|Publication number||US3022942 A|
|Publication date||Feb 27, 1962|
|Filing date||Sep 25, 1956|
|Priority date||Sep 25, 1956|
|Publication number||US 3022942 A, US 3022942A, US-A-3022942, US3022942 A, US3022942A|
|Inventors||Veen Anton Van|
|Original Assignee||Veen Anton Van|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (9), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 27, 1962 A. VAN VEEN 3,022,942
HAND OPERATED CALCULATING DEVICE Filed Sept. 25. 1956 2 Sheets-Sfieet 1- III/II lNVEN'TOR ANTON VANVEEN 5 AT TO FQ-NEY Feb. 27, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Sept. 25. 1956 FIC5-3 INVENTOR ANTON VANVEIEIN ATTORNEY States This invention relates to calculating machines and more particularly to a hand-operated machine that may be used to add and subtract by units and by multiples of units such as tens, hundreds, thousands, and also to perform some multiplying and dividing operations.
- A primary object of the present invention is to incorporate in a simple hand-operated machine of the aboveidentified type, mechanism enabling units, tens, hundreds, etc., to be added or subtracted to or from a previous total so that the net result of a number of additions and subtractions may be obtained, the result being directly readable.
Also it is an object of the invention to provide in a simple hand-operated device, means to perform simple multiplying by successive additions.
- A feature enabling the above objects to be accomplished is that rotatable digit wheels are mounted in axial alignment and are actuated in one direction of rotation to add and actuated in the opposite direction to subtract, separate operating levers being provided for each digit wheel, one set of levers being used for adding and the other set of levers being used for subtracting.
. Another feature of importance of the invention is that the same levers used for adding are usable for successive additions to accomplish multiplication operations.
Another feature of importance is that a metal cover is provided to enclose the supporting frame and operating mechanism which may be resiliently snapped into its operative position, the corners of the cover being bent inwardly-about the body member to prevent lateral movement of the cover, and openings being provided in the upper portion of the cover through which actuating levers for the digit wheels may extend and through which the digits on the wheels may be viewed.
Another feature of importance enabling the above mentioned functions to be accomplished is that each of the digit wheels is provided with one or more series of circumferentially spaced notches or grooves on its periphery, the single series being used for rotating the wheels in opposite directions, and when two series of grooves are used, these series of grooves preferably are positioned on opposite sides of the annular series of digit numerals, and each series rotates the wheels in one direction only.
Another object-of importance of the invention is to provide locking or detent means for the digit w eels to accurately locate andretain the digit wheels in their indexed positions and prevent their inadvertent rotation, resiliently mounted levers being provided for this purpose which engage angular notches provided therefor in the peripheries of the digit wheels.
And finally it is an object of the invention to provide an improved form of operating lever mechanism for indexing the individual digit wheels by units, tens, etc., the result of any series of operations being directly indicated by the final position of the digit wheels.
With the above and other objects in view, the invention may include the features of construction and operation set forth in the following drawings.
In the accompanying drawings annexed hereto and forming a part of this specification, I have shown the invention embodied in a hand-operated desk type calculating machine but it will be understood that the invention can be otherwise embodied and that the drawings are not to be construed as defining or limiting the scope of atent ice the invention, the claims appended to this specification being relied upon for that purpose.
in the drawings:
FIG. 1 is an outside perspective view of a complete device made in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a transverse sectional view of the counter shown in FIG. 1, the section being taken on the plane of line 2-2 in FIGS. 1 and 3;
FIG. 3 is a plan view of the counter shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the outside cover having been removed;
PEG. 4 is a fragmentary transverse sectional view similar to FIG. 2, showing the parts on one side only of the digit wheels in other operative positions;
FIG. 5 is a detached sectional view of a modified form of digit wheel the section being taken on line 5-5 of Pro. 6;
FIG. 6 is a central section of the wheel shown in FIG. 5, and taken on the plane of line 6-6, and
FIG. 7 is a detail of the cover retaining means.
In the above mentioned drawings, there has been shown but one embodiment of the invention, and a modified form of digit wheel, which are now deemed preferable, but it is to be understood that other changes and modications may be made withinthe scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.
This application includes some of the mechanism shown in my co-pending application, Serial No. 461,209, filed October 8, 1954, now Patent No. 2,818,214, issued Dec. 31, 1957.
Briefly, and in its broadest aspect, the invention may include the following principal par-ts: first, a base or frame over which a cover may be positioned; second, a plurality of digit wheels or disks mounted for rotation on a single transverse horizontal shaft supported in the base or frame, the digits on their periphery being observable through openings in the cover; third, indexing notches formed about the periphery of each digit wheel preferably on either side of the digits; fourth, an annular series of detent notches formed on the periphery of the digit wheels; fifth, operating levers including a pivotally mounted oscillating frame on one side of the wheel supporting shaft for rotating the digit wheels in one direction for adding operations; sixth, operating levers including a pivotally mounted oscillating frame on the opposite side of the wheel supporting shaft for rotating the digit wheels in the opposite direction for subtracting operations; and seventh, resiliently pressed levers engaging the detent notches in the digit wheels to resiliently retain said digit wheels in their indexed position.
Referring more in detail to the figures of the drawings, it will be seen that the device includes a base or body member 10 having a horizontal transverse shaft 12 extending from side to side on which are rotatably mounted several digit Wheels 14 in close alignment. The base or frame 19 may have small pads 11 of rubber or other resilient material secured to the corners thereof for supporting the base. The cover 13 as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 is of sheet metal which may be snapped in place. As indicated in FIG. 7, the corners of the inwardly bent edges of the cover 13 are slightly crimped to prevent lateral movement of the cover as shown at 19. The cover 13 also is provided with a series of openings 15 through which the digits may be viewed. Also there are two similar series of openings 17 through which the actuating levers for the digit wheel operating mechanism operates.
In the present embodiment of the invention illustrated in the drawings four of these wheels 14 are provided so that operations resulting in totals up to 9,999 may be made. Each wheel 14 has an annular series of digits 16 from 0 to 9 equaily spaced apart and extending about its periphery. On each side of the series of'digits 16 in the seasons embodiment of the invention shown in FiGS. l to are indexing notches 18 and 20, there being ten of these notches il'l eacn series on the periphery of the wheels 14. One notch in each series r'lti and an is substarmany deeper than the others to effect indexing of ad acent digit Wheels in the usual manner. On one side of eacn wheel 14 also is an annular series of angular detent notches 22. lreterably and as shown in the drawings, the digit wheels 14 are moulded or otherwise formed 111 a single piece including the series of notches and central operung forming their bearing on the central shaft 12.
On the right side of digit wheel shaft 12 as seen in FIG. 2, hereinafter referred to as the addition side, is a frame 24 p-ivotally mounted for oscillation thereon and on which are mounted individual levers 26 each having a projection 28 adapted to enter the notches of a digit wheel 14. Each of the projections 28 on the levers 26 is of equal length and each is designed to enter the indexing notches of the digit wheel directly adjacent its lever 26. Stop means are provided for limiting the swinging movement of the frames 24. These means comprise a transverse horizontal shaft 38 which bears against abutments 32 on the frame 24 when the frame is moved to either of its extreme positions. Each of the individual wheel engaging levers 26 is pivotally mounted in the frame 24 on a shaft 34 extending parallelly with the shaft 12 on which the digit wheels 14 are mounted. By manually depressing an actuating lever 36 one of the individual levers 26 is moved first to engage its projection 28 with one of the notches 18 on its digit wheel 14. Further downward movement of the actuating lever 36 serves to oscillate the frame 24 with the levers 26 and index the particular digit wheel 14 engaged by the projection 28. The distance rotated or indexed by the wheel 14 for each downward movement or" an actuating lever 36 is equal to the spacing between the successive digits on the wheel. The frame 24 is retained resiliently in its upper or inoperative position by a coiled spring 38 to be described more in detail presently and the frame 24 returns to this inoperative position as soon as the actuating lever 36 is released.
The individual levers 26 are resiliently retained in their upper positions by separate springs 39 as shown in FIG. 2. The intermediate portion of each spring 39 is wrapped around the shaft 34 with its ends bearing against surfaces of the frame 24 and levers 26.
Each of the individual wheel engaging levers 26 carried by the frame 24 has an upper edge 27 extending slightly above the upper edge of the frame. The first movement of these levers 26 by their actuating levers 36 therefore is clockwise about the axis of shaft 34 while the frame 24 remains in its inoperative position. This movement of the lever 26 engages its projection 28 with one of the notches 18 of its digit wheel 14. Further movement of the actuating lever 36 swings the individual lever 26 with the frame 24 downward about the axis of the shaft 12 on which the digit wheels 14 are mounted. This motion of the-frame 24 with the projection 28 on the individual lever 26 maintained in contact with one of the notches 18 serves to index the digit wheel 14 one space. When pressure is released from the actuating lever 36 the projection 28 is first retracted from the notch 18 by spring 39 and the frame 24 then swings upward to its inoperative position by the pressure of spring 38 as shown in FIG. 2.
It will be noted that the distance of the upper edge 27 on the individual lever 26 is sufficiently far above the edge 25 of the surface of the frame 24 that the lever 26 can oscillate far enough before movement of the frame begins for the projection 28 to fully enter the deep notch of its wheel if the deep notch is in position to be so entered.
Also formed on the individual operating levers 26, except for the lever for the wheel 14 for the highest order of digits, is a laterally extending arm or extension 40.
a As shown in FIG. 3, limited oscillating movement of one lever 26 is permitted prior to contact of the lateral extension 48 with the ad acent lever 26 for the next higher order. When one of the extensions 28 enters one of the shallow notches of its index wheel, lateral extension does not contact and oscillate its underlying lever 26. indexing only of the particular wheel engaged by the lever 26 depressed by its actuating lever 36 therefore takes place. The adjacent wheel 14 will not be indexed unless the lever 26 is oscillated at least partially into the deep notch of its index wheel. As the operation of indexing by means of individual levers 2 6 having overlapping lateral extensions 48 is described and Claimed in my co-pending application, a brief description only is thought to be necessary. It will be noted that each projection 28 on the levers 26 is of equal length. Also the spacing between the surface of the levers 2.6 and overlapping extension of an adjacent lever 26 is such that oscillation of a lever 26 does not oscillate an adjacent lever 26 unless the projection 28 on the first lever 26 enters a deep notch. This movement of a projection 28 into a deep notch engages the lateral extension 40 of its lever 26 with its adjacent lever 26 and causes its lever 26 to move its projection 28 into its index notch engaging position.
When it is desired to add one to a previous total, the units actuating lever 36 is depressed which engages projection 28 of its operating lever 26 with a notch 18 in the units digit wheels. If the projection 28 enters one of the shallow notches the only indexing movement is that of the units wheel 14 and does not touch projection 40 on the lever 26 adjacent thereto.
If, however, the "units lever projection 28 enters the deep notch in its wheel 14, the lever 28 is oscillated through a greater angle and far enough for its lateral projection 40 to engage and oscillate the lever 28 for the digit wheel of the next higher order. Both units and tens wheel, therefore, will be indexed simultaneously. If the units and tens lever projections simultaneously enter their deep notches but the hundreds" lever projection only enters a shallow notch and indexes its Wheel, the units, tens" and hundreds wheels will then also be simultaneously indexed.
The description so far has been limited to the indexing frame 24 and operating levers 26 on the addition side of the digit wheels 14. On this side rotations in one direction only are made while on the opposite or subtraction side of the digit wheels 14 operations are made which call for rotation of the wheels in the opposite direction. By depressing the actuating levers 36 on the opposite or subtraction side of the frame or base the digit wheels are rotated in the opposite direction from the rotation obtained by depressing an actuating lever on the side first referred to.
Normally the device will be used primarily for adding and subtracting. Additions are made by rotating the wheels in one direction while rotations in the opposite direction will effect subtractions. Multiplications, however, may be effected by repeated operation of the levers 26 in the direction of rotation used for additions.
The frame 24 and its operating levers 26 on the subtraction side for rotating the wheels in the opposite direction for subtractions are similar to those for effecting additions. However, the lateral extensions 40 on the lever 26 for subtraction side extend from the opposite side of the levers so that the extensions 40 for the levers 26 for both directions of rotation extend to overlap and actuate the wheel 14 for the next higher order of digits when a projection 28 enters one of the deep notches.
The indexing operation for subtraction operations on this side of frame 24 is similar to that for additions and multiplications on the other side of the frame as described above. When one of the projections 28 enters a deep notch in its wheel the adjacent wheel 14 for the next higher order of digits is also indexed. Calculations involving several successive operations can be carried out, the final result being indicated when the final operation has been made.
By reference to FIG. 4 which shows a section through the addition side of the device it will be seen that the actuating levers 36 on the subtracting side of the frame 24 are resiliently retained in their upper positions by springs 42 the intermediate portion of which extend around the shafts 44- on which the levers 36 are pivotally mounted. One of the ends of each of these springs 42 bears against an under surface of the lever 36. The other or lower ends of these springs 42 for the series of levers 26 on the opposite side of the wheels 14 bear against a transversely extending shaft 46 as shown in FIG. 2 which also serves to limit the movement upward of the actuating lever 36 toward its inoperative position. The lower ends of the springs 42 for the actuating levers 36 on the addition side of the digit wheels 14 rest against the outer ends of detent levers 48 for the wheels 14. Each of these levers 48, one for each digit wheel, is pivoted on a horizontal transversely extending shaft 50 and their inner ends engage within the detent notches 22 in the peripheries of the wheels 14. These levers have angular or wedge shaped ends 49 as shown in FIGS. 2 and 4 restraining but not preventing rotation of the wheels 14 in either direction. Indexing movement of a wheel 14 forces its detent lever 48 out of engagement from its notch against the pressure of the actuating lever spring 42. Movement downward of the actuating lever 36 to index a wheel 14,on the addition side of the frame 24 increases the pressure of the spring 42 on the detent lever 48. A shaft 51 on the addition side of the wheels 14 corresponding to shaft 46 on the subtraction side serves to limit the upper position of the actuating levers 36.
The digit wheels 14 described above have separate annular series of indexing notches 18 and 20 respectively for rotations in opposite directions. Each of these Series of notches on each digit wheel has but one notch of greater depth. FIGS. 5 and 6 show a modified form of wheel 14 which has one series only of notches. This series, however, has two deep notches 52 and 54, one of the deep notches being used only for rotation of the wheel in one direction and the other only for rotation in the opposite direction. This series of notches includes also eight shallow grooves 56. A series of these wheels 14 such as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6 may be substituted for those shown in FIGS. 1 to 4. It is only essential that the projections 28 on the operating levers 26 for indexing each wheel in opposite direction engage the series of indexing notches. It will be noted that the notches 52 and 54 have their contours reversed, there being an angle formed on one side of each of the notches. One of the deep notches 52 or 54 permits a projection 28 to freely enter the full depth of the notch to rotate the wheel 14 in one direction. The lever 26 on the opposite side of the wheel 14 enters the other of the deep notches 52 or 54 to index the wheel in the opposite direction.
When a projection 28 enters one of the shallow notches 56 the indexing of the particular wheel 12 only is indexed.
I claim as my invention:
1. A hand calculating device comprising in combination, a base, a plurality of aligned digit wheels rotatably mounted therein, said wheels having two series of indexing notches on their peripheries, one notch of each series being of greater depth than the others, a series of levers having members engaging one of said series of said notches for individually rotating said digit wheels in one direction, and a second series of levers having members engaging said second series of said notches for rotating said digit wheels in the opposite direction, whereby additions and subtractions may be made with respect to previous totals and a final total directly indicated.
2. A hand calculating device comprising in combination, a base, a plurality of digit wheels rotatably mounted therein, said wheels having annular series of indexing notches on each side 'of their peripheries, a series of levers having members engaging one of said series of said notches for individually rotating said digit wheels in one direction, and a second series of levers having members engaging the second of said series of notches for rotating said digit wheels in the opposite direction, whereby additions and subtractions of previous totals may be made and a final total directly indicated.
v 3. A hand calculating device comprising in combination, a base, a plurality of digit wheels rotatably mounted therein, said wheels having annular series of indexing notches on each side of their peripheries, one notch of the series on each wheel being of greater depth than the others, a series of levers having members engaging said notches for individually rotating said wheels in one direction, and a second series of levers having members engaging said series of notches for rotating said digit wheels in the opposite direction, whereby additions and subtractions of previous totals may be made and a final total indicated.
4. A hand calculating device comprising in combination, a base, a plurality of digit wheels rotatably mounted therein, said wheels having two annular series of indexing notches on their peripheries, a series of levers having members engaging one series of said notches for individually indexing said digit wheels in one direction, and a second series of levers having members engaging the second series of notches for rotating said digit wheels in the opposite direction, whereby additions and subtractions of previous totals may be made and a final total indicated.
5. In a hand calculating device for adding and subtracting operations, a plurality of rotatably mounted digit wheels therein, two series of indexing notches on each of said wheels, a series of levers severally engaging one series of notches on individual wheels to step by step index said wheels in one direction, and a series of levers severally engaging the other series of notches on said wheels to step by step index said wheels in the opposite direction, whereby additions and subtractions of previous totals may be made.
6. A hand calculating device comprising in combination, a base, a plurality of rotatably mounted digit wheels therein, two annular series of indexing notches on each of said wheels, an annular series of detent notches on said wheels, a series of levers operatively engaging one series of indexing notches to rotate said wheels in one direction, another series of levers operatively engaging the other series of indexing notches to rotate said wheels in the opposite direction, and spring pressed levers engaging said detent notches in said wheels to resiliently retain said digit wheels in their successively indexed positions.
7. A hand calculating device comprising in combination, a base, a plurality of rotatably mounted digit wheels therein, two series of indexing notches on said wheels, an annular series of detent notches on said wheels, two series of levers operatively engaging said indexing notches to rotate said wheels in opposite directions respectively, dc tent levers engaging said detent notches to resiliently retain said digit wheels in their successively indexed positions, and springs having one of their ends bearing against the ends of said detent levers, the opposite end of said spring bearing against an under surface of said operating lever, whereby depressing an operating lever will increase the pressure of said springs.
8. A multiple calculating device comprising in combination, a base, a plurality of aligned digit wheels mounted therein, oscillating frames within said base on each side and adjacent said wheels, individual levers on said frames movable to engage said digit wheels, lateral extensions on each of said levers overlapping but slightly spaced from its adjacent lever, and an individual hand-operated lever for oscillating each wheel engaging lever and said frame.
9. A multiple calculating device comprising in combination, a base, a plurality of aligned digit wheels mounted 3,022,962 7 therein, oscillating frames within said base on each side of adjacent said wheels, individual levers on each of said frames movable to engage said digit wheels, said levers having a surface above the upper edge of said oscillat- 335374 Maxey f ing frame and having lateral extensions overlapping an 5 1809386 Von .Bechtolshelm adjacent lever, and hand-operated levers individually engaging said wheel engaging levers, whereby depressing 2 3; i g 1951 one of said hand-operated levers first oscillates a wheel 2818214 i Veen engaging lever and continued downward movement osciln lates said frame with the lever in wheel engaging posi- 10 FOREIGN PATENTS tion. 680,580 Great Britain Oct. 8,
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|U.S. Classification||235/82.00R, D18/6, 235/79, 235/135, 235/117.00R, 235/117.00A|
|International Classification||G06M1/14, G06M1/00, G06M3/14, G06M3/00|
|Cooperative Classification||G06M3/14, G06M1/143|
|European Classification||G06M3/14, G06M1/14B|