US 3020039 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 6, 1962 J. P. HYNES ETAL OPERATING DEVICES FOR CASEMENT WINDOWS AND THE LIKE Filed Sept. 25, 1959 5 Sheets-Sheet l Feb. 6, 1962 J. P. HYNES ET AL 3,020,039
OPERATING DEVICES FOR CASEMENT WINDOWS AND THE LIKE Filed Sept. 25, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 49 32 1 4722 49 a? as Arryss v Feb. 6, 1962 J. P. HYNES ETAL 3,020,039
OPERATING DEVICES FOR CASEMENT WINDOWS AND THE LIKE Filed Sept. 25, 1959 5 Sheets$heet 5 as 680 085 mm any I= 4 a 116-:
5 an m i, I 5.4 11111111 E MAJ Mir 1 /7 re/cx A V/VEJ G an/.0 g m 0s pay w aafovfJ/ w United States This invention relates to operating devices for casement and awning windows and more particularly to improvements in the drive control and transmitting mechanism of such devices for opening and closing the windows.
One well known operating device in common use employs, as the force transmitting element between the drive control and window sash, a special form of chain which becomes rigid when the window is being opened and flexible when the window is being closed. That device is somewhat expensive and unattractive, as the housing needs to be rather large to accommodate the drive mechanism as well as the full length of chain when the window is in its closed position. When the window is open the chain cannot be concealed and thus adversely aifects the appearance of the window.
Another type of operating device commonly used has a system of levers or push bars as the force transmitting element between the drive control and window sash. To enable the levers or push bars of that type of device to function, one or three sides of the drive control housing must be left open thereby allowing a great amount of dust and grit to gather on or near the mechanism, and also giving the device a shabby or unfinished appearance. The number of open sides depends upon whether one or two sets of levers or push bars are used. In the case of two sets being used, a large drive control housing with three open sides is necessary and this allows themechanism and accumulating dirt to be plainly visible. In addition to the above disadvantages, the levers or push bars are in sight at all times adding further bulk and unattractiveness to the, assembly.
It is the primary purpose of this invention to provide an operating device of simple and neatconstruction, that occupies a small space only and to reduce the bars,
levers, gearing and similar force transmitting elements between the sash and drive control to a minimum both in size and in number.
The proposed device is described herein as being used in combination with awning or like windows which have sliding hinges, but it can be adapted for use on windows having any other conventional type of hinge.
The foregoing and other objects and advantages of the invention will be readily appreciated from the following description and the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of the operating device and a torsion member in one of their forms, shown connected to an awning type window which is partially open;
FIGURE 2 is a side elevation of the arrangement shown in FIGURE 1 with parts shown in section;
FIGURE 3 is a side elevation showing an alternative method of connecting the torsion member to the window;
FIGURE 4 is a sectional elevation along line IVIV of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 5 is a sectional plan view along line VV of FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 6 is a sectional elevation, along line VIVI of FIGURE 5, showing the winding cord positions when fully extended and, unbroken lines, during rewinding;
FIGURE 7 is a perspective viewof the operating device in a modified and preferred form;
atent ice FIGURE 8 is a plan view of the modified device shown in FIGURE 7 and also illustrates an alternative method for fixing the torsion member to a window sill or the like; 1
FIGURE 9 is a side elevation, partly sectioned .along. line IX--IX of FIGURE 8, and in which the window is assumed to be in its closed and locked position;
FIGURE 10 is a part sectional view along line X-X of FIGURE 8;
FIGURE 11 is a sectional view along line XI--XI of FIGURE 8;
FIGURE 12 is a perspective view of the helical gear shown sectioned in FIGURE 11;
FIGURE 13 is a perspective view of the ratchet wheel shown sectioned in FIGURE 11;
FIGURE 14 is a perspective view of the winding drum shown sectioned in FIGURE 11;
FIGURE 15 is a sectional view along line XV-XV of FIGURE 11, and in which the window is assumed to be in a fully opened position;
FIGURE 16 is a fragmentary developed view in one position of the driving lugs of the worm and ratchet wheels shown in FIGURES 12 and 13; and
FIGURE 17 is a fragmentary developed view in a second position of the driving lugs of the worm and ratchet wheels shown in FIGURES l2 and 13. v
For application to awning windows as shown in the drawings, the operating device may be used in combi nation with a pair of sliding hinges of any known or suitable form and a pair of torsion members for biasing the window into an open position, one torsion member and one hinge being provided at each side of the window.
The torsion member 3 shown in FIGURES 1 and 2 consists of two arms bent at right angles to each other, one arm being fixed and the other movable. The fixed arm comprises two closely spaced parallel limbs 3a, 3b, united at one end so as to form a narrow elongated U, and is secured to the window sill as by means of a' metal plate 4, straddling the parallel limbs and attached by one or more screws 4a. This plate preferably has its opposite end portions bent to pass over the outside of each of the limbs 3a and 3b of the fixed arrn, and a depending lug accommodated between these. limbs so that there can be no relative movement without restrict ing torsional motion.
The movable arm 3c has its outer end pivotally con nected to the window sash 7 as at 8 in FIGURE 2, "and in this embodiment takes the place of the support armnormally used in conjunction with a sliding hinge of the type illustrated.
Referring to FIGURES 1 and 2 the sliding hinge 2 has a slide channel 2a fixed to the Window frame 9 and a sliding carrier 5 pivotally secured to the top of the sash 7.
FIGURE 8 shows a modified torsion member having a" fixed arm 11 terminating at one end in an L shape portion 11a which projects through a hole in an upright flange 9a of the window frame. At or near its other end the arm 11 is held to the frame by a plate 12 and screw 1 3.- The movable arm 6 is similar to that of FIGURES 1 and 2.
FIGURE 3 illustrates an alternative arrangement for the torsion member and hinge, in which the U shaped arms of the torsion member are fixed along the top of the' saslij and the arm 30 is held by two sliding carriers 5 so that it may move up and down thewindow frame as the window is closed or opened. In this case the torsion member does 7 In the arrangements described, the window pivot 8,'-oralternatively 14a, is situated nearer to the bottomthan thei top of the sash so that there is greater mass above than" slow the pivot. This allows for the torsion members to be only slightly biased to provide the initial opening of the window after which the greater mass above the pivot takes over and provides the force necessary to Open the window to the full extent. Use of the sliding hinges enables the window to be opened downwardly and outwardly simultaneously. Conventional hinges could however be used, the only requirement being that the torsion members in that event would have to be biased to a greater extent.
Reference will now be made to the operating device as illustrated in FIGURES 1 to 6. It includes a casing or housing preferably comprising two parts, a main part 16 and a side cover plate 17 attached thereto by screws 18 passing into lugs 18a. These two parts have sideward extensions 16a and 17a through which screws 19 may extend to secure the casing to the window frame.
According to FIGURES 1 to 6 the casing viewed from a side is in the shape of an irregular pentagon having one corner formed by a large radius 21. The longest side 22 of the pentagon forms the vertical back of the casing, that is the side nearest to the window, and the radiused corner 21 is directly opposite side 22 thus forming part of the casing front.
The cover plate 17 has a boss 23 located approximately at its centre, and a wall 24 extending around the perimeter that meets a similar wall 25 on the casing 16 when the twoportions are joined. Another wall 26 projects inwardly from the cover plate 17 and extends part way up the front portion and along the base of the cover plate 17' as shown in FIGURE 6. The inner face of this wall 26 constitutes a cam track and the extremity 26a of which is closer to the boss 23 than its other extremity so that the passage 27 between the cam track and the boss gradually decreases in width from the rear of the casing. A stop 28 projects towards the central boss 23 from the top rear corner of the perimeter wall 24, and terminates at a distance from the boss 23 approximately equal to the width of the narrow end of the passage 27 between the cam track 26 and the boss 23.
The main part 16 of the casing has a cam track 29 and a stop (not shown) corresponding to those in part 17. The outer side of the main part 16 may have a stepped down sideward extension 30 forming a small inner chamher 31, and the rear side 22 of the perimeter wall 25 has a vertical slot 32 therein for the greater part of its height. A boss 33 corresponding to the boss 23 of part 17 projects inwardly from the extension 30 and a hollow cylindrical portion 34 (FIGURE 4) extends outwardly from the top of the said extension 30. The cylindrical portion 34 is closed at its rear end 34a but is open at the front, and its interior communicates with chamber 31.
A fixed shaft 36 extends between parts 16 and 17 when they are fixed together the ends of this shaft being supported in the bosses 23, 33. The aperture in boss 23 may have a flat face corresponding to a fiat face 36a at the respective end of the shaft so that the latter is held against rotation. A cylindrical drum or sleeve 37 is rotatably mounted upon the shaft 36 and has a worm wheel 38 secured near one end and a pair of disc like flanges 39 fixed a short distance apart near its other end.
The worm wheel 38 meshes with and is driven by a worm 42 mounted on a shaft 41 and housed within the hollow cylindrical portion 34 of the casing 16. The shaft 41 extends for a short distance out through the open end of the portion 34 and has a square 41a provided thereon to enable the connection of a crank or like handle 43. The handle 43 is provided with a spring loaded plate 44 which enters a groove 46 formed in the Worm shaft 41 thus retaining the crank handle on the worm shaft.
' A wire cable, cord or like flexible line 47 has fixed to one of its ends a stop pin 48 the ends of which are accommodated within triangular shaped holes 49, one of which is provided in each of the said drum flanges 39 (FIG- URES and 6). The cord 47 is attached to the centre of the stop pin 48 so that it may be wound onto the drum in between the flanges 39, and passes out of the casing through the vertical slot 32 in the rear wall 22.
The end 47a of the cord is secured to the window sash 7 and the torsion members are connected to the window and biased in such a way that the window is urged open by them as the cord is unwound from the drum. When the window is fully closed, the cord is fully wound about the drum as indicated in FIGURE 5. In this position the cord stop pin 48 is held, by the surrounding coils of cord, as near the drum surface as the triangular holes 49 will allow.
To open the window, the handle 43 is turned in such a direction (see the arrow A in FIGURE 6) that the cord will be unwound from the drum initially under the influence of the torsion members and thereafter by the weight of the window both of which forces cause the window to move downwardly and outwardly.
When the cord 47 is almost fully unwound, as shown dotted in FIGURE 6, the stop pin 48 is no longer restrained against outward movement by surrounding coils of cord and as the drum rotates further the pin is pulled towards the outside of the flanges 39 for as far as the triangular holes 49 will allow. With the stop pin 48 in this position continued rotation of the drum will engage the said pin against the stop 28 as shown in full in FIG- URE 6. The stop pin 48 remains held in this position by means of the cord tension, thereby preventing further rotation of the drum in its original direction.
It will be appreciated that the worm gearing being irreversible will in effect lock the window in any selected position between fully closed and fully open.
To close the window the crank handle 43 is turned in the opposite direction to that previously used. As rewinding begins, the stop pin 48 is carried downwards from the unbroken line position of FIGURE 6 by the rotation flanges 39 away from the stop 28 and enters the wide end of the passage 28 inside the cam tracks 26 and 29. As rotation of the drum continues the pin 48 is gradually forced in closer to the drum surface by the cam tracks. After leaving the narrow end of the passage 27 the stop pin 48 is held by the cord tension in as near to the drum surface as the triangular holes 49 will allow and in this position can pass below the stop 28 thus enabling complete rewinding of the cord and subsequent closing of the window to take place.
Reference will now be made to the preferred form of the operating device as illustrated in FIGURES 7 to 14. The device includes a hollow casing 51, open along its base, having a curved front 52 which slopes back from the vertical, two compartments 53 and 54 the interiors of which are in communication along one side, and a rearwardly stepped portion 56 having sideward extensions 56a through which screws 57 pass to secure the device to a window frame 9, fitted with fly wire screen 9a.
Referring to FIGURE 10, the compartment 54 slopes upward from inside the casing 51, opens onto the curved front 52 and contains a worm 58. The said worm has one end 59a, of its spindle 59, rotatably mounted within a bore 61 which is provided in the closed inner end of compartment 54, and its other end 59b secured by means of screw 62 to the operating handle 63. The handle and worm are keyed together, as at 64, to provide a positive driving connection between them, and the worm meshes with a driven member or worm wheel 66 which is rotatably mounted on the top section 68 of a non-rotatable stepped shaft 67 located within compartment 53.
As shown in FIGURE 11, the top end 67a of the said shaft is secured to the top of casing 51 by means of a screw 72, and the lower end 67b is riveted over to support a thin plate 73 which covers the open base of the said casing. A winding drum 74 which is rotatably mounted on the centre section 69 of the shaft 67 has an annular depression 76 with ratchet teeth 77 provided around its base, an aperture 78 which is connected by a passage 79 to a peripheral groove 81, and a skirt 82 having a gap 82a within which is located a downwardly projecting boss 83. Rotation of the said drum is accomplished by means of a ratchet wheel 84, which is mounted within the depression 76 of the drum 74 and influenced downwardly by a spring 92 to engage teeth 86 provided about its lower face with the drum teeth 77 located between the driven member or worm wheel 66 and the wheel 84. A space is provided between the worm wheel 66 and ratchet wheel 84 to enable the said wheel to rise against the action of spring 92 and pass out of engagement with the drum teeth 77.
The said ratchet wheel 84 and worm wheel 66 have lugs 87 and 88 which engage within apertures 89 and 91 respectively at all times constituting a dog clutch thereby enabling the worm wheel 66 to transmit its rotary motion to the ratchet wheel 84. The drum 74 is retarded against motion in one direction by a fiat coil spring 93, the innermost coil of which is located around the lower section 71 of the shaft 67 and held against rotation by outwardly extending lugs 94 provided on the said section, and has its extreme outer end secured about boss 83 of the drum The cord 47 has anchor pin 48a located within the aperture 78 of drum 74 as shown in FIGURE 15 and is wound about the said drum within groove 81. The cord passes through an aperture 116 provided in the back wall of the casing 51 and a second aperture 114 in the window frame 9 for connection of its end 47a to the window sash 7.
To enable locking of the window, a latch lever 96 is pivotally connected beneath compartment 54 to the casing 51, as at 97 shown in FIGURE 9, and has a forwardly projecting finger 98 and hook line member 99 formed at the end remote from the pivot 97. The finger 9-8 is located within a hole 161 provided in an actuating plate 102 which is slidably mounted within slot 193. A button 164 is secured to the plate 102, and a compression spring 106 situated beneath the said button urges the lever 96 upwardly until the hook 99 comes against an abutment 197 formed on the underside of the stepped portion 56. A locking plate 108 secured to the window sash 7 by means of screws 189 has a hook 111 for attachment at the end 47a of the cord 47 as shown in FIGURE 8, and in addition this plate is provided with a tongue 112 having a hole 113 therein, this tongue projecting in towards the operating device from beneath the sash 7. This tongue 112 is capable of passing through the apertures 114 and 116 so that the hook 99 of the lever 96 engages within the hole 113 when the cord 47is fully wound onto the drum 74.
In operation, and assuming that the window is in the closed and locked position as shown in FIGURE 9, the button 104 must be depressed so as to release the hook 99 from the tongue 112 before the window may be opened. To then open the window, the handle 63 must be turned so that the ratchet wheel 84 is rotated in the non-driving direction that is, with the sloping face of the teeth 86 leading. When the ratchet wheel is rotated in this direction, the bias of the torsion members produces a tension in the cord 47 thereby creating a torque on the drum 74 so that it rotates in the same direction as the ratchet wheel 84 as this wheel is turned.
Since the teeth 77 and 86 are held in engagement by the spring 92, when the wheel 84 is rotated in the direction specified, the drum 74 follows its movement thereby unwinding the cord and allowing the window to open.
When the cord is completely unwound from the drum so that it passes directly from passage 79 out through apertures 116 and 114 as shown in FIGURE 15 the win dow is in its fully open position and the cord tension creates a straight pull on the drum instead of the torque sponding movement of the drum 74, and the ratchet wheel teeth 86 would ride over the drum teeth 77 by compressing the spring 92 thereby obtaining a free wheeling action.
If the window is only partially opened and rotation of the handle 63 is then stopped, the drum 74 is held against further rotation since the vertical pressure faces of teeth 86 and 77 are in contact, and the turning force on the said drum produced by the cord tension cannot cause the wheel 84 and worm wheel 66, which are in constant engagement, to rotate the worm 58 due to the irreversibility of the worm drive.
Whilst the window is being opened, rotation of drum 74 causes the spring 93 to be progressively loaded. This load on the spring 93 enables the window to be pushed shut from outside the room, the cord 47 being rewound onto drum '74 Without the need for rotation of handle 63 and associated parts. As the window is closed or par tially closed in this manner, there is a release of tension on the cord 47 and the loaded spring 93 then rotates the drum 74 in the direction required for rewinding. This direction of rotation of the drum 74 is opposite to that previously described and is such that the sloping faces of the teeth 77 are leading, and thus the ratchet wheel 84 is periodically lifted against the action of spring 92 so that the said drum free wheels under the action of spring 93 and rewinds the cord 47. This arrangement acts as a safety device preventing the window from moving suddenly outwards and so causing injury due to the sudden release of the potential energy stored in the torsion bars.
As previously mentioned, the torsion members are only biased so as to initially open the window and thereafter the weight of the window itself becomes the force producing further opening thereof. If opening of the window is continued after the weight of the window takes over from the torsion members, then the torsion members are progressively loaded to cause them to be biased in a direction opposite to their original bias, this new bias providing assistance when the window is closed in that the operator does not have to pull against the full weight of the window. 1
To close the window by means of the operator, the handle 63 is rotated in the opposite direction to that required to open the, window and the rotation of the ratchet Wheel 84 is then such that the vertical pressure faces of teeth 86 are leading. As the teeth 86 and 77 are held in engagement by spring 92 the drum 74 is forced to rotate in the same direction as the Wheel 84 and the cord 47 is subsequently rewound within groove 81 of the said drum thereby closing the window. During the final stages of closing the window, the tongue 112 presses 7 and 88a and plane faces 87!; and 88b as shown in FIGURES 12, 13, 16 and 17. FIGURES 16 and 17 illustrate the lugs 87 and 88 in this preferred form. when engaging in the apertures 91 and 89 during opening and closing of the window respectively.
Referring firstly to FIGURE 16, it will be seen that when opening the window, the faces 87b and 8817 are in contact, the apertures 91 and 89 being of such a width that there is sufficient clearance between faces 87a and 88a to allow the steps 87c and 88c to pass when the wheel 84 is periodically lifted during free wheeling of the ratchet mechanism. This condition also applies when the window is pushed shut from outside the room, because rotation of drum 74 under influence of the spring 93 then causes the faces 87b and 88b to remain in contact.
However when the window is being closed by means of 7 the operator, the faces 88a and 87a are in contact as shown in FIGURE 17, and upward movement of the wheel 84 is therefore limited by the steps 87c and 88c coming into contact.
It will be appreciated that upward movement of the wheel 84 could, in the case when the teeth 86 and 77 are made from nylon or similar resilient material be caused by bending of the vertical pressure faces of the said teeth when they undergo an excessive load and, if this movement were allowed to continue the said teeth could be permanently damaged.
It will be appreciated that with both the methods of attachment described herein, the torsion members are relatively inconspicuous and furthermore due to their construction and small section these torsion members may, if desired, be further concealed, by incorporating them, in part, behind the wood or steel frame of the window.
It will also be apparent that the window operator described occupies a minimum of space in addition to pro viding a means of automatically locking the window and. allowing it to be closed from the outside.
Although the torsion members and operating device have been described for use on windows having their sills in an accessible position, it will readily be appreciated that they can be adapted for use on windows or the like which are, for instance, situated at too great a height above floor level for the sills to be easily reached. In such cases a pulley or the like can be secured to the sill and the cord passed from the window sash, over the said pulley or through a flexible cable housing down to the operating device which is secured in any suitable accessible position.
Having now described our invention, what we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. An operating device for windows and the like comprising a winch mechanism for controlling opening move ments of a window and for returning said window to a closed position within a window frame, said winch mechanismcomprising a rotatable drum mounted in a casing, a flexible line having one end connected to said window and the other end connected to said rotatable drum, means arranged in said rotatable drum for automatically preventing rotation of said rotatable drum in a window opening direction when the window reaches the fully opened position, driving means for rotating the rotatable drum in winding and unwinding directions, and means connected to said window and window frame for torsionally biasing said window to an open position.
2. A device according to claim 1, wherein said driving means comprises a worm and worm wheel which looks the window in any selected position between fully closed and fully open.
3. A device according to claim 1 wherein said drum is provided with two closely spaced discs between which said flexible line is adapted to be coiled, said means for automatically preventing rotation of said drum consisting of each disc having an aperture through which a pin con nected to the drum end of the flexible line extends transversely, the length of each aperture in a radial direction relative to the drum being substantially greater than the diameter of said pin so that the latter can move substantially radially within the apertures, at least one stop member being mounted in said casing engaging said pin when it is in the outermost position in said apertures and thus prevent further rotation of the drum in a windowopening direction when the window is fully open, and at least one cam track disposed in said casing for co-operating with said pin in order to move it inwardly along said apertures when the drum is rotated in the window-closing direction from the fully open position.
4. A device according to claim 1 and including spring means connected to said drum tending to turn said drum in a window-closing direction, a driven member connected to said driving means, and a ratchet device arranged between said drum and said driven member of said driving means, whereby said drum rotates in a window-closing direction under the influence of said spring means independently of operation of said driving means in order to rewind the flexible line around the drum when the window is being closed by direct manual pressure.
5. A device according to claim 4 wherein said ratchet device includes a set of ratchet teeth on a face of said drum, a ratchet wheel displaceable axially in relation to the drum and having a set of ratchet teeth complementary to the drum ratchet teeth, a driving connection formed between said ratchet wheel and the driven member whereby said ratchet wheel is at all times drivingly connected in a rotational sense to the driven member of said driving means, and spring means being provided to resiliently urge the ratchet wheel into engagement with the ratchet teeth on said drum.
6. A device according to claim 5 wherein the driving connection between said ratchet wheel and said driven member comprises circumferentially spaced lugs on said driven member projecting into gaps between further lugs on the ratchet wheel, said lugs having stepped driving faces.
7. A device according to claim 1 further in combination with means for automatically locking the window upon its return to a. fully closed position, including a hook member pivotally attached at its inner end within said casing and adapted at its outer end to engage a co-operating portion or extension of the window when the latter reaches the fully closed position, manually operable means being provided to disengage said hook member preparatory to opening the window.
8. A device according to claim 1 in which said means for biasing the window includes at least one torsion memher having a rigid arm that is secured to one side of the window frame and a movable arm that is connected at its free end to the window.
9. A device according to claim 8 wherein an identical torsion member is provided at the other side of the window frame.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,826,092 Turtle Mar. 11, 1958