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Publication numberUS3021840 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 20, 1962
Filing dateApr 17, 1957
Priority dateApr 17, 1957
Publication numberUS 3021840 A, US 3021840A, US-A-3021840, US3021840 A, US3021840A
InventorsHallamore Kim, Bernard E Carlson
Original AssigneeBaxter Don Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Portable anesthesia apparatus
US 3021840 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 20, 1962 K. HALLAMORE ET AL PORTABLE ANESTHESIA APPARATUS 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 17. 1957 unuuunu mam w mwm M mg m Feb. 20, 1962 K. HALLAMORE ET AL 3,021,840

PORTABLE ANESTHESIA APPARATUS Filed April 17. 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 iNVENTORS z/M yang/14025 atte/V420 E. (42150/1/ Feb. 20, 1962 K. HALLAMORE ET AL 3,021,840

PORTABLE ANESTHESIA APPARATUS Filed April 17. 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 (ID 45 (1D INVENTORS Z/M #44414/14025 BEQNQQD E. 679(50/1/ Feb. 20, 1962 K. HALLAMORE ETAL 3,021,840

PORTABLE ANESTHESIA APPARATUS 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed April 17. 1957 M/ a fi/ w SEE M I w F w a ls: E

Q Mr;

FIG;

Feb. 20, 1962 K. HALLAMORE ETAL 3,021,840

PORTABLE ANESTHESIA APPARATUS Filed April 17. 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 4 .33 C g; A J

FIG 9.

INV EN TORS K //1/ A/flLL 5/9/0215 United States This invention relates to anesthesia equipment and refers particularly to a light-weight, portable apparatus. The anesthesia apparatus now available is too heavy to be attached to a bed, shelf, or stretcher. For this reason, it is usually provided with a stand. The stand adds to the already great weight of the apparatus and further reduces its portability.

For emergency use, it is desirable to have a portable anesthesia apparatus which can be used under field conditions and which can be conveniently attached to any availablesupport. A truly portable apparatus is also helpful in making maximum use of operaing rooms, in giving anesthesia in X-ray and other small rooms, and in transporting patients by ambulance. Increased use by the Armed Forces of helicopter ambulances has added to the problems of giving anesthesia in transit- One of the main difficulties in reducing the weight of anesthesia apparatus lies in the vaporfzer for the liquid anesthetic. 'Ihe wick and the bubbler type glass bottle Vaporizers provide only low concentrations of anesthetic, which may not be adequate in cold climates or high altitudes. More eflicient Vaporizers are now available but these have a heavy metal body to supply the heat needed for vaporization.

It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a light-weight, portable, anesthesia apparatus.

Another object or" the invention is to provide a portable anesthesia apparatus which can be conveniently attached to an operating table, bed, shelf, or stretcher.

Another object of the invention is to provide an anesthesia apparatus with a lightweight vaporizer for liquid anesthetic agents.

A further object of the invention is to provide a vaporizer having a convenient, effective method of opening cans of liquid anesthetic while preventing the escape of anesthetic fumes.

A still further object of the invention is to provide a light-weight, vaporizer for liquid anesthetic agents which will provide an extremely high concentration of anesthetic when desired.

A still further object of the invention is to provide an anesthesia apparatus in which the flow of anesthetic gases will be automatically interrupted when direct-flow oxygen is turned on.

The anesthesia apparatus of the present invention will be more fully understood from the following description of the preferred form of the invention, given with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a front elevation, partially broken away, of our anesthesia apparatus.

FIGURE 2 is a sectional view on the line 22 of FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 3 is a side elevation of the anesthesia apparatus.

FIGURE 4 is a rear elevation of the anesthesia apparatus.

FIGURE 5 is a sectional view on the line 5-5 of FIGURE 3.

FIGURE 6 is a section of an interrupter valve.

FIGURE 7 is an enlarged sectional view of a detail shown in FIGURE 5.

FIGURE 8 is a sectional view on the line 8-8 of FIGURE 7.

ear

FIGURE 9 is a diagrammatic view similar to FIG- URE 5.

FIGURE 10 is a side elevation of the vaporizer.

Referring now to the drawings, the anesthesia machine of our invention has a control head 1, a flow meter bank 2, a clamp 3, a vaporizer 4, and an interrupter valve 5. The control head 1 has a nipple 6 to which a flexible hose from a supply of nitrous oxide may be at tached. The outer surface of the nipple 6 has an indexed shape 7 so that only the correct gas hose may be attached. The tube 8 leads from the nipple 6 to the control valve 9. The handle 10 of the valve 9 is triangular in shape and molded of colored plastic so that the knob may be identified by either color or touch. Control valve 9 is connected to the nitrous oxide flow meter 12 in the flow meter bank 2 by the union 11. The flow meter 12 has a line scale 13, calibrated in cub'c centimeters per minute, and a coarse scale 14, calibrated in liters per minute. The flow meter 12 opens into the gas mixing passage 15 which is connected by the tube 93a to the check valve unit 5.

The control head 1 also has a connection 16 for another anesthetic gas, such as cyclopropane. Because of the care needed to handle cyclopropane under pressure, the tank (not shown) is attached directly to the anesthesia machine by the yoke 17. The pin index 18 prevents attachment of other types of gas tanks. The cyclopropane passes from the yoke 17, through the passage 19 to the control valve 20. The valve 29 is controlled by the color and touch coded knob 21, and is connected by the un'on 22 to the cyclopropane flow meter 23. The flow meter 23 has a scale 24, graduated in cubic centimeters per minute, and is connected to the gas mixing passage 15.

The control head 1 also has a nipple 25, to be connected to an oxygen tank or other source of oxygen. The outer surface 26 of the nipple 25 is coded to prevent attachment of any other gas hose. The nipple 25 is connected to the oxygen manifold 27 which has a quick- .connect oxygen supply coupling 28. The coupling 28 provides a convenient oxygen supply for operation of a resuscitator, 'aspirator, or other oxygen-power equipment and may also be used to connect a second oxygen tank or an air pump, if desired. A valve (not shown) in the coupling 28 prevents oxygen flow through the coupling except when a hose nipple, like the coded nipple 25, is inserted in the coupling 28. The manifold 27 connects through the valve 29 and the union 30 to the oxygen flow meter 31. The valve 29 has a color and touch coded knob 32. The flow meter 31 has a fine sca1e 33, calibrated in cubic centimeters per minute, and a coarse scale 34, calibrated in liters per minute. The flow meter 31 opens into the mixing passage 15.

The oxygen manifold 27 is connected through the vaporizer oxygen valve 35 and the union 36, to the vaporizer oxygen flow meter 37. The control valve 35 has a touch and color coded control knob 38. Oxygen from the flowmeter 37 passes through the passage 39 and the tube 40 to the vaporizer 4.

The oxygen manifold 27 also connects through the valve 41 and a union 42, to the interrupter valve 5. The valve 41 has a color and touch coded knob 43, similar to the control knob 32 but larger in size.

The flow meter bank 2 has an outer frame 44 in which the flow meters 12, 23, 31, and 37 are mounted. The flow meters are covered by a transparent front panel 45, fastened to the frame 44 by the screws 46, and an opaque back panel 47, fastened to the frame by the screws 48. A curved rod 49 is attached to the top of the frame 44 and to the control head 1. The clamp 3 is attached to the rod 4? by the adjustable bracket 50 which is locked in place by the knob 51.

The clamp 3 has a vertical member 52 which extends slidably through the bracket 50. A horizontal top turn 53 is threaded onto the rod 52. The vertical adjustment member 54, having a handle 55, thread through the horizontal arm 53 and passes through the upper part 56 of the bracket 50. The lower part of the bracket 59 extends outwardly from the vertical rod 52 to form the upper jaw 57. The vertical adjustment member 54 has a stop 58 at its lower end, so that the upper jaw 57 is held up by the stop acting against the upper part 56 of the bracket. The lower jaw member 59 is slidably adjustable along the rod 52. The plates 61, held in place by the spring 62, prevent the lower jaw 59 from sliding down. When desired, the lower jaw 59 may be adjusted by raising the plate 61 against the spring 62 and sliding the jaw while the spring 62 is compressed.

Vaporizer 4 consists of a metal head 63 and a body 64. The body 64 is preferably made of glass or other transparent material which has a low heat conductivity and is unaffected by the anesthetic agents used. The body 64- is held against the head 63 by the support 65 acting against the bail 66. Tension of the bail 66 is adjustable by the nut 66a which raises or lowers the support 65.

The head 63 has a vaporizer inlet passage 69 into which is threaded a nebulizer body 70. The exterior end of the nebulizer body 70 is connected to the vaporizer oxygen tube 40. Gaskets 71 and 72 prevent leakage between the head 63 and the nebulizer body 73. The jet body 73 threads into the nebulizer body 70 and a gasket 74 prevents leakage between the bodies 78 and 73. A suction tube 75 extends down from the head 63 into the liquid anesthetic agent. At the upper end, the suction tube 75 opens into the scaled annular space 76 around the nebulizer body 70. An inlet hole 77 passes through nebulizer body 70 and connects the annular spac 76 with the space 78 between the nebulizer body '70 and the jet body 73. The inlet hole 77 may be located at any point around the space 73. The nebulizer unit 70 has a nebulizer passage 79 and the jet body 73 has a somewhat smaller oxygen jet 80. In front of the nebulizer passage 79, the head 63 has a baflle 81 directing gases down the passage 82 and across the liquid anesthetic surface. The vaporizer outlet 83 connects through the tube 84 to the interrupter valve 5. A shutoff valve (not shown) may be provided on the tub 84, if desired.

The vaporizer head 63 also has a liquid anesthetic inlet 85, located at the top of the passage 82 and in front of .the nebulizer passage 79. Liquid anesthetic enters the inlet 85 through a diaphragm-type valve 86 from an' anesthetic reservoir 87. The anesthetic reservoir 87 has a body 88, a threaded top 89; which seats against a gasket 89:: or other sealing means, and a spike 90. The spike 90 has a stem 91, a head 92, and a sharp point 93. An outlet passage 94 is provided at the base of the stem 91. The reservoir 87 may be designed to. contain any amount of anesthetic desired; for example, a standard 4-ounce can 95.

The interrupter valve consists of a housing 101 and a head 102. The head 102 has an oxygen inlet 1&3 connected through union 42 and valve 41 to the oxygen manifold 27. The housing 101 has an anesthetic gas inlet 104 connected to the tubes 84 and 93a, an anesthetic passage 105, an oxygen passage 106, a vent 107 and a gas outlet 1&8. A sliding valve body 169, made of Teflon or other self-lubricating plastic material, is held by the spring 116 so that the passage 105 is normally open. The direct-flow oxygen end lll of the valve body 109 is larger than the anesthetic gas end 112, and is provided with a boss 113 which contacts the surface 114 of the head 192.

In use, the portable gas machine is attached to a bed, litter, shelf, or other flat support, by placing the support between the jaws 57 and 59 of the clamp 3. The clamp 3 is adjusted by lifting the plates 61 against the spring 62 and moving the lower jaw 59 to the desired position on the rod 52. The adjustment member 54 is then turned down against the upper jaw 57, tightening it against the support.

Nitrous oxide, cyclopropane, and oxygen sources are connected to the respective connections 6, 16, and 25 and the tank valves opened. A flexible tube (not shown) having a face mask, an absorber unit, and other desired equipment, is attached to the interrupter valve outlet 103. A can of ether or other similar liquid anesthetic agent is placed top down in the reservoir 37 and the top 89 screwed down until the can is pierced by the spike 90. The face mask (not shown) is then placed on the patient and the oxygen supply valve 29' opened until the desired flow of oxygen, as indicated by the flow meter 31, is passing through passage 15, the tube 93a, the interrupter valve 5, and the flexible hose (not shown) to the patient. Gaseous anesthetic agents are administered by opening the respective valves 9 and 2b to the desired degree. The gase passing through the flow meter 12, 23, and 31 meet in the manifold 15 and pass through the tube 93a to the anesthetic gas inlet 164 of the interrupter valve 5.

To adminster liquid anesthetic, the valve 86 is opened and the body 64 of the vaporizer filled to the designated level with the anesthetic. For proper operation, the anesthetic level must be above the lower end of suction tube 75 and below the lower end of passage 52. The vaporizer oxygen valve 35 is then opened and oxygen flow, as indicated by the flow meter 37, passes through the passage 39 and the tube ill to the oxygen jet 8%. Gas passing through the oxygen jet 8% and the nebulizer passage 79 creates a vacuum in the annular space 78 which draws liquid anesthetic in through the tube 75, the sealed annular space 76 and the inlet hole 77. Oxygen through the jet 8% breaks up the liquid anesthetic into fine droplets which are blown through the nebulizer passa e 79. Heat from the surrounding air passes through the metal head 63 vaporizing much of the nebnlized anesthetic. The mixture of oxygen and anesthetic droplets is directed downwardly by the bafiie 81, trapping out the remaining droplets. The mixture of oxygen and anesthetic vapor then passes through the vaporizer outlet 83, and the tube 84, to the interrupter valve inlet 104.

If a particularly high concentration of vaporized liquid anesthetic is needed, the valve 86 may be opened while the vaporizer is in operation. As shown in FIGURE 10, the drops of anesthetic passing in front of the nebulizer passage 79 are broken into small droplets, thus increasing the amount of anesthetic vaporized.

When the direct-flow valve 41 is opened, pressure of the oxygen against the face 111 forces the valve body 109 to move against the spring 110. Gas trapped around the spring 110 escapes through the vent 107. As the valve body moves against the spring 110, it closes oil the anesthetic passage and opens the direct-flow oxygen passage 106. In this way the flow of anesthetic gases is interrupted and pure oxygen is supplied to the patient tlhrough a hose (not shown) attached to the gas outlet We claim:

1. A light-weight, portable anesthesia apparatus comprising: a flow meter panel; a clamp attached to said panel and adapted to clamp the apparatus to a flat support; at least one flexible tube connected to said panel and to a source of anesthetic gas; an oxygen manifold connected to the panel; a flexible hose connecting a source of oxygen to the manifold; a liquid anesthetic vaporizer connected with the manifold and having a transparent body of low heat conductivity and a metal head; a liquid anesthetic in said vaporizer; valve means associated with the manifold for regulating the flow of oxygen to the vaporizer; an inlet passage and an outlet passage in the vaporizer head; a nebulizer body telescoped into the inlet passage; a sealing means between the inner end, of the.

nebulizer body and the inlet passage wall; a second sealing means between the nebulizer body and the outer end of the inlet passage walls; an axial passage through the nebulizer body, said passage having a section of reduced diameter at the inner end of the nebulizer body; a jet body in a portion of the nebulizer passage axially, outwardly spaced from the reduced diameter section to provide a space between the nebulizer body and the jet body; an oxygen jet, smaller than the nebulizer passage, in the jet body; a suction tube attached to the vaporizer head and leading from the space to a position below the level of liquid anesthetic in the vaporizer body; baflle means projecting from the vaporizer head between the nebulizer passage and the outlet passage for deflecting gases from said nebulizer passage downwardly across the liquid anesthetic surface; an anesthetic inlet opening in the vaporizer head above and directly in front of the nebulizer passage; an anesthetic reservoir above and connected to the anesthetic inlet; a sharp spike at the bottom of said reservoir; a top threaded on said reservoir and adapted to force a can of anesthetic against the spike; an interrupter valve connected to the vaporizer outlet and including a housing having an anesthetic gas inlet connected to a gas outlet, and an oxygen inlet connected to said outlet; a slidable valve body in the housing; an enlarged head on said valve body closing the oxygen inlet and exposed to the full pressure of gas in said inlet; and a normally open passage connecting the anesthetic gas inlet with the gas outlet, said passage being closed by the valve body when pressure against the valve body head moves said valve to open the oxygen passage.

2. A light-weight, portable anesthesia apparatus comprising: a flow meter panel; a clamp attached to said panel and adapted to fit a flat support and to support said panel; a flexible tube connecting a source of anesthetic gas to said panel; a second flexible tube connecting a source of oxygen to said panel; a vaporizer containing a. liquid anesthetic and having a transparent body and a metal head; means associated with the panel for regulating the flow of oxygen therethrough; means connecting the panel with the vaporizer so as to pass a regulated flow of oxygen from the panel to the vaporizer; a nebulizer passage and an oxygen jet, smaller than said nebulizer passage, in the vaporizer head, said oxygen jet being axially spaced from the nebulizer passage to provide a space between said jet and said passage; a suction tube attached to the vaporizer head, connecting with said space and extending into the liquid anesthetic; an outlet in the vaporizer head; means projecting from the vaporizer head between the nebulizer passage and the outlet for deflecting gases from the nebulizer passage downwardly across the liquid anesthetic surface; an anesthetic inlet passing through the vaporizer head in front of the nebulizer passage; a reservoir connected to saidinlet; means in said reservoir for opening a can of liquid anesthetic; an interrupter valve spaced from the vaporizer and connected thereto by a means for passing gases from the vaporizer to said valve, said interrupter valve including a housing having an anesthetic inlet, an oxygen inlet and an outlet; valve means in the oxygen inlet to normally close said inlet, but adapted to open said inlet while closing the anesthetic inlet when gas pressure in the inlet increases.

3. In a gas anesthesia apparatus, an interrupter valve comprising: a valve housing having an oxygen inlet, an anesthetic gas inlet, a gas outlet, an oxygen passage connecting the oxygen inlet to the gas outlet, and an anesthetic gas passage connecting the anesthetic gas inlet to said gas outlet; a slidable valve body in said housing, one end of said valve body normally being located in the anesthetic gas inlet adjacent the anesthetic gas passage, whereby pressure in said anesthetic gas inlet urges the valve body toward the oxygen inlet; an enlarged head on the other end of the valve body, said head being located in the oxygen inlet, being exposed to the full pressure of the gas therein, and normally closing the oxygen passage; and a spring acting against the valve bodyto also urge the head into the oxygen inlet; said valve being reversible by increased gas pressure in the oxygen inlet to slidably move the valve away from said inlet so that the oxygen passage is opened while the end of the valve body opposite the head advances into the anesthetic inlet and closes the anesthetic gas passage.

4. In a gas anesthesia apparatus, an interrupter valve as set forth in claim 3 wherein the end of the body opposite the head first closes the anesthetic gas passage and the head then opens the oxygen passage when the valve is reversed.

5. In a gas anesthesia apparatus, an interrupter valve as set forth in claim 3 wherein the spring is enclosed by a portion of the housing and a vent through said portion of the housing connects with the gas outlet.

6. In a portable, light-weight, anesthesia apparatus, a vaporizer comprising: a vaporizer head; a transparent head removably attached to said head; a liquid anesthetic in said body; gas inlet and outlet passages in said head; a nebulizer body in said inlet passage; an annular space between a portion of the nebulizer body and a portion of the inlet passage; means between said nebulizer body and the head for preventing leakage; a nebulizer passage in the nebulizer body; a jet body within said nebulizer body; means between said nebulizer and jet bodies for preventing gas leakage from outside the vaporizer; an oxygen jet, smaller than the nebulizer passage, in the jet body; a space between the jet body and the nebulizer body; a passage through the nebulizer body connecting said space to the annular space between the nebulizer body and the inlet passage; a suction tube attached to the vaporizer head, extending into the liquid-anesthetic and connecting with the annular space; a baffle attached to the vaporizer head between the nebulizer passage and the outlet passage directing the gases downwardly toward the liquid anesthetic surface; an anesthetic inlet located in the vaporizer head above and di rectly in front of the nebulizer passage; a reservoir associated with the anesthetic inlet; a spike in the bottom of said reservoir; a passage at the base of said spike connecting the reservoir with the anesthetic inlet; means associated with the reservoir for closing the top of the reservoir and for forcing a can of anesthetic down against the spike; and valve means on the passage between the reservoir and the anesthetic inlet for controlling the flow of anesthetic from the reservoir to the vaporizer.

7. In a portable, light-weight, anesthesia apparatus, a vaporizer comprising: a vaporizer head; a body removably attached to said head; gas inlet and outlet passages in said head; a nebulizer body in said inlet passage; a nebulizer passage in the nebulizer body; a jet body within said nebulizer body; an oxygen jet, smaller than the nebu lizer passage, in the jet body; a space between the jet body and nebulizer body; a suction tube attached to the vaporizer head and connecting said space with the lower portion of the vaporizer body; a baffle attached to the vaporizer head between the nebulizer passage and the outlet passage directing the gases away from the outlet passage; an anesthetic inlet located in the vaporizer head in front of the nebulizer passage; a reservoir connected to said inlet; means in the bottom of said reservoir for puncturing a can of anesthetic; and valve means associated with the anesthetic inlet for controlling the flow of liquid anesthetic from the reservoir to the anesthetic inlet.

8. In a portable anesthesia apparatus, a vaporizer comprising: a vaporizer head; a body attached to said head; gas inlet and outlet passages in the head; a nebulizer passage and an oxygen jet in said inlet passage; a space between the oxygen jet and the nebulizer passage; a suction tube attached to the vaporizer head and connecting the vaporizer body to said space; means attached to the vaporizer head between the nebulizer passage and '2 v the outlet passage for trapping out droplets of liquid anesthetic; an anesthetic inlet located in the vaporizer head in front of the nebulizer passage; and valve means associated with the anesthetic inlet for controlling the addition of anesthetic through said inlet.

9. In a gas anesthesia apparatus, a vaporizer comprising: a head; a body attached to said head; a gas inlet and a gas outlet in said head; a nebulizer in said inlet; a suction tube attached to the head adjacent the nebulizer and extending into the body; a liquid anesthetic inlet in the head in front of the nebulizer; valve means associated with the anesthetic inlet for controlling addi tion of liquid anesthetic through said inlet, whereby drops of liquid anesthetic can be admitted to the vaporizer in front of the nebulizer so as to increase the anesthetic concentration above that normally supplied by the nubulizer; and an open, unobstructed passage from the valve means to the anesthetic inlet.

10. in a gas anesthesia apparatus, an interrupter valve comprising: a housing having a continuous outer wall; an oxygen inlet in one end of said housing; an anesthetic gas inlet and a gas outlet in the opposite end of said housing; means on the inlets and the outlet for connecting tubular passageways thereto in a leak-proof manner; an oxygen passage and an anesthetic gas passage Within the housing connecting the oxygen inlet and the anesthetic gasinlet respectively to the gas outlet; a valve body normally closing the oxygenpassage and normally opening the anesthetic gas passage and arranged to always close at least one of said passages; an enlarged head on the valve, body, said head being located in the oxygen inlet and exposed to the full pressure of the gas therein; a spring acting against the head; and a vent in the housing wall around the spring for porting trapped gas into the gas outlet.

11. A portable. anesthesia apparatus comprising: means connecting the apparatus to self supported gas sources; means on the apparatus for providing a regulated flow of oxygen to a patient; means on the apparatus for pro-. viding a second regulated flow of oxygen; :1 liquid anesa thetic vaporizer connected with the means providing the second regulated flow of oxygen, said vaporizer including a body, a nehulizer, suction means connecting the nebulizer to the lower portion of the vaporizer body; an outlet, and means attached to the head between the nebulizer and said outlet for trapping out droplets of anesthetic; an interrupter valve connected to the vaporizer outlet, said valve including a housing having an oxygen passage and an anesthetic passage; and means in said housing for automatically closing the anesthetic passage when the oxygen passage is open.

12. In an anesthesia apparatus, a vaporizer comprising: a head including gas inlet and outlet passages; a body attached to said head; walls defining an oxygen jet in the inlet passage; walls defining a nebulizer passage in the inlet passage, the walis of the nebulizer passage being spaced axially inwardly from the walls of the oxygen jet so as to define a space between the respective ends of the jet and the nebulizer passage; a passage in the Walls of the nebulizer passage connecting said space to a portion of the inlet passage; a suction tube attached to the head, connecting with said portion of the inlet passage and extending into the vaporizer body; and a means attached to the head between the nebulizer passage and the outlet passage for trapping out droplets of liquid anesthetic.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,655,286 Barbaro Oct. 13, 1953 2,705,501 Fritzsch q, Apr. 5,, 1955,

2,856,922 ahan Oct. 21, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS 6,312 Great Britain May '7, 1903 107,990 Great Britain Oct. 12, 1916 561,107 Germany Oct. 10, 1932

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Classifications
U.S. Classification128/200.21, 128/203.21, 261/DIG.650, 128/204.14, 128/203.25
International ClassificationA61M16/10, A61M16/18, A61M11/06
Cooperative ClassificationA61M16/104, Y10S261/65, A61M11/06, A61M16/183
European ClassificationA61M16/10B, A61M16/18F