US 3018881 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 30, 1962 T. H. WALL 3,018,881
ADHESIVE BANDAGE PACKAGE'UNIT Filed June 2, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Jan. 30, 1962 T. H. WALL 3,018,881
ADHESIVE BANDAGE PACKAGE UNIT Filed June 2, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 /NI/E/VTO)? 7/ 7'10MA5 hf WALL,
United States Patent 3,018,881 ADHESIVE BANDAGE PACKAGE UNIT Thomas H. Wall, St. Paul, Minn, assiguor to Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, St. Paul, Minn, a corporation of Delaware Filed June 2, 1960, Ser. No. 33,528 6 Claims. (Cl. 206-56) This invention relates to adhesive bandages and more particularly relates to new and useful individual adhesive bandage package units.
Adhesive bandages may comprise simply a strip of adhesive tape providing a flexible backing coated on one surface thereof with a pressure sensitive adhesive. Usually, however, the flexible backing also has an absorbent compress or pad fixed to the adhesive surface to contact the Wound. While the most prevalent adhesive bandage shape is rectangular with the compress or pad, when used, being fixed to the adhesive surface intermediate the ends of the strip, adhesive bandages of other geometrical shapes tailored to cover specific kinds of wounds, as, for example, circular patch bandages for puncture wounds, are available. Although this invention is directed particularly to the rectangular shaped adhesive bandages, as will be apparent from the description following, the invention is adaptable to packaging other shapes of adhesive bandages.
Adhesive bandages of the kinds noted are conventionally individually packaged and thereafter sterilized in sealed packages whereby each adhesive bandage will be kept sterile and sealed against contamination from handling until the package is opened. customarily, these adhesive bandages are first provided with removable protective liners over the adhesive areas and the so-linered backing thereafter packaged in a paper or similar wrapping, the package serving solely to house the sterile bandage therewithin until opening.
Application of the adhesive bandage to the wound is usually facilitated by loose, gripping tabs on the adhesive liners to facilitate stripping or peeling of the liners from the adhesive of the adhesive bandage and at the same time to provide handles for applying the bandage during the stripping operation.
Although in the patented art there are suggestions of some variations in this procedure, wherein the package may serve some function in addition to merely covering the bandage, fully effective package utilization has not heretofore been realized. Thus, while it has been suggested that the package be so formed that the adhesive liners may be grasped during the package opening operation to position the adhesive for application during package opening (Patent No. 2,880,863, Patent No. 2,889,039), independent adhesive liners are still required; and, although it has been suggested that the package form the adhesive liner (Patent No. 2,897,961), a separate finger tab is provided to position the bandage during package opening, requiring a two-step application procedure.
It is an object of this invention to provide an individual adhesive bandage package unit wherein the bandage package, in addition to covering the bandage and serving as the bandage adhesive liner, may be further used as the sole means to position the bandage for application to the skin during package opening.
Another object of the invention is to provide an individual adhesive bandage package unit having finger tabs provided thereon which facilitate opening the package and thereafter serve as bandage positioning handles to apply the bandage to the wounded area of the skin without release thereof during any phase of the package opening or bandage positioning, and without the fingers coming into contact with any part of the adhesive bandage.
Another object of the invention is to provide an individual adhesive bandage package unit which is so formed that the package opening procedure is facile and self evident and with the positioning of the bandage for application following as the natural consequence of the act of opening the package.
Another object of the invention is to provide an individual adhesive bandage package unit of greater compactness and reduced size for more compact storage than heretofore possible while nevertheless being readily exposed and deftly positionable for application to the skin by opening the package.
The foregoing objects as well as other objects and advantages are achieved by the individual adhesive bandage package unit of this invention as will be apparent from the detailed description following taken in conjunc tion with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of an adhesive bandage package unit made in accordance with this invention;
FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional view of the package unit of FIGURE 1 taken substantially along section line 22 of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a side elevational view of the package unit of FIGURE 1 in partially opened position;
FIUURE 4 is a side elevational view of the package of FIGURE 1 in completely open position and with the adhesive bandage positioned for application to the skin;
FIGURE 5 is a front view of a continuous web with bandage compresses or pads thereon to illustrate one manner in which the adhesive bandage of FIGURE 4 may be formed;
FIGURE 6 is a side view of the web of FIGURE 5;
FIGURE 7 is a schematic illustration of the manner in which the web of FIGURE 5 may be slit;
FIGURE 8 is a front elevational view of continuous strips of adhesive bandage of the web as illustrated in FIGURE 7 peelably adhered on a web of package forming material;
FIGURE 9 is an enlarged side elevational view of the continuous web of FIGURE 8 disclosing a subsequent step wherein a folding bar is employed to grasp a portion of the adhesive bandage forming strip material in the process of the package unit formation;
FIGURE 10 is a view similar to FIGURE 9 illustrating the movement of the folding bar in folding a row of adhesive bandages into position within the lined areas of the package panel forming web;
FIGURE 11 is a front elevational view of a portion of the package material forming web disclosing the row of individual bandages of FIGURE 10 folded to the position shown in FIGURE 10 with the folding bar removed and the free end portions of bandage package flaps temporarily held in place;
FIGURE 12 is an end view of the web portion of FIGURE 11 with a covering layer of packaging material applied thereto;
FIGURE 13 is a schematic illustration of a heat-sealing operation sealing the package forming layers to one another, and;
FIGURE 14 is an enlarged view of the heat-sealing of the panel flap of the package to the package panels;
FIGURE 15 is a cross sectional view through an adhesive bandage package unit of this invention of somewhat different form from that shown in FIGURES 1 through 4;
FIGURE 16 is a side elevational view of the adhesive bandage package unit of FIGURE 15 shown in its partially opened position;
FIGURE 17 is a side elevational view of another modification.
Referring now to the accompanying drawings in detail attention is first directed to FIGURES 1-4 wherein a 3 preferred form of adhesive bandage package unit of this invention is illustrated, the package unit being designated in its entirety by the numeral 10. The package unit comprises a package 11 composed of a pair of thin flexible essentially rectangular covering panels 12 and 14 having a folded adhesive bandage 16 disposed therebetween. The panels 12 and 14 at one set of their ends are provided with fingertabs 18 and 20 respectively for opening the package.
The package panels 12 and 14 between the adhesive bandage 16 is foldably disposed are readily, rupturably sealably joined to one another around a perimeter or periphery within which is enclosed the adhesive bandage 16. The folded adhesive bandage 16 within the package 11 comprises -a flexible backing 22 in the form of an adhesive strip or the like having a pressure sensitive adhesive 19 on one surface thereof. On an intermediate portion of the strip an absorbent pad or compress 24 is adhered to the adhesive surface 19, the compress facing the inside surface of the panel 12 of the package. The end portions 26 and 28 respectively of the flexible backing 22 are folded under the intermediate compress carrying portion 30 thereof so that the adhesive surface of the end portion 28 contacts the inside surface of the covering panel 14 and end portion 26 is disposed between end portion 28 and intermediate portion 30 of backing 22.
Covering panel 12 is provided with a flap 32 which extends between the folded end portions 26 and 28 of the adhesive bandage and to one surface of which the adhesive surface of the end portion 26 of the bandage 16 is peelably or strippably adhered. The flap 32 may be integrally attached as part of the panel 12 or, as is illustrated, independently attached thereto. Regardless of how attached, the flap 32 remains attached to the panel 12 with suflicient strength to prevent separation therefrom upon separation of the panels 12 and 14 from one another and upon peeling of the adhesive end portion 26 therefrom. As is apparent in the drawing, the flap 32 is attached to the panel 12. at the end of this panel opposite the pulling tab 18.
Thus, the flaps 32 of the panel 12 serves as a strippable or peelable liner for the adhesive end portion 26 of the adhesive bandage 16 and the inside wall surface of the panel 14 serves as the strippable liner for the adhesive surface of the end portion 28 of the adhesive bandage 16 so that the package 11 serves both as protective covering and protective adhesive liner for the folded bandage.
To open the so formed package, the tabs 18 and are simply grasped and pulled away from one another as is illustrated in FIGURES 3 and 4. Referring first to FIGURE 3 it will be seen that as the tabs 18 and 20 of the respective package forming panels 12 and 14 are grasped and pulled away from one another, the rupturable seal around the periphery of the package is opened and the panels 12 and 14 are separated from one another exposing the folded adhesive bandage 16. Then, as the tabs 18 and 20 are separated from one another as illustrated in FIGURE 4 the end portions 28 and 26 of the bandage 16 are unfolded as they peel from the panel 14 and the flap 32 respectively, being positioned for application to the skin by the natural opening movement imparted to the finger tabs 18 and 20. Continued pulling of the tabs 20 and 18 away from one another beyond the degree illustrated in FIGURE 4 completely separates the package forming panels from the adhesive bandage 16.
The construction of the bandage package 11 and the interrelation of the package parts to the folded adhesive bandage 16 is such that not only is the manner of opening the package self evident but the further utilization of the tabs 18 and 20 as the adhesive bandage positioning means for application of the bandage to the skin during opening of the package unit 10 is equally self evident,
being the natural and consequential result of opening the package.
While the materials forming the adhesive bandage 16 and the package 11 may be any of those conventionally used for these purposes, the panels 12 and 14, including the flap 32, forming the package 11 are preferably formed from readily heat-sealable self-sustaining thermoplastic films such as polyethylene and similar polymeric films so that the rupturable perimeter seal 15 around the package where the panels join one another may be provided by a simple heat sealing operation. A preferred thermoplastice film material is matte finished polyethylene, which takes printing inks well, is readilyheat-sealable to varying heat seal strengths and which serves as a readily strippable protective liner for common pressure sensitive adhesives. The adhesive bandage strip may be of a similar film, or of woven or nonwoven synthetic or natural fibers. Preferably, the bandage strip is also of matte surfaced polyethylene.
While heat-seals can be made readily rupturable by conventional techniques, in the illustrated preferred embodiment of FIGURE 1 a heat seal line 34 is provided at the interface of the panels 12 and 14 and between the edges of the sealed periphery 15. This heat-seal line 34 enables formation of the readily rupturable heat-sealed perimeter 15 whereby the panels delaminate readily from one another upon pulling the tabs 18 and 20 apart in an extremely simple manner as will be explained hereinafter.
The heat-seal line 34 is in reality a radiation-absorptive line pattern of India ink or similar material which absorbs sufficient radiation and yields a sufiicient heating effect to cause fusion or welding of the polyethylene surfaces of the package panels along the edges of the inked line pattern to the extent that the fusion between the panels is sufiicient to produce a sealed joint on each side of the line by simply pressing the panels lightly together in the presence of mild heating, as with an infra-red radiation source such as a heat lamp or the like, as will be more particularly described hereinafter in conjunction with FIGURE 13 of the drawing.
The bandage package unit 10 of this invention lends itself readily to quantity production, and one method of producing the package units 10 in quantity is illustrated in FIGURES 5 through 13.
Referring first to FIGURE 5 there is shown a front view of a portion of flexible backing material 36, preferably matte finish polyethylene, unwound from a. roll (not shown) having on the face thereof a coating of a pressure sensitive adhesive 38. Extending across this web and adhered to the adhesive 38 at predetermined intervals are elongated bandage pad or compress forming strips of absorbent material 40. These strips 40 are spaced from one another a distance equal to the sum of the lengths of the bandage end portions 26 and 28. Package flap forming strips 42 of flexible material cut to a width somewhat greater than the proper length of the flap 32 of the individual bandage package unit and having a length corresponding to the width of the flexible backing material forming web 36 are adhered to the adhesive surface of the web at predetermined intervals, these intervals being such that each flap forming strip 42 has one end portion thereof loosely overlying the bandage pad forming strip 40 and the other end thereof terminating at the approximate juncture of the bandage end portions between adjacent bandage compresses and having its web contacting portion peelably adhered to the adhesive surface 38 of the web 36. v
The web 36, with the compresses 4t) and the flapforming portions 42 adhered to the adhesive surface thereof is then slit into elongated continuous lengths 44 as illustrated in FIGURE 7, the width of which corresponds to the width of each individual adhesive bandage 16. These lengths 44 are then applied alternately to separate webs of package panel forming material as illustrated in FIGURE 8.
On the face of the package panel forming web 46 rectangles are formed by the heat-seal lines 34, which lines are printed or otherwise provided on the web 46, to provide rows 47 of rectangles across the web at longitudinally spaced intervals therealong, the rectangles of adjacent rows being arranged in longitudinal columns 49. It will be noted that one leg of the line 34 is undulating as at 48 rather than straight. This cusped undulating line portion 48 creates a more easily rupturable heat sealed area than the other legs of line 34 and forms the tab end of each package panel to be made from this web.
The elongated continuous strips of adhesive bandage 44 are placed with the adhesive side down on the panel forming web 36 in such manner that the end portion 28 of each individual adhesive bandage 16 is centered within the rectangular area formed within each heat-seal line 34. The end portion 26 of each bandage 16 carrying the package flap 32 thereon and the intermediate portion 30 of each bandage, carrying bandage compress 24, bridge the space between longitudinally spaced rows 47 of rectangles formed by the heat-seal lines 34, with a minor portion of each compress overlying undulating line portion 48 of each rectangle (note that in FIGURE 8, the first row 47 will be discarded to provide the fold over end for the subsequent row 47). This pattern is repeated throughout the length of the web 36 so that each end portion 28 of each continuous strip 44 is adhered to the area within a rectangle formed by line 34 with the remainder of the bandage bridging the gap between adjacent rows 47 of rectangles. The Web is thereafter deformed in the portion between rectangular rows 47 to provide a depressed area 50 as shown in FIGURE 9 with the portion of the adhesive bandages straddling the depressed portion being raised and forming an inverted V with one end portion 26 and the package flap 32 forming one leg of the V and the central portion 30 and compress 24 of the intermediate portion of each bandage 16 forming the other leg.
With the web and bandage strip in this state, a fold bar 52 is slipped across the web between rectangular rows 47 with the end portion 26 and flap portion 32 of each bandage strip across the web being clamped between the pieces 54 and 56 of the fold bar. At this point, each elongated adhesive strip is slit, as by knife cutter blade 58, at the juncture of the flap 32 and the end portion 28 of the next adjacent adhesive bandage 60; then the fold bar 52 is rolled 360 to the position shown in FIGURE so that the thus folded bandage strips are centered within the rectangular patterns formed by a continuous heat-seal line 34. The fold bar 52 is then withdrawn. Either before or after removal of the fold bar, the row 47 of the Web 46 on Which the bandages 16 are folded is severed by means of cutters 60 or the like from the row following.
As can be observed in FIGURE 11 each flap 32, being somewhat longer than its finally desired length, extends considerably outwardly beyond the confines of the rectangular pattern formed by the heat-seal line 34. Conveniently, a strip of double coated tape (coated with adhesive on both sides) 62 or the like may be extended across the web 46 to temporarily tack the unattached end portion of the flap 32 onto the web 46.
Thereafter, as illustrated in FIGURE 12, the second covering panel forming layer 64 is applied, being held temporarily in place with the double coated tape strip 62, and the package heat-sealed.
The heat-seal may be applied in the manner illustrated in FIGURE 13 wherein each row or partial row 47, of package units 10, or even individual untrimmed package units is fed over a rotating drum or belt or the like 66 while pressed against the surface thereof by spring biased roller means 68 into the path of an infrared lamp source 70 of intense radiation spaced perhaps a few inches or less away, the double coated tape 62 serving to hold the upper package forming panel web 64 in place as the web advances over the drum.
The lamp 743 may comprise a coiled incandescent filament or other source of intense irradiation arranged at the inner focus of a truncated elliptical reflector as shown, the external focus of which falls along a narrow line corresponding to the generatrix of the surface of the drum 66.
After the heat-sealing operation, the row of packages may be cut from one another and trimmed to shape as individual package units 10 as illustrated in FIGURE 1, the double coated tape 62 and the excess material of flap 32 being disposed of in the trimming operation.
When the multilayer portion of the package 11, illustrated in FIGURE 14, which is namely that portion of the package defined by the top panel 12, the bottom panel 14, and the flap 32 of the panel 12, is subjected to heat sealing in the manner noted hereinbefore it has been found that the heat-seal between the flap 32 and the panel 14 is rather weak and readily rupturable to permit the panels to separate easily upon pulling of the tabs 18 and 20. However, although formed during the same operation, the heat-seal between the panel 12 and its flap 32 is quite strong by comparison so that for the purpose of opening the package unit 16 and applying the adhesive bandage, the flap 32 and panel 12 act as a unit and do not separate whereas flap 32 and panel 14 readily separate. However, it is to be expected that utilizing some other method of manufacture, panel 12 and its attached flap 32 could be made from a single piece of material.
While, as noted hereinbefore, the preferable material for the package forming panels is polyethylene, other useful plastic films, woven and nonwoven fabrics, and even paper or the like could be used, of course, using appropriate sealing means. Likewise, the same variety of materials can be used for the bandage backing, it being necessary of course to select an adhesive compatible with the backing and panel forming material so that the panel forming material may serve as a protective liner for the adhesive. The surface characteristics of the package parts serving as the adhesive liners should be about the same with respect to release from the bandage adhesive so that they will peel with equal facility as the package is opened.
It is to be understood that the bandage package unit 10 and the method for making it herein described are illustrative rather than limiting. Thus, other methods of fabrication could be use along with other materials to carry out such fabrication. For example, adhesives, simple score lines, or even peelable strips could be used to lightly sealably join the package panels in place of heat seals, and the package units could be made individually from precu-t lengths of bandage backings and package panels.
The package unit itself, as indicated, is subject to considerable variation in shape and detail, one of these variations contemplated being shown in FIGURES 15 and 16 wherein there is shown a package unit 72 comprising a package 74 sealingly housing therewithin a folded adhesive bandage 76.
The package 74 is composed of first and second package panels '73 and 80 respectively, with package panel 78 carrying a flap 82 extending into the interior of the package in the same manner as that described with respect to FIGURES l-4. At the end of the package remote from the attachment of the flap 82 to the panel 73, the panels 78 and 80 are provided with loose finger tabs 84 and 86 respectively by means of which the Package is opened to expose the folded adhesive bandage 76. Essentially, the
package 74 of FIGURES 15 and 16 opens and is ready for application in the same manner as the package unit 10 described in conjunction with FIGURES 1-4. However, in this embodiment, the end portion 88 of the bandage 76 which is adhered to the panel flap 82, the latter serving as the protective liner for this end portion 88, is about 3 times as long as the end portion 90 which is adhered to the panel so that it is folded under the intermediate portion of the adhesive bandage 76 in a plurality of thick- 7 nesses, as may be readily observed in FIGURE 15. To accommodate these multiple end folds, the fiap 82 is likewise of elongated length and is folded into multiple thicknesses along with end portion 88 to provide a bandage having a relatively long length but yet fitting into a relatively small package and being both exposed for and manipulatable for application by opening of the package.
Yet another modification is illustrated in FIGURE 17 wherein a package unit 92 is provided with an adhesive bandage 94 having a pair of folded ends 96. Each panel 98 has integrally or otherwise firmly attached thereto an internally extending flap 100, serving as adhesive protective liner for each folded end portion 96. The flaps 100 are releasably sealed as at 102 to one another to follow their respective panels upon opening of the package unit with finger tabs 104.
Since numerous other minor modifications and changes Within the spirit of the invention will occur to those skilled in the art after a perusal of the foregoing description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact constructions shown and described and it is to be understood that all suitable modifications which fall within the ambit of the appended claims are to be included.
1. A sealed, readily openable adhesive bandage package unit comprising a package having an adhesive bandage situated therewithin in such manner that the package serves as a protective liner for the bandage adhesive and provides a means for applying the bandage during opening of the package to expose the bandage, said package comprising a pair of panels enveloping said bandage and being breakably sealably attached to one another about a periphery surrounding said bandage, one of said panels including a flap extending into the interior of said package, at least one end portion of said bandage being folded under an intermediate portion thereof and having its adhesive surface strippably adhered to said flap, the other end portion of said bandage having its adhesive surface strippably adhered to said other panel, and means on said package for separating said panels from one another about their sealably attached periphery whereby as the panels are separated from one another the adhesive bandage is unfolded and positioned for application to the skin as the adhesive surfaces thereof are stripped from said panels.
2. In combination, an adhesive bandage comprising a folded adhesive strip and a combined package and liner therefor, said folded adhesive strip having pressure sensitive adhesive on one surface thereof at least at the end portions thereof and having said end portions folded under an intermediate portion of the strip in lapping relation with one another, said combined package and liner comprising covering panels lightly, releasably, sealably joined to one another around a perimeter enclosing said folded adhesive strip, at least one of said covering panels including a 'fiap extending between the lapped end portions of said adhesive strip to which the adhesive surface of one end portion is strippably adhered, the adhesive surface of the other end portion being strippably adhered to'the other of said covering panels, finger tabs on said panels projecting beyond said sealed periphery whereby as the covering panels are separated from one another around their joined perimeter by pulling apart said finger tabs movement of the end portions of said adhesive strip is controlled by manipulation of said covering panels.
3. An adhesive bandage package unit comprising a readily openable package containing a folded adhesive bandage, said package comprising first and second covering panels sealinglyenclosing said bandage therebetween, said panels being readily, rupturably, sealably joined to one another about a periphery encompassing said adhesive bandage, said adhesive bandage having its end portions folded under an intermediate portion thereof, the adhesive surface of one end portion of said bandage being strippably adhered to said second panel, said first panel having a flap disposed between said folded end portions to which flap the adhesive surface of the other of said folded end portions is strippably adhered, and finger tabs on said panels disposed exteriorly of said package to facilitate separation of the panels from one another around their sealably joined periphery, said finger tabs and said flap being situated relative to one another to expose and position the bandage for application as the finger tabs are utilized to strip the adhesive surfaces from the package during opening of the package.
4. A sealed, readily openable adhesive bandage package unit comprising a package having an adhesive bandage situated therewithin in such manner that the package serves as a protective liner for the bandage adhesive and provides a means for applying the bandage during opening of the package to expose the bandage, said package comprising a pair of panels enveloping said bandage and being breakably sealably attached to one another about a continuous periphery surrounding said bandage, one of said panels including a flap extending into the interior of said package, one end portion of said bandage being folded under an intermediate portion thereof and having its adhesive surface strippably adhered to said fiap, the other end portion of said bandage having its adhesive surface strippably adhered to the inside surface of said other panel, and grasping means on said package for separating said panels from one another about said continuous periphery whereby as the panels are separated from one another the adhesive bandage unfolds for application to the skin as the adhesive surfaces thereof are stripped from said panels upon separating said panels from one another, said grasping means being positioned on said package opposite the attachment of said flap to said one panel.
5. An adhesive bandage package unit comprising a readily openable package containing a folded adhesive bandage, said package comprising first and second covering thermoplastic panels readily rupturably heat-sealably joined to one another throughout a periphery enclosing said adhesive bandage, said adhesive bandage having its end portions folded under an intermediate portion thereof, the adhesive surface of one end portion of said bandage being strippably adhered to said second panel, said first panel having a flap disposed between said folded end portions to which fiap the adhesive surface of the other of said folded end portions is strippably adhered, and finger tabs on said panels disposed exteriorly of said package to facilitate separation of the panels from one another around their sealably joined periphery, said finger tabs and said flap being situated to expose and position the bandage for application as the finger tabs are utilized to strip the adhesive surfaces from the package during opening of the package.
6. An adhesive bandage package unit comprising a readily openable package containing a folded adhesive bandage, said package comprising first and second covering thermoplastic panels readily rupturably heat-sealably joined to one another throughout a periphery enclosing said adhesive bandage, said adhesive bandage having its end portions folded under an intermediate portion thereof, the adhesive surface of one end portion of said bandage being strippably adhered to said second panel, said first panel having a flap disposed between said folded end portions to which flap the adhesive surface of the other of said folded end portions is strippably adhered, and finger tabs on said panels disposed exteriorly of said package to facilitate separation of the panels from one another around their sealably joined periphery, said finger tabs and said flap being situated to expose and position the bandage for application as the finger tabs are utilized to strip the adhesive surfaces from the package during opening of the package, said finger tabs extending beyond said sealed 9 10 periphery a: one end of said package and said flap de- 2,752,038 Abbott June 26, 1956 pending from said first panel from a position on said 2,840,080 Clark June 24, 1958 periphery opposite said finger tabs. FOREIGN PATENTS References Cited in the file of this patent 5 662,591 France Mar. 25, 1929 UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,027'844 m y p 1958 2,402,982 Steenbergen July 2, 1946