. The hanger halves are brought together to encircle the pipe 61 to be hung in a well by introducing pressured fluid through pipes 53 to cause both pistons 55 and both plates 31 to be simultaneously moved inwardly toward pipe 61 to completely encircle it. The opposite latch pins 31 become latched behind the shoulders 87 so that the hanger halves are locked about the pipe, the hanger halves still-being supported by the pins 67, 68. Next, the plates 31 are simultaneously moved radially outwardly by introducing pressured fluid through the two pipes 54 to the inner sides of pistons 55 and allowing the pressure on the outer piston sides to be relieved through the pipes 53. The pins 67, 68 stay in their holes in plates 31 and are drawn out of the perforations of the hanger halves so that support for the hanger halves is removed.v Therefore, the hanger halves in locked together condition about pipe 6 1 are free to slide down the pipe to land in a hanger seat.
The hanger seat 90 in which hanger halves 65, 66 making up hanger 64 land is shown in the lower portions of FIGURES 1 and 4, the hanger 64 being shown landed in FIGURE 4. Seat 90 has an annular conical seat shoulder 91 therearound which is of the same taper and form as the seat shoulders 35 of the two plates 31, to support the hanger 64 in the usual fashion, seat 90 having vertical cylindrical surfaces above and below the shoulder 91. Seat 90 is formed at the tubular inner surface of a hanger sleeve 93. A tubular element or mandrel 94, which may form the lower portion of element 13 or which may be a separate element coaxially connected below element 13, has a pair of interior annular recesses 95, 96, recess 95 having an upper conical side and a lower hori zontal side and recess 96 having upper and lower conical sides. A sleeve 97 surrounds sleeve 93 within mandrel 94. Sleeve 93 and sleeve 97, respectively, have downwardly facing and upwardly facing conical engaging shoulders 99, 100. A shear pin 101 (shown sheared) initially held the sleeves 93, 97 together in the indicated position with sleeve 97 lower than shown during installation, which is more fully described and shown in our copending application for United States Letters Patent, S.N. 743,622, filed June 23, 1958, and entitled Well Completion. Sleeve 97 has a plurality of circularly arranged window openings 102 therethrough in register with recesses 95, 96. A plurality of double latching lugs 103 are each frely disposed in one of the window openings 102 and are each spring-biased radially outwardly by a compression spring 104 disposed within an inner-side lug recess. The lugs are engaged in recesses 95, 96 to support the sleeves, and a seat therearound is formed by a sealing ring 105 disposed in a suitable packing recess of sleeve 93 and axially compressed by the upper part of sleeve 93 hearing on the upper end of sleeve 97. Mandrel 94 may have a tapped bleed or test port 107 therethrough into which is screwed a pipe 108 at any desired location therealong. An O-ring seal 109 is provided around the upper end of sleeve 93 to seal between sleeve 93 and mandrel 94 The hanger 64 slides down pipe 61 and lands at seat 96 with the lower equipment in the condition shown in FIG- URE 1. After the hanger has been landed, a hold-down device 111, shown in FIGURE 4 may be placed within mandrel 94 above sleeve 93 and latched in place in a recess 112 of mandrel 94. These elements are fully described in the previously mentioned copending patent application S.N. 743,622.
When the pipe supporting apparatus is used auxiliary to other pipe supporting apparatus which is rendered nonusable because pipe 6 1 has become stuck in the well hole at its lower end or because of other failure of the other apparatus, it will frequently be desirable to cut off pipe 61 as at 114, FIGURE 4, before proceeding with installing other elements of the completion because of the unpredicted longitudinal position of pipe 61. This may be accomplished by any suitable milling or cutting tool (not shown) inserted into pipe 61 to the desired position above the hanger.
Hanger 64 functions to support pipe 61 in the manner usual to slip type hangers, the teeth of slips 73 biting into the outer surface of pipe 61 and the slips seating upon hanger body taper '71. If the pipe is stuck, it may be given longitudinal tension to set the slips by pulling upwardly from its upper end.
Referring now to FIGURE 5 of the drawings, there is shown an alternative method for supporting the pipe hanger in mandrel 94. The portion of mandrel 94 shown in FIGURE 5 is beneath the portion of mandrel 94 shown in the lower parts of FIGURES l and 4. Mandrel 94 has formed therewithin, beneath the recesses 95, 96, 112, an annular recess 120, and therebelow, a pair of upwardly diverging upwardly facing seating shoulders 121, 122. A casing hanger 123 has outer downwardly facing shoulders which correspond with shoulders 121, 122, and the casing hanger is seated on shoulders 121, 122 to engage and support a casing 124 in the well. The casing is shown cut off above the casing hanger 123 at 125, analogous to the cutting off of tubing 61 at 114, FIGURE 4.
Casing hanger 123 is a slip type casing hanger which is capable of being supported by plates 31 within body 10. If desired, the form of plates 31 can be altered to make the recess 32 correspond to the seats of the hanger, and this is usually done. However, all that is essential is that the pins 67, 68 correspond with suitable perforations in the hanger body and slips so that the hanger can be adequately supported and run in to surround the casing. Casing 124 is set in the same manner as the tubing 61, the casing hanger halves being run together around the casing while supported by plates 31 and latched in place. The plates 31 are then withdrawn so that the hanger is free to slide down the exterior of the casing and land upon shoulders 121, 122. If the casing is stuck lower down in the well, the casing may be given the necessary slip-setting tension by pulling upwardly on the casing from its upper end. After it is set, the casing is cut off at 125 by employment of a suitable milling or cutting tool (not shown) as are known in the art, and then the remainder of the completion apparatus can be installed within the casing and above its upper end.
Casing hanger 123 may be any suitable type of slip casing hanger. As shown in FIGURE 5, casing hanger 123 includes a body 130 having an inner taper surface, an inwardly protruding flange 131 around its upper end, and an exterior conical seat to seat upon shoulder 122 of mandrel 94. The slips 132 are in the usual wedge form, and seat upon the inner taper of body 130 to be wedged into engagement with casing 124. Sealing elements 133- 135 have perforations through which a plurality of bolts 136 are passed, the bolts being screwed into tapped holes in flange 131. Sealing element 135 has an outer conical taper on its lower side which seats upon shoulder 121 of mandrel 94, and seats 121 are spaced apart to provide axial compression of elastomeric element 134 when the hanger is seated on both seats 121, 122. The perforate angle 138 is identical with perforate angle 78 of the other embodiment, and performs the same function, angle 138 being fixed at the upper surface of sealing element 133.
A hold-down device 140 is latched in recess 120 of mandrel 94 to hold the casing hanger down after it has been set. A tubular sleeve 141 has an interior annular recess 142 for engagement by a suitable handling tool (not shown) carried at the lower end of a handling string of pipe. Sleeve 141 has a square sided recess 143 at its interior below recess 142, and an outwardly protruding annular flange 144 of an inner sleeve 145 is engaged therewithin. A latch sleeve 146 is screwed around the lower end of sleeve 145 at threads 147, and above the threads sleeve 146 has an inwardly enlarged tubular upper portion 148. A plurality of circularly arranged window openings 150 are provided around sleeve portion 148 (only one being shown), and in each of the window openings there is a freely disposed latch lug or pin 151 having an outer form corresponding to the form of recess 120. The lower end of sleeve 141 is thickened inwardly to form the lower end of recess 143, and the lower surface of sleeve 141 is beveled inwardly and outwardly. When hold down device 140 is run into the well, it is supported by the handling tool at recess 142. Flange 144 is at the bottom of recess 143 and supported upon the inwardly thickened lower end of sleeve 141. A lock-ring 152 is then below the thickened lower end of sleeve 141, and the lower portion of sleeve 141 is above lugs 151 so that the lugs are free to move radially inwardly when the device is moved through a confining space. The lower end of latching sleeve 146 has a circular skirt 153 therearound to engage the upper end of hanger 123, and inwardly thereof a circular recess 154 to provide a space for the perforate vertical parts of angles 138.
When device 140 has landed at skirt 153 on the casing hanger 123, further downward movement of sleeve 141 by the handling tool causes the outward beveled lower surface of sleeve 141 to engage beveled upper corners of the lugs 151 to force the lugs radially outwardly into recess 120. The inward lower beveled surface of sleeve 141 rides over the lock ring 152, which, after completion of the downward movement locks above the lower side of recess 143 to hold sleeve 141 down. Thus, the device is locked in place above casing hanger 123 to hold it down,
the lower part of sleeve 141 backing up the lugs 151 so that they cannot be moved out of recess 120.
While preferred embodiments of the invention have been shown and described herein, many modifications thereof may be made by a person skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention, and it is intended to protect by Letters Patent all forms of the invention falling within the scope of the following claims.
1. Apparatus for supporting a pipe in a well conduit, comprising chamber means opening from opposite sides of the well conduit, hanger engaging means within said chamber means at opposite sides of the well conduit each for releasably supporting a hanger half, hydraulic means for moving each said hanger engaging means radially with respect to the well conduit, a hanger half releasably supported by each said hanger engaging means, means associated with each said hanger engaging means for releasably supporting a said hanger half, means for connecting the two hanger halves about a said pipe disposed therebetween when the hanger halves are brought together about the pipe by inward radial movement of said hanger engaging means with respect to said well conduit, and seat means in the well conduit below 'said chamber means for supporting said connected hanger halves to support the pipe.
2. The combination of claim 1, said hydraulic means each comprising a hydraulic chamber extending radially outwardly from a said opposite side of said chamber means and sealed therefrom, axially movable shaft means carrying each of said hanger engaging means in one of said opposite sides of said chamber means and each sealingly extending into one of said hydraulic chambers, movable barrier means in each said hydraulic chamber for causing axial movement of said shaft under imposition of hydraulic pressures, and means for imposing hydraulic pressures within said hydraulic chamber for moving said barrier means.
3. The combination of claim 2, said barrier means being pistons, imposition of hydraulic pressures to one side of a said piston causing radial inward movement of the hanger engaging means and the hanger half supported thereby to a pipe encircling condition, opposite imposition of hydraulic pressures onto a said piston causing outward radial movement of the hanger engaging means, said releasably supporting means associated with each said hanger engaging means each including pin means slidably inserted into a said hanger half which are withdrawn to leave the hanger half about the pipe when the hanger engaging plate is moved radially outwardly.
4. The combination of claim 3, said hanger half connecting means including latch means for automatically latching said hanger halves together when placed together around a pipe to be supported with each said hanger half loosely encircling the pipe halfway, whereby when said hanger engaging means are withdrawn outwardly after bringing the hanger halves to the described pipe encircling position, said pin means are withdrawn from the hanger halves leaving the hanger halves latched together about the pipe and free to slide down the pipe to seat at said seat means to support the pipe.
5. The combination of claim 4, said hanger halves latched together as described forming a slip type pipe hanger, said slip type pipe hanger including wedge shaped slips for engaging the pipe to be supported, said seat means comprising a body disposed beneath said chamber means having an interior tapered seat for supporting the slips wedged against the pipe, and seal means actuated by the weight of the pipe on the hanger for sealing the annulus about the pipe.
6. The combination of claim 5, said pipe being a well casing string, there being a tubular member in the well connected below said chamber means, said seat means being formed about the interior periphery of said tubular member, and said hanger halvestogether comprising a slip type casing hanger.
7. The combination of claim 6, including releasable hold-down means engaged Within said tubular member above said casing hanger for holding down said casing hanger within said tubular member.
8. The combination of claim 5, said pipe being a well tubing string, there being a tubular member in the well connected below said chamber means, said seat means comprising a tubular body, latching means including extendable lugs surrounding said tubular body for engaging said tubular member at its interior, back-up sleeve means disposed annularly within said latching means for keeping said lugs extended in such engagement, and a seating sleeve disposed annularly within said back-up sleeve means for providing a seat for said hanger halves, said hanger halves together comprising a slip-type tubing hanger.
9. The combination of claim 5, said tapered seat being 8 a considerable distance below said chamber means, said hanger halves latched loosely about the pipe being adapted to drop all the way from said chamber means to said tapered seat when saidpin means are withdrawn before engaging-the pipe, whereby the pipe is supported by said hanger halves at said considerable distance beneath the point where said hanger halves are placed about the pipe.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATESv PATENTS 1,835,891 Mildren Dec. 8, 1931 1,910,634 Pearce May 23, 1933 2,199,588 Cobham May 7, 1940 2,578,056 French Dec. 11, 1951 2,689,139 Jones Sept. 14, 1954 2,733,938 Davis Feb. 7, 1956 2,897,895 Ortloff Aug. 4, 1959