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Publication numberUS3019078 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 30, 1962
Filing dateNov 26, 1957
Priority dateNov 26, 1957
Publication numberUS 3019078 A, US 3019078A, US-A-3019078, US3019078 A, US3019078A
InventorsRoberson Cletis L
Original AssigneeOwens Corning Fiberglass Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of forming fibers
US 3019078 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 30, 1962 c. ROBERSON METHOD OF FORMING FIBERS Filed Nov. 26, 1957 Inn "en 201" I E'ZEi 1' .5 LHuZmrszm United States Patent 3,019,078 METHOD OF FORMING FIBERS Cletis L. Roberson, Newark, Ohio, assignor to Owens- Corning Fiberglas Corporation, a corporation of Delaare Filed Nov. 26, 1957, Ser. No. 699,102 7 Claims. (Cl. 18-54) This invention relates to method of forming fibers or filaments of heat-softenable mineral material and more especially to the concomitant formation of continuous filaments of different diameters or sizes from streams of heat-softened glass.

It has been commercial practice to attenuate heat softened glass into filaments suitable for forming strands or yarns for textile uses by flowing streams of glass through orifices of a feeder or bushing, collecting the filaments into a strand and winding the strand upon a rotating sleeve to form a strand package or engaging the strand with a rapidly rotating attenuating roll or rolls and thus mechanically attenuate the streams to fine filaments or fibers. In these methods of forming filaments or fibers, a substantial number of orifices of uniform size formed in a feeder or bushing provides streams of uniform character attenuated to filaments to provide a strand in which all of the filaments are of one size. Filaments of this character utilized in forming textiles are exceedingly fine and hence many thousands of yards of filaments are pulled or attenuated from a single pound of molten glass.

The formation of textile strands have heretofore been costly because such fine fibers represent low pull rates in pounds of glass per unit of time and due to the comparatively small amount of glass required to form thousands of yards of filaments, reduction in cost has not heretofore been possible in the formation of filaments from a single feeder which are gathered to form a single strand.

The invention has for an object the provision of a method of forming fibers or filaments of different sizes or diameters from material contained in a single feeder whereby the cost of producing strands of fine filaments or fibers is greatly reduced.

An object of the invention resides in a method involving flowing groups of streams of heat-softened fiberforming material from a receptacle wherein the streams of one group are of a different size than those of another group, the groups of streams being concomitantly attenuated to form several strands of filaments wherein the filaments of the groups are of different sizes, or wherein groups of different sized filaments or fibers may be concomitantly formed into a single strand.

An object of the invention resides in a method of concomitantly forming groups of filaments wherein the filaments of the respective groups are of different size from a single receptacle or feeder whereby to obtain greatly increased filament production and secure the advantages of increased melting rates of the glass or other heat-softenable mineral material.

Another object of the invention is the provision of a method for concomitantly forming fibers or filaments of different diameters which may be combined into a single strand or yarn to obtain, as desired, improved strength or modulus properties, stiffness, greater reflectivity, opacity or whiteness of the fibers or filaments whereby textiles formed from strands of such filaments or fibers are endowed with these characteristics, or for forming multiple strands, in which the respective strands are of different sized filaments whereby various decorative effects can be attained in textiles formed from the strands.

A further object of the invention is the provision of a "ice method for improving the texture and strength properties of a textile by forming the strands or yarns thereof of high strength fibers combined with low strength fibers particularly where low strength fibers may be utilized for attaining decorative properties or other physical characteristics but are not practically usable except where combined with or associated with high strength fibers.

Another object of the invention is the provision of a method for concomitantly forming continuous filaments or fibers of different diameters or sizes by flowing streams of glass or other material through groups of openings or orifices of different sizes provided in a single bushing whereby filaments or fibers of different sizes are more readily oriented for uniform distribution in strand formation concomitantly with their attenuation.

Another object of the invention is the provision of a method whereby several sizes of comparatively fine filaments may be drawn from streams delivered through groups of different sized orifices provided in a single feeder so as to improve the production rate by increasing the filament yield through the simultaneous attenuation of two or more group of filaments.

Another object of the invention resides in a method of forming several groups of filaments from a supply of glass contained in a single feeder to simultaneously form several strands composed of filaments of different sizes or to form a single strand embodying two or more sizes of filaments.

Another object of the invention is a method for attenuating groups of streams of glass from a single bushing wherein the filaments of each group are of a particular size.

Further objects and advantages are within the scope of this invention such as relate to the arrangement, operation and function of the related elements of the structure, to various details of construction and to combinations of parts, elements per se, and to economies of manufacture and numerous other features as will be apparent from a consideration of the specification and drawing of a form of the invention, which may be preferred, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a semidiagrammatic isometric view of an apparatus for simultaneously forming strands of filaments;

FIGURE 2 is a diagrammatic isometric view illustrating the formation of a single strand from several groups of fibers or filaments of different sizes;

FIGURE 2A is a diagrammatic isometric view illustrating the formation of two strands from two groups of filaments of different sizes;

FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary sectional view through a bushing or feeder illustrating orifices of di'fierent sizes arranged to concomitantly flow streams of fiber-forming material.

While the method of the invention is particularly usable for forming groups of fine filaments or fibers from heatsoftened glass, it is to be understood that the invention may be utilized for forming filaments or fibers from other heat'softenab'e mineral materials, such as fusible rock, slag, or the like.

Referring to the drawings in detail, and initially to FIGURES l and 3, there is illustrated a stream feeding means, bushing or feeder 10 which may be formed of metals or metallic alloys, such as platinum rhodium, capable of withstanding the intense heat of molten glass. The feeder or bushing 10 may be secured to the floor of a forehearth 12 containing a supply of heat-softened glass which flows into the feeder, or the feeder may be arranged to receive pieces or marbles of glass of a composition suitable for forming textile filaments, the pieces or marbles being reduced to a fiowable or motlen state within the feeder by the application of heat.

The feeder is provided with suitable terminals 14 to which buss bars 16 are connected and which are of sufiicient size or dimension to provide for flow of electrical energy through the feeder or bushing to heat the glass or other material contained therein. The heat generated by the flow of electric current through the feeder may be utilized to melt solid pieces or marbles of glass introduced into the feeder or to maintain glass delivered into the feeder from a forehearth at a temperature and viscosity at which the mtaerial is attenuable to fibers.

The presentinvention provides for the establishment of groups of streams of fiber-forming material delivered from the feeder whereby the streams of the respective groups are of different sizes adapted to be drawn or attenuated into filaments or fibers of correspondingly different sizes.

In the embodiment illustrated in FIGURE 1, there are three groups of orifices, the groups being designated 20, 22 and 24. The orifices of the groups may be formed as circular openings in the floor or bottom wall 26 of the feeder, or as shown in FIGURE 3, the orifices may be formed in short length tips, tubular members or sleeves associated with and secured to the floor 26 of the feeder. As shown in FIGURE 3, the tips 28 of the group 20 are provided with orifices 29 of a diameter or dimension to form streams 30 of glass which may be attenuated or drawn to fine filaments or fibers 31 of a particular size or diameter.

The tips or tubular members 34 provide orifices 35 of the group 22. The orifices 35, provided by the tips shown in FIGURE 3, are of lesser diameter or size than the orifices 29 of the group 20. The orifices 35 form streams 36 of glass of lesser diameter or size than the streams 30 from the orifices 29 and are attenuated int. filaments or fibers 38 of lesser diameter than the filaments or fibers 31 drawn from the streams 30. The tips forming orifices 40 of the group 24 may be of a size dififerent from the orifices of groups 20 and 22 and streams 42 from the orifices 40 may be attenuated into filaments 44 of a size different from the sizes of filaments 31 and 38. I

As shown in FIGURE 1, the attenuated filaments are continuous and the filaments from each group are gathered into individual strands which are wound upon individual collectors to form strand packages. The filaments 31 drawn from the streams of the orifices of group 20 are convereged through a filament gathering means or guide eye 46 forming a strand or linear bundle of filaments 48 which is wound upon a sleeve or collector 50 mounted upon a rotatable shaft or arbor 52 which is driven by a motor (not shown) or other driving means.

The filaments 38 are converged through a filament gathering eye 54 forming a strand or linear bundle of filaments 56 wound upon a sleeve or collector 58 which may also be mounted on the shaft 52. The filaments 44 are converged through a gathering eye 60 forming a strand or bundle of filaments 62 which is likewise collected or wound upon a sleeve or collector 64 mounted upon and driven by the shaft 52. A conventional traverse means (not shown) may be employed for distributing the strands lengthwise of the collectors or sleeves 50, 58 and 64 to form strand packages.

The sleeves 50, 58 and 64 may be rotated at comparatively high speeds whereby the continuous filaments may be attenuated at the rate of ten thousand or more linear feet per minute. While three groups of orifices arranged to produce three groups of streams are illustrated in FIGURE 1, it is to be understood that a larger number of groups may be employed and the number of orifices in each group increased or decreased depending upon the size and character of the strand to be formed from the filaments of a group.

Through the arrangement utilizing groups of streams derived from a single feeder, an increased amount of glass or fiber forming material is delivered from the feeder where two or more strands of filaments are formed concomitantly as compared with a single strand of filaments formed from a single feeder. Through this method, an increased yield of strand material is attained and as a larger amount of glass is drawn from the feeder. per unit of time, the feeder, if supplied from a forehearth, renders possible the economical use of a comparatively large melting furnace. Heretofore it has been commerc'ially and economically impracticable to utilize a feeder with a forehearth for producing textile strands of filaments because of the comparatively small amount of glass drawn from the feeder and forehearth to form a strand.

The method and apparatus of the invention are well adapted for use in forming a single'strand embodying groups of filaments of different sizes. FIGURE 2 is illustrative of the feeder arrangement 10 arranged to provide a plurality of groups of streams which are attenuated to form independent groups of fibers or filaments wherein the filaments or fibers of one group may be of different size than those of other groups. The feeder 10' shown in FIGURE 2 may be formed with three groups of orifices designated 20', 22' and 24 for producing three groups of filaments, the filaments of the respective groups being designated at 31', 38 and 44'.

As shown in FIGURE 2, the filaments 31', 38' and 44 are converged and gathered together by a filament gathering or guiding eye 68 into a single or common strand or linear bundle of fibers or filaments 70. The strand 70 may be collected or wound upon a sleeve 72 mounted upon a shaft 74 which is rotated at comparatively high speed by motive means (not shown) whereby the filaments are attenuated or formed at speeds of ten thousand or more linear feet per minute. A suitable traverse mechanism (not shown) is employed to distribute the strand 70 lengthwise of the sleeve 72 to form a strand package.

As shown in FIGURE 2, the groups of filaments, wherein the filaments of each group are of uniform size but of a size different from those than the other groups, are converged to form a single strand. The diameters of the filaments of the respective groups may be selected to vary the characteristics of the strand or yarn formed from the I filaments. For example, the factors of reflectivity, opacity or whiteness of the strand or yarn may be varied by the selection of filaments of proper sizes for orientation into a common strand.

Furthermore, the strength characteristics of the composite strand may be determined or varied by modifying the size of the filaments of the respective groups. Thus desirable texture and strength properties may be obtained by simultaneously combining high strength fibers with low strength fibers as where low strength fibers are endowed with decorative or other physical properties desirable in a strand but are not practically usable unless integrated or oriented with high strength fibers.

Furthermore, by concomitantly attenuating fibers or filaments of different diameters from a single feeder and -orienting them into a strand, the fibers of different size may be more uniformly distributed in the strand.

The method and apparatus may be employed in a manner to orient or concomitantly collect fibers formed of different glasses or types of glass into one or more strands and for this purpose, the feeder may be partitioned into individual chambers, zones or compartments with a group of orifices provided for each compartment. As shown in FIGURES 2 and 3, partitions 75 may be disposed transversely of the feeder and disposed at regions between adjacent groups of orifices to provide an individual supply of glass for each group of orifices.

Thus, the individual chambers provided by the partitions 75 may contain glasses of different compositions whereby groups of filaments formed from the glasses in the several chambers are of different size or are endowed with different properties or physical characteristics. Strands formed from filaments of different sizes provide a method of securing certain characteristics rendering the strand suitable for many types of textile or for various purposes where a strand of filaments of uniform size may be unsatisfactory.

In feeder constructions where the orifices through which the heat-softened glass is discharged are formed by drilling openings in a bottom wall of the feeder and where a large number of orifices are formed in a comparatively small floor area of the feeder, the molten glass tends to wet and spread transversely on the lower surface of the feeder, a condition referred to as flooding.

The tips or bushings of the character shown in FIG- URE 3 tend to minimize flooding but under certain operating conditions, and especially where the tips or bushings are grouped close together, there is a tendency toward flooding. Flooding occurs when the surface tension of the molten glass or other material exceeds or overcomes the forces of viscosity and cohesiveness at the high temperatures of molten glass. It has been found that a differential temperature established in the material at the region of discharge of a stream from the orifice member or tip, that the tendency toward flooding is substantially eliminated.

FIGURE 2A illustrates a feeder and orifice arrangement from which two groups of different size filaments may be drawn from streams of heat-softenable material. In this form, the feeder 73 is formed with two groups of orifices in which the orifices in each group are arranged in two or more rows extending lengthwise of the feeder or bushing 73. The rows of orifices 76 are of one size while the rows of orifices 76' are of a different size whereby the filaments 77 drawn from streams flowing through the orifices 76 are of a different size than the filaments 77 drawn from the streams flowing through the orifices 76'. The groups of filaments are gathered together by guide eyes to form the strands 78 and 78' which are collected on spools or drums 79 and 79' in the manner hereinbefore described in connection with the ar-' rangement illustrated in FIGURES 1 and 2. In the arrangement illustrated in FIGURE 2A, the groups of orifices of different sizes are disposed in a position transversely of the feeder 73.

It is apparent that, within the scope of the invention, modifications and different arrangements may be made other than is herein disclosed, and the present disclosure is illustrative merely, the invention comprehending all variations thereof.

1 claim: I

1. A method of processing heat-softenable mineral material to form continuous filaments suitable for textile uses including establishing a supply of molten mineral material, flowing at least two groups of streams in adiacent relation from the supply wherein the streams of one group are of difierent size than those of another group, and concomitantly attenuating the groups of streams to continuous filaments by winding each group of filaments on an individual collector.

2. A method of forming filaments suitable for textile uses from heat-softenable mineral material including establishing a supply of molten mineral material, flowing at least two groups of streams in which the streams of one group are of a different size than those of another group, concomitantly attenuating the streams of the groups to continuous filaments wherein the filaments of one group are of different size than those of another group, and concomitantly collecting each group of filaments in a strand formation by winding each strand upon an individual collector.

3. A method of forming filaments suitable for textile uses from heat-softenable mineral material including establishing a supply of molten mineral material, flowing at least two groups of streams in which the streams of one group are of a different size than those of another group, and the streams of each group being arranged in at least two rows, concomitantly attenuating the stream of the groups to continuous filaments wherein the filaments of one group are of different size than those of another group, and collecting the filaments of each group in a separate strand formation by winding each group upon an individual collector.

4. A method of forming filaments suitable for textile uses from heat-softenable material including establishing a feeder adapted to contain molten mineral material, flowing a plurality of streams of the molten material through orifices formed in the feeder wherein certain of the streams are of different diameter than others of the streams, and concomitantly attenuating the streams to filaments of diameters dependent upon the diameters of streams from which they are attenuated by winding the filaments of each size upon an individual collector.

5. A method of forming continuous filaments suitable for textile uses from heat-softened glass including establishing a supply of heat-softened glass in a feeder formed with at least two groups of orifices wherein the size of the orifices of one group are different from those of another group, flowing the glass through the groups of orifices to form groups of streams of sizes dependent upon the sizes of the orifices, concomitantly attenuating the groups of streams to groups of continuous filaments, and forming individual strands from each of the respective groups of filaments.

6. A method of forming continuous filaments suitable for textile uses from heat-softened glass including establishing a supply of heat softened glass in a feeder formed with at least two groups of orifices wherein the size of the orifices of one group are different from those of another group, flowing the glass through the groups of orifices to form groups of streams of sizes dependent upon the sizes of the orifices, attenuating the groups of streams to groups of continuous filaments, and converging and gathering the groups of filaments into a single textile strand of filaments.

7. A method of forming strands of continuous filaments for textile uses from heat-softened glass including establishing a supply of heat-softened glass in a feeder formed with at least two groups of orifices wherein the orifices of one group are of different size than those of the other group with the orifices of the respective groups arranged in parallel rows, flowing the glass through the groups of orifices to form groups of streams wherein the streams are of two dilferent sizes, converging the two groups of filaments formed from the groups of streams in fan-like shapes into two individual strands with the fan-like shapes of converging filaments arranged in side-by-side relation. and attentuating the groups of streams to groups of continuous filaments by concomitantly winding the respective strands of filaments upon collecting'surfaces.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,225,667 Staelin Dec. 24, 1940 2,262,871 Whitehead Nov. 18, 1941 2,300,736 Slayter et al. Nov. 3, 1942 2,369,395 Heymann Feb. 13, 1945 2,377,772 Fletcher June 5, 1945 2,383,168 Slayter Aug. 21, 1945 2,386,158 Collins ......s Oct. 2, 1945 2,398,729 Tayler et al Apr. 16, 1946 2,489,243 Stalego Nov. 22, 1949 2,565,941 Barnard Aug. 28, 1951 2,635,389 Toulmin Apr. 21, 1953 2,715,753 McLellan Aug. 23, 1955 Re. 24,060 Russell Sept. 6, 1955 2,728,699 Labino Dec. 27, 1955 2,750,653 White June 19, 1956 2,758,951 Case Aug. 14, 1956 2,851,732 Sharp .Sept. 16, 1958 ,875,503 Frickert et al. Mar. 3, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS 599,199 Great Britain Mar. 8, 1948

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3259479 *Jun 22, 1962Jul 5, 1966Owens Corning Fiberglass CorpMethod of making curly composite fibers
US3268313 *Jun 9, 1965Aug 23, 1966Pittsburgh Plate Glass CoMethod and apparatus for forming hollow glass fibers
US3273985 *Mar 1, 1962Sep 20, 1966Pittsburgh Plate Glass CoProduction of fiber glass strand
US3309184 *Aug 24, 1964Mar 14, 1967Owens Corning Fiberglass CorpMethod and apparatus for flowing streams of heat-softened material from a supply
US3442751 *Dec 5, 1963May 6, 1969Owens Corning Fiberglass CorpFibrous bodies including strands and methods of producing such bodies
US3497337 *Oct 31, 1966Feb 24, 1970Ppg Industries IncProcess for making glass fibers
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US4737180 *May 21, 1986Apr 12, 1988Glaswerk Schuller GmbhProcess and mechanism for the production of glass fiber products for example fleeces, mats, yarns and rovings
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US5011523 *Oct 27, 1989Apr 30, 1991Vetrotex Saint GobainProcess and device for producing a yarn or ribbon formed from reinforcement fibers and a thermoplastic organic material
US5891284 *Sep 22, 1997Apr 6, 1999Owens Corning Fiberglas Technology, Inc.Manufacture of a undirectional composite fabric
US5925161 *Feb 25, 1998Jul 20, 1999Owens-Brockway Glass Container Inc.Method and apparatus for delivering a glass stream for forming charges of glass
EP0069601A1 *May 11, 1982Jan 12, 1983Vetrotex Saint-GobainApparatus and method for the mechanical drawing of continuous fibres of differing sections, and fibres thus produced
Classifications
U.S. Classification65/475, 65/126, 156/167, 57/249, 65/533
International ClassificationC03B37/083, C03B37/00, C03B37/02
Cooperative ClassificationC03B37/083, C03B37/02
European ClassificationC03B37/02, C03B37/083