US 3020017 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 6, 1962 w. s. WATSON 3,020,017
PLACEMENT DEVICES FOR USE IN MEDICAL,
SURGICAL. ORTHOPEDIC, AND LIKE WORK Filed Dec. so, 1958 s Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. 5. 29 INVENTOR 17 WILLIAM swATsoN I BY )K/ 7 ATTORNEYS Feb. 6, 1962 w.-s. WATSON 3,020,017
PLACEMENT DEVICES FOR USE IN MEDICA SURGICAL. ORTHOPEIDIC, AND LIKE WORK Filed Dec. 30, 1958 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 WILLIAM SWATSON I "am,
ATTORNEYS Feb. 6, 1962 w. s. WATSON 3,020,017
PLACEMENT DEVICES FOR USE IN MEDICAL, SURGICAL, ORTHOPEDIC, AND LIKE WORK Filed Dec. 30, 1958 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 ATTORNEYS Feb. 6, 1962 w. s. WATSON 3,020,017
P EMENT DEVICES FOR USE IN DICAL, GICAL, ORTHOPEDIC, AND LI WORK 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Dec. 30, 1958 "L W0; w ijlws. )ATSON I I W -W M ATTORNEY? Feb. 6, 1962 w; s. WATSON 3,020,017
PLACEMENT DEVICES FOR USE IN ME AL, SURGICAL, ORTHOPEDIC, AND LIKE RK Flled Dec. 30. 1958 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 FIG.9.
ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,020,017 PLACEMEIW DEVKCES FOR UE IN MEDICAL, SURGE-CAL, ORTHOEEDIO, AND LIKE WORK William 5. Watson, The Pelvic Anchor Corp, EEO. Box ii-tighten Station, Rochester, N.Y. Filed Dec. 30, 1958, Ser. No. 783,827 9 Ciaims. (ill. 248-206) This invention relates to devices useful for medical, surgical, orthopedic, dental and like purposes and more particularly to improved placement devices for supporting and maintaining an article of equipment or the body of a patient in a desired position or attitude.
It is well known that the equipment generally considered necessary for hospital and clinics and even doctors offices includes many highly specialized devices each useful only for certain very limited purposes. In fact, the need for such devices is to no small extent responsible for the high cost of medical care and treatment in well equipped hospitals and like institutions, whereas lack of specialized equipment in many doctors offices and more particularly in military camps, field hospitals and the like often interferes seriously with the examination and treatment desired.
The placement of the body of the patient in the proper position for treatment, as Well as the placement relative to the patient of various articles of equipment needed for the treatment, give rise to a large part of the above stated equipment problem. For example, the proper placement of the body of a patient under various conditions is a matter of considerable complexity. Adjustable head clamps may be needed to immobilize the head of a patient in various positions for examination or treatment; movable shoulder stops, and lateral support for the back of a patient lying on one side, are often required; in the Trendelenburg position, support of the patients body at the hips is desirable; it may be required to immobilize the knee while holding the foot or ankle in bent or flexed position; anchors for applying traction are often necessary; and so on.
The placement of various articles of equipment used in examination and treatment of the patient presents similar problems. In X-ray and fluoroscopic examinations, for instance, it is not only necessary to immobilize the body of the patient in the desired position, but also to support the cassette fixedly in any of a great variety of positions relative to the part of the body to be examined, be it head, shoulder, hip, foot or ankle, etc. In many cases makeshift holders, sand bags and the like are used, or the cassette is held manually by a physician or technician with consequent'danger of motion and blurring of the picture, as well asexposure of the hands to dangerous radiation. To a certain extent these prob lems can be alleviated by magnetic cassette holders, but only to the extent that a magnetic metal surface is available at the proper place.
Other similar problems are encountered in maintaining various pieces of auxiliary equipment in fixed positions. As one example, in the case of treatment by X-ray or gamma radiation or the like, it is important to focus the radiation on the desired area of the body to be treated and to shield other parts of the patients body as well as doctors, nurses and technicians who may be at the bedside from otherwise harmful exposure. For this purpose lead shielding plates must be arranged properly with respect to the area under treatment in each case and temporarily mounted in position. 7
Obviously problems such as those mentioned above are greatly magnified under emergency conditions such as may be encountered in military field hosiptals and like stations, where specialized devices may not be avail able and equipment is often crude or even primitive.
The present invention provides improved placement devices attachable to any smooth surface by vacuum or suction cup means and capable of use for any of the purposes mentioned above as well as in many other similar cases. The required smooth attachment surface can be provided, for example, by the treatment table on which the patient is lying, whether metal, plastic, wood or other material, by the headboard of a bed, the surface of any bedside table or other piece of furniture, or even by a plaster wall, etc. Since the vacuum or suction cup means is attachable to such a surface at any point thereof, and also can be rotated on its own axis to any angle in a full 360 range before attachment, it is evident that such placement devices possess a very high degree of versatility and a very wide range of utility for many purposes under very diverse conditions.
The vacuum or suction cup means may have any suitable form and may comprise either one or a number of cup elements for gripping the surface on which the placement device is to be mounted. Preferably each vacuum or suction cup element comprises a rigid or substantially rigid cup covered by a flexible diaphragm, usually of rubber or the like, which engages the smooth surface, a lever-actuated means being provided for depressing'the central portion of the diaphragm into the cup so as to create vacuum or suction between the diaphragm and the surface. Obviously any desired number of such elements can be employed in any placement device, it being necessary only to arrange all of the elements so that their respective diaphragins all lie .in the same plane. For most purposes, however, it has been found that a single vacuum cup provides a sutliciently secure attachment and placement devices for most intended purposes will accordingly need only one such attaching element.
It will also be understood that the framework or other I structure on which the vacuum cup means is mounted can take any suitable form and can have any desired size. able frame structure which protrudes or projects a short distance above the surface to which the device is attached, since the flexibility of use of the device is so great that it is almost always possible to find a suitable point of attachment close to the area at which support is to be affordedto the body of the patient or to some article of equipment that may be in use.
Suitable means are also carried by the framework for engagement with the object to be supported. If this object is to be some part of the body of a patient, for example, a padded head of some suitable type is generally desirable, but for other purposes such as the mounting of a cassette or the like, gripping means of some suitable type should be provided. It has been found that an additional vacuum or suction cup means serves practically all such purposes with excellent results. Thus the rubber or likediaphragm of the suction cup forms a padded head for engagement with the body of a patient without causing discomfort, whereas the suction cup itself can be employed for holding a cassette or the like simply by attaching it to the cassette in the usual way. This method of support for articles of equipment also has the advantage that the cassette or other article can be swung freely about theaxis of the vacuum cup to any desired angle before the attachment is eifected. I
A preferred form of placement device embodying the invention is described in. detail hereinafter and is characterized by extreme simplicity and versatility and by a wide range of utility for varying purposes under diverse conditions. Briefly described, it comprises an elongated frame structure, which may be merely a straight tube or rod, having laterally extending arms at each end, each of 1 which arms carries one vacuum cup device. At one end As a rule, it is desirable to provide only a suitof the frame, the vacuum cup faces away from the device in a direction substantially parallel to the length of the frame. At the other end of the frame, the vacuum cup faces away from the device in a direction substantially perpendicular to the length of the frame. Thus the first vacuum cup is adapted for attachment to a surface perpendicular to the length of the frame, Whereas the second vacuum cup is adapted for attachment to a surface substantially parallel to the length of the frame and substantially perpendicular to the first surface. The laterally extending arms lie in planes that are radial with respect to the axis or length of the frame which planes are preferably at an angle to one another so that the first named vacuum cup at one end of the frame lies wholly on one side of the plane of the diaphragm of the second named vacuum cup means, i.e., to one side of the plane surface to which the second named vacuum cup is to be attached. This arrangement facilitates the use of the device under varying conditions as explained more fully hereinafter, as does also the provision of sets 01' pairs of such devices in which the second vacuum cup means face in opposite directions.
The embodiments of the invention are shown in the accompanying drawings, which also illustrate various uses of placement devices embodying the invention, but it is to be expressly understood that the drawings are for purposes of illustration only and are not to be taken as a definition of the limits of the invention, reference being had to the appended claims for this purpose.
In the drawings,
FIG. 1 shows a preferred form of the device mounted on a table and supporting a cassette;
FIGS. 2 and 3 are sectional views through the vacuum cup means of FIG. 1, illustrating respectively the free and the attached condition of the diaphragm;
FIG. 4 shows the use of two of the devices shown in FIG. 1 for holding the knee and foot of a patient in a desired condition or attitude;
FIG. 5 illustrates the use of such a device to afford lateral support to the body of a patient lying on his side on a treatment table, and also of both right-hand and left-hand devices for mounting lead shields or the like at the edges of the table;
FIG. 6 shows the use of a pair or set of devices of the type of FIG. 1 as head clamps;
FIG. 7 shows the use of a pair or set of devices for supporting the body of a patient in the Trendelenburg position;
FIG. 8 shows the conjoint use of a pair or set of devices of the type of FIG. 1 for holding a cassette under special conditions; and
FIG. 9 shows another form of the device.
Referring to FIG. 1, the preferred form of placement device comprises a simple U-shaped frame, conveniently made up of a plurality of elements connected together by suitable junction pieces. For example, the main frame element forming the bight of the U is a rod or tube 10, the opposite ends of which are inserted in elbows l1 and 12 and fixedly secured therein by any suitable means such as set screws 13. While it is possible to adjust the angular position of the elbows relative to the rod 10, therefore, the set screws 13 are preferably locked firmly when the device is assembled and, as illustrated hereinafter, the arrangement provides sufficient versatility to make it unnecessary for adjustment of these angles thereafter.
The elbows 11 and 12 turn substantially at right angles to the length of the rod so as to extend laterally therefrom, and the open ends of these elbows receive the ends of rods or posts 14 integral with vacuum cup elements of the type shown in detail in FIGS. 2 and 3 and described hereinafter. The posts or rods 14 are turned in the elbows until the vacuum cups occupy the desired angular positions and are then locked securely and fixedly in place by suitable means such as set screws 15.
Referring now to FIGS. 2 and 3, the vacuum cup elements preferably comprise hollow castings 16 on which the posts 14 are formed and which provide rigid cups 17 and 18. The rim of each cup is recessed at 19 to provide a seat for a relatively thick flexible diaphragm element 20, preferably of rubber, which closes the entire end of the cup. The depth of the seat 19 is less than the thickness of the diaphragm 20 so that the latter projects outwardly beyond the metal of the cup. Attached to the central portion of the diaphragm in any suitable manner is a post 21 which extends through the bottom of the cup, a coil spring 22 surrounding the post 21 and being interposed between the diaphragm 2t and the bottom of the cup so as to maintain the diaphragm normally flat as shown in FIG. 2. Preferably the post 21 is attached to the diaphragm by means of circular plate 23 formed intergrally with the post and molded in the diaphragm at the time of manufacture.
The upper end of each post is engaged by suitable leveractuated means for lifting the post and thereby depressing the central portion of the diaphragm 22 into the cup as shown in FIG. 3. By way of example, a small lever 24 is provided with parallel side walls 25 between which the upper end of the post 21 is pinned by means of the pin 26. The corners 27 of the side walls 25 of the lever act as cam surfaces when the lever is swung about the pivot pin 25, causing this pin and with it the post 21 to be elevated as shown in FIG. 3. Preferably the corners 27 ride on a wear plate 28 surrounding the post 21 on top of the cup 17 or 18.
It will be seen that when the lever 24 has been swung to the position shown in FIG. 3, it is effectively locked since the rounded corners 27 have passed across the vertical plane of the pivot pin 26, allowing this pin to return slightly toward normal position under the influence of the spring 22 which holds the edges 29 of the side walls 25 fiat against the wear plate 28. In this position, moreover, vacuum or suction exists between the diaphragm 20 and the surface to which the device is attached, as will be understood from FIG. 3 showing the vacuum space between these parts. As long as the lever 24 remains in the position shown in FIG. 3, therefore, the device remains firmly attached to the surface.
Referring again to FIG. 1, the post 14 of the lower vacuum cup 17 is adjusted angularly by rotation on its own axis in the elbow 11 until this vacuum cup faces away from the device in a direction substantially parallel to the length of the frame part 10, being then locked in this position. At the other end of the frame 10, however, the corresponding vacuum cup 18 is adjusted in the elbow 12 until it faces away from the device in a direction sub stantially perpendicular to the length of the frame part 10, being then locked in this position by means of the lock screw 15 mentioned above. Since in FIG. 1, the vacuum cup 18 faces to the left, this device may be referred to for convenience as the left-hand device of a pair. By turning the cup 18 through a right-hand device is ob tained as described hereinafter, the two devices being usable as a pair or set under certain conditions. Preferably, moreover, the elbows 11 and 12 extend laterally in planes radial to the axis of the part 10 which planes are at an angle to one another so that vacuum cup 17 lies wholly on one side of the plane of the diaphragm of the cup 18 without enlarging the neck of the cup casting unduly. Thus when the lower vacuum cup 17 is secured to the top of a bedside table 30 or the like, a cassette 31 can be attached to the upper vacuum cup 18 and supported thereby in a position such that its lower portion extends downwardly below the end of the table. In other words, the
angle between the radial planes mentioned above permits the lower vacuum cup to be mounted at the end of the table with the upper vacuum cup 18 projecting outwardly beyond the end of the table.
The table 30 may be any of the usual bedside tables found in all hospital rooms for the convenience of the patient in eating meals or in reading or writing, etc. It can be moved toward or away from a patient lying in the bed until its end occupies any desirable position in which the cassette 31 will be properly located with regard to the patient. It will be understood, of course, that the cassette may be mounted in any desired angular position relative to the upper vacuum cup 18; for example, it may be swung through approximately 90 from the position shown so that its long axis lies horizontal rather than approximately vertical as shown, in which case the entire cassette may be above the top Surface of the table. Of course, any other movable piece of furniture can be used in substantially the same manner.
Devices such as shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 can be used for a wide variety of purposes other than for X-ray photography. In FIG. 4 for example, the vacuum cup 18 is used instead of the cup 17 to mount one of these devices on the top of a table 32. Due to the angle between the radial planes mentioned above, the vacuum cup 17 then lies wholly above the surface of the table 32 and can be used to provide lateral support for the knee of a patient, the rubber diaphragm 2t} acting as a padded head which bears against the knee. A second device is mounted on the table top 32 in an erect position corresponding to that shown in FIG. 1, the cup 17 being secured to the table top with the cup 18 and its diaphragm 26 forming a padded support to which the foot of the patient is strapped as indicated at 33. By holding the knee of the patient as shown, and at the same time turning the second placement device to the position shown before securing it to the table top, the ankle of the patient is placed in flexion and securely held in a practically immovable position for X-ray examination or treatment of various kinds. It will be understood, of course, that an additional placement device can be applied against the other side of the knee of the patient if necessary.
Referring to FIG. 5, the body of a patient lies on one side on a table 34, assumedly for radiological treatment, for example. Lateral support for the body of the patient is provided by means of a placement device of the type shown in FIG. 1, the lower vacuum cup 17 thereof being secured to the table top 34 at any desired point with the upper vacuum cup 18 providing a padded head against the back of the patient. Assuming, moreover, that in this case physicians or medical attendants at the bedside are to be shielded from the radiation, lead shielding plates 35 are mounted in vertical positions along both edges of the table by means of additional placement devices of the type shown in FIG. 1. At the upper left-hand end of FIG. 5, for example, the lower vacuum cup 17 is attached to the table top 34 while the upper vacuum cup 18 is secured to and supports the shield 35.
It will be evident that any desired number of left-hand devices as shown in FIG. 1 and as thus far described in FIG. 5 can be employed for holding the shields 35. But FIG. 5 also illustrates the possibility of employing a mixed assortment of left-hand and right-hand devices. Considering two U-shaped frames of the type shown in FIG. 1 which are similarly and correspondingly placed, as shown at the upper and the lower left-hand ends of FIG. 5, the lower vacuum cups 17 (and 36) face away from the devices in directions parallel to their lengths and are attached to the table top 34, and the upper vacuum cups 18 (and 37) face in directions perpendicular to the lengths of the devices but opposite to each other. These left-hand and right-hand devices, respectively, may be employed in any desired number, proportion and arrangement for purposes such as are indicated in FIG. 5.
FIG. 6 shows the use of a pair or set of right-hand and left-hand devices as head clamps. The device at the righthand side of the figure is a left-hand device corresponding to the device shown in FIG. 1, the vacuum cup 18 being employed to attach the device to a table top .38 and the vacuum cup 17 supporting one side of the head of the patient. At the left-hand side of this figure, however, the placement device is the other or right-hand device 36, 37, the cup 37 being used to attach the device to the table top and the cup 36 supporting the other side of the patients head.
FIG. 7 shows the body of a patient on an inclined table 39, in the Trendelenburg position, and the use of a pair or set of devices of the type shown in FIG. 1 for supporting the body at the hips. In this figure, moreover, the devices are used in such a way that the support for the body is provided by the upright frame part 10 of a left-hand device and by the corresponding frame part of a right-hand device, these tubular or rod-like parts being mounted in a substantially vertical position in engagement with the hip bones. either a left-hand or a right-hand device may be used at either side of the body. Referring specifically to FIG. 7, a device of the left-hand type is shown at the righthand side of the body, comprising the lower vacuum cup 17, the upright substantially vertical frame part 10, and the upper vacuum cup 13. Since the frame part 10 provides the desired support for the body, the upper vacuum cup 18 is not used. Similarly, the left-hand side of the body of the patient is supported by the upright frame portion of a right-hand device 36, 37, the cup 36 being used to mount the device on the table 39 and the upper vacuum cup 37 being idle.
FIG. 8 shows the conjoint use of a pair of left-hand and right-hand devices for the purpose of supporting a cassette 4% in an upright position close to and extending partially over the edge of a table 41. In such cases there may not be enough room between the cassette and the edge of the table to secure one of the vacuum cups to the table top, but a left-hand device 17, 18 and a right-hand device 36, 37 can be used as one by joining the vacuum cups 17 and 37 to each other face to face. Thus the cup 18 can be employed for attaching the combined placement device to the table top at one end of the cassette, this device extending outwardly beyond the edge of the table and supporting the second device which extends back toward and across the edge of the table to support the cassette at the desired position. Attachment between the two devices is effected very simply by placing their diaphragms in contact and simultaneously depressing both levers 24. For the purpose illustrated in FIG. 8, the U-shaped frame of the left-hand device 17, 18 should be in a horizontal plane and the U-shaped frame of the device 36, 37 in a vertical plane, but obviously any desired angle can be provided.
While devices such as illustrated by FIGS. 1-8 inclusive are satisfactory for most purposes, there may be instances in which a still more secure attachment to a table or other support is desired. For example, considerable weight may need to be supported in the case of a lead shield and it may be desirable to accomplish this objective without using an undue number of the simple devices of the FIG. 1 type. In other cases it may be necessary to exert a considerable degree of traction or pressure, for which a more secure mounting on the table may be desired as insurance against accidental detachment of the placement device due for example to loss of vacuum. In such cases resort may be had to the use of plural vacuum cups as already stated, and one typical form of such a placement device is shown in FIG. 9. In this figure three vacuum cups 42 are employed each of which may be of the type already described in detail above. These three cups may suitably be arranged in a triangular pattern, the cups being connected by frame pieces 43 and 44 to form a triangular frame serving as a foot piece. As shown, this frame serves to carry the usual upright frame member 45, elbow 46 and vacuum cup 47, preferably having a socket 48 formed integrally in the frame piece 44 and adapted to receive the lower end of the upright frame member 45. Evidently a device of this type can be used It will be seen that in this case for any of the purposes described above, through the provision of the cup 4-7 or other suitable supporting means as described above.
Additionally, it may be desired to mount other apparatus on such a base frame. To this end the frame may be provided with a pair of spaced parallel horizontal socket members 49 located on opposite sides of the socket 48. Evidently such means can be employed to mount or support any desired type of device or framework having a rod-like or tubular part that can be inserted in one of the sockets 49.
It will be understood from the foregoing description that devices embodying the invention are adapted to serve a widespread need for simple yet versatile and effective placement devices for medical, surgical, orthopedic, dental and like purposes. While the illustrations of utility provided by the above mentioned drawings are only a few, they are sufficient to indicate the many possible ways of using placement devices embodying the invention for a wide variety of purposes under diverse conditions. More important, a few such devices can take the place of a large amount of highly specialized equipment otherwise necessary in particular cases, thus leading to substantial economies in the equipment of hospitals and like institutions, and can also be used in smaller and less elaborate units such as doctors offices, military camps, field hospitals, first-aid stations, and the like to provide treatments and examinations heretofore unavailable in such cases.
Accordingly, while only a few embodiments and uses of the invention have been illustrated and described with particularity, it is to be understood that the invention is not restricted thereto and that reference should be had to the appended claims for a definition of its limits.
What is claimed is:
1. A placement device of the character described comprising an elongated frame carrying at one end a suction cup facing away from and approximately in a direction parallel to the length of said frame and adapted for attachment to a supporting surface, said frame having an arm extending laterally therefrom adjacent its other end and said end carrying a suction cup facing approximately in a direction at right angle to said first direction and adapted for attachment to a supporting surface substantially perpendicular to said first named supporting surface, the position of said second named suction cup being such that the plane of said second named supporting surface extends past said first named suction cup in spaced relation on one side thereof.
2. A device as defined in claim 1, each suction cup comprising a rigid cup-shaped member, a flexible diaphragm, and lever-actuated means for depressing the central portion of said diaphragm into said cup.
3. A device as defined in claim 1, said first named suction cup also being carried by an arm projecting laterally from said frame and said arms extending in planes radial to the long axis of said frame which planes are at an angle to each other such that said first named suction cup lies wholly on one side of the plane of said second named supporting surface.
4. A placement device of the character described comprising a frame composed of substantially rod-like elements arranged approximately in the shape of a U and including a straight element forming the bight of the U and elements extending laterally one from each end of the bight element and forming the legs of the U, one of said leg elements carrying vacuum cup means facing away from the device in a direction substantially parallel to the length of said bight element, the other leg element carrying vacuum cup means facing away from the device in a direction substantially perpendicular to the length of said bight element.
5. A placement device as defined in claim 4, each of said vacuum cup means comprising a rigid cup and a flexible diaphragm, said first named vacuum cup means being disposed wholly to one side of the plane of the diaphragm of said second named vacuum cup means.
6. A pair of placement devices as defined in claim 4, said second named vacuum cup means of said two devices facing in opposite directions when said U-shaped frames are placed in corresponding parallel positions with said first named vacuum cup means of both devices attached to a common plane surface, the second named vacuum cup means of said two devices being thereby adapted for attachment to a common plane surface with said two first named vacuum cup means facing each other for holding an object between them.
7. A placement device as defined in claim 5, the plane of the diaphragm of said second named vacuum cup means being offset laterally from said bight element by a distance less than the radius of the diaphragm of said first named vacuum cup means, and said legs extending from said bight element in radial planes at an angle to one another whereby said first named vacuum cup means is disposed wholly to one side of the plane of the diaphragm of said second named vacuum cup means.
8. A placement device of the character described comprising an elongated frame carrying at one end a suction cup facing away from and in a direction substantially parallel to the length of said frame for attachment to a flat supporting surface with said frame projecting substantially perpendicularly thereto, said frame having an arm projecting laterally therefrom adjacent its other end, and a suction cup on said arm facing away from said frame in a direction substantially perpendicular to its length for attachment to a fiat supporting surface sub stantially parallel to said length, the plane of attachment of said second-named cup to said surface lying outside the periphery of said first cup when projected to engage said first-named surface.
9. A placement device as defined in claim 8, each of said suction cups comprising a rigid cup member having a flexible diaphragm and lever-actuated means located axially relative to said rigid cup member and movable relative thereto to depress said diaphragm, the connections from said frame to said first suction cup and from said arm to said second suction cup being located adjacent the peripheries of the respective cup members without interfering with the axially-located lever-actuated means.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,351,666 Cohen June 20, 1944 2,653,001 Padjen Sept. 22, 1953 2,665,872 DeWitt Jan. 12, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,025,492 France Jan. 21, 1953