|Publication number||US3023130 A|
|Publication date||Feb 27, 1962|
|Filing date||Aug 6, 1959|
|Priority date||Aug 6, 1959|
|Publication number||US 3023130 A, US 3023130A, US-A-3023130, US3023130 A, US3023130A|
|Inventors||Quaas Joseph F, Wasserman Rene D|
|Original Assignee||Eutectic Welding Alloys|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (29), Classifications (21)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 27, 1962 R. D. WASSERMAN ETAL 3,023,130
HARD SURFACING MATERIAL Filed Aug. 6, 1959 DISCRETE REFRACTORY 201 1421) CARBIDE PARTICLES INVENTORS V RENE D.MSSERMAN JOSZ'PIFFQ UAss ATTORNEYS to the base metal. porates very hard alloying agents such as cobalt, molyb- Uited States Patent 3,023,130 Patented Feb. 27, 1962 Free 3,023,130 HARD SURFACING MATERIAL Rene D. Wasserman, Stamford, Conn., and Joseph F.
Quaas, Island Park, N.Y., assignors to Eutectic Welding Alloys Corporation, Flushing, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Aug. 6, 1959, Ser. No. 831,937 Claims. (Cl. 117205) This invention relates to a material which deposits a hard surface upon a base metal, and more particularly relates to such a material which incorporates refractory carbide hard particles bound within a matrix metal.
Hard surfacing materials are widely used at present for applying a hard surface to a base metal to protect this base metal from abrasive wear. These surfaced metals are, for example, used to provide wear-resistant surfaces for tools which are subjected to severe abrasive wear in use such as hand and power shovels, and various types of cutting tools.
A widely used type of surfacing material of this kind incorporates hard particles such as refractory carbides held within a matrix which maintains them firmly bound One type of such matrix metal incordenum or vanadium or the like, as described in US. Letters Patent No. 2,280,223. Another type of matrix metal currently in use is a softer material, for example, a copper base alloy. These types of matrix metals have been chosen in accordance wth two of the presently accepted theories concerning the desired properties of hard surfacing materials. Harder matrices themselves enhance the toughness of the deposited material, and the softer matrix metals mainly are chosen for their ability to secure hard particles to the base metals. Since the softer materials wear away quite readily, the harder surfaces of the particles are maintained exposed, which is particularly advantageous in conjunction with surface cutting tools. The hard overlays deposited by these types of matrix materials have been reasonably successful for particular applications compatible with their specifice properties. However, they have not been as universally resistant to wear, abrasion, corrosion, heat and impact over widely varying conditions of use as might be desired. a
An object of this invention is to accordingly provide a hard surfacing material which is unusually resistant to wear, abrasion, corrosion, heat and impact over a wide variety of service conditions.
In accordance with this invention, a hard surfacing material incorporates refractory carbide hard particles bound within a matrix which consists essentially of a stainless steel composition having a chromium content ranging from 10 to 32 parts by weight and a nickel content ranging from 1 to parts by weight. This matrix is remarkably adherent both to the common base metals and to refractory hard particles such as tungsten carbide particles. Furthermore, their deposited overlay is remarkably resistant to wear, abrasion, corrosion, heat and impact for reasons that are not completely understood. However, the toughness and ductility of this type of matrix might contribute to its eifcctivenes without impairing the ability of the hard particles to function as remarkably effective cutting agents without undue generation of heat. The hard particles may be associated in a rod or electrode with the matrix by incorporation in a flux coating or by insertion within a tube made of the matrix metal.
Novel features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent to one skilled in the art from a reading of the following description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein similar reference characters refer to similar parts and in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of one embodiment of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of another embodiment of this invention;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken through FIG. 1, along the line 3-3, and;
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of another embodiment of this invention.
FIG. 5 is a cross sectional view of valve stem with a coating as formed by the invention.
One extremely effective form of this invention incorporates a stainless steel matrix metal composition which consists essentially of the following formulation in parts by weight:
Constituent Proportional Preferred range example 05/. 20 0. 12 0. 50/2. 00 1. 25 1 2. 00 0. 50 0 10/4. 00 0. 50 O3 0. 015 030 0. 020 10. 00132.00 31.00 1. 00/20. 00 9.00 Balance Balance 1 Maximum.
Refractory hard carbide particles ranging in particle size, for example, from 10 to 325 mesh are associated with this matrix. This association as shown in FIGS. 1 and 3 is, for example, accomplished by intermingling carbide particles 10 such as tungsten carbide of the recited particle size within a flux coating 12 deposited upon. a rod 14 formed of the aforementioned stainless steel matrix composition. This coating is, for example, formed of one of the alkaline earth compositions described in U.S. Letters Patent 2,820,725 such as the following composition, and as much as 60% by weight of this coating may be formed of the aforementioned hard particles.
A particular example of an effective embodiment of this invention includes the foregoing preferred matrix and flux compositions incorporating 40% of tungsten carbide particles of 40 to mesh with the core rod being .1875 inch in diameter, and the coating being .270 inch in radial thickness.
Instead of tungsten carbide the refractory carbide particles may also be advantageously made of other formulations such as silicon, chromium, titanium and other similar carbides. 'Ihis surfacing material is remarkably adherent to a wide variety of base metals such as various steels including mild, low alloys, medium carbon, freemachining and manganese steels. Furthermore, other types of metals such as stainless alloys, copper and copper alloys are also effectively surfaced. When a rod .formed of the aforementioned composition is used to coat or surface a base metal, it imparts unexpectedly high resistance to corrosion, heat, abrasion and wear. Furthermore, the deposited surface material has unusually effective resistance to impact over a wide temperature range including very high, normal and sub-zero temperatures. This universal ability of the matrix material to function effectively over a wide variety of service conditions is remarkable in comparison to the rather limited serviceability of heretofore utilized hard surfacing compositions.
The aforementioned type of hard surfacing rod may also be effectively formed as shown in FIG. 2 by shaping a strip of the matrix metal composition as a cylindrical tube 16, and filling it with a flux 18 of the aforementioned composition incorporating the previously mentioned hard particle content 20. This tube is made, for example, by shaping a strip of the matrix metal into a cylinder on a forming machine and then filling it with hard particles and flux. As much as 50% of the formed wire by weight may consist of hard particles. After this strip has been formed and filled, it is drawn through a finishing die to compact the finished rod and make it uniform in content. A highly effective tube formed in this manner will utilize a strip of matrix which ranges, for example, from .010 inch to .125 inch thick with an initial tubular outside diameter ranging from 0.0625 inch to .375 and, preferably .020 inch thick with a .094 inch initial O.D. After being drawn through the die, the tube will, for example, range in outside diameter from inch to A inch. A particularly effective example of this embodiment of the invention is made of a matrix strip .025 inch in thickness formed and drawn into a tube .094 inch in OD. packed with a mixture of the aforementioned preferred flux composition incorporating 30 to 40% by weight of tungsten carbide particles of 40 to 100 mesh.
This formed wire may be coiled as shown in FIG. 4 and cut into certain specific weights. These coiled rods may be used in conjunction with automatic or semi-automatic welding processes. They can also be deposited by either the open are or the submerged arc process. Flux can be fed through a hopper together with the alloy wire. Furthermore, this wire can be deposited by the inert arc process in which inert gases such as argon, helium and mixtures thereof are used as protective blankets within the arc.
A matrix formulation of the type described herein may be deposited by using a matrix metal of the desired ultimate composition, or it may be provided by using a stainless steel composition which is deficient to some extent in a constituent such as chromium which is inserted in powder form in the required additive amount within a tube formed of a chromium deficient matrix alloy of this invention. A tube of this metal may be accordingly formed of the following composition in parts by weight, and from 15 to 50 parts by weight of metal powder having a chromium content which may be, for example, chromium powder or ferrochromium powder incorpo- As previously mentioned, up to 50% of the formed wire may consist of this chromium containing metal powder and flux may or may not be also incorporated within the tube. This latter type of electrode is a relatively economical method of providing deposited overlays having the remarkably efiective characteristics of this invention. A particular example of this type of rod is made in a .similar manner to the tube previously described in which the inserted flux contains, for example,
40% by weight of hard particles, or in which no flux at all is combined with the hard particles.
An exceptionally effective application of this hard surfacing material is, for example, demonstrated as shown in FIG. 5 by building up a layer of this hard surfacing material including matrix metal 24 and hard particles 26 upon a base 28 of ordinary steel in the form of a forging die used for manufacturing a valve stem. This overlay was deposited upon a base of ordinary steel of which a small portion including the overlay was cut off and welded upon a copper base. The resultant die operated with remarkable efficiency in forging a valve stem with the heavy copper base helping to eliminate heat created during the forging operation and cushioning impact forces. Similar tools formerly made of other hard surfacing materials lasted only a few hours under preheats of as much as 900 C. in contrast to the die formed in accordance with this invention which has operated as long as 200 hours under such severe service conditions.
What is claimed is:
1. A hard surfacing material comprising a matrix metal consisting essentially of the following formulation in parts by weight Constituent: Range in parts by weight Carbon -Q. .05/.20 Manganese 0.50/2.00 Silicon 2.00 max. Molybdenum 0.10/ 4.00 Phosphorus .030 max. Sulfur .030 max. Chromium 1000/3200 Nickel 1.00/ 20.00 Iron Balance and discrete refractory carbide hard particles of 10 to 325 mesh particle size ranging from 10 to 60% by weight of said matrix metal associated with said matrix metal by attachment to a body including said matrix and said particles.
2. A hard surfacing material as set forth in claim 1 wherein said hard particles are made of tungsten carbide.
3. A hard surfacing material as set forth in claim 1 wherein said matrix metal is provided in the form of a rod, said rod being covered with a flux coating compatible with said matrix metal, and said hard particles being incorporated in said flux coating in an amount up to 60% by weight of said flux coating.
4. A hard surfacing material as set forth in claim 3 wherein said flux consists essentially of the following formulation- Constituent: Proportional range Titanium dioxide 20 to 35 Calcium fluoride 5 to 15 Calcium carbonate 15 to 25 Bentonite 2 to 8 Iron oxide 5 to 15 Manganese oxide 2 to 12 Calcium metasilicate 5 to 15 Aluminum oxide 0.5 to 10 Potassium titanate 10 to 20 5. A hard surfacing material as set forth in claim 3 wherein said flux consists essentially of the following formulation- 6. A hard surfacing material comprising a matrix metal approximately consisting of the following formulation in parts by weight- Constituent: Parts by weight Carbon .05/.20 Manganese 0.5 0/ 2.00 Silicon 2.00 max. Molybdenum 0. 4.00 Phosphorus .030 max. Sulfur .030 max. Chromium a- 10.00/ 32.00 Nickel 1.00/ 20.00
Iron Balance and discrete refractory hard carbide particles of 40 to 100 mesh in an amount approximately 40% by weight of said matrix metal being associated with said matrix metal by attachment to a body including said matrix and said particles.
7. A hard surfacing material comprising a matrix metal consisting essentially of the following formulation- Constituent: Percent by weight Carbon 0.08. Chromium 18.0 to 21.00. Nickel 9.0 to 11.00. Manganese 2.50. Silicon 0.09. Phosphorus 0.04. Sulfur 0.03. Iron Balance.
6 Constituent: Parts by weight Carbon 0.08. Chromium 18.0 to 21.00. Nickel 9.0 to 11.00. Manganese 2.50. Silicon 0.90. Phosphorus 0.04. Sulfur 0.03.
and approximately 40% by weight of said matrix metal of discrete refractory carbide hard particles of 40 to mesh, said matrix metal being formed into a cylindrical tube, said hard particles being inserted within said tube, and chromium metal powder of mesh being inserted within said tube with said hard particles, and said metal powder being present in an amount which is approximately 15% by weight of said matrix metal.
9. A hard surfaced body comprising a base metal, a hard surfacing material deposited upon said base metal, said hard surfacing material consisting essentially of the following formulation which is intimately interspersed an amount of discrete refractory carbide hard particles ranging in size from 10 to 325 mesh ranging up to 60% by weight of said base metal Constituent: Range in parts by weight Carbon .05 .20 Manganese 0.05 2.00 Silicon 2.00 max. Molybdenum 0. 10/ 4.00 Phosphorus .03 0 max. Sulfur .030 max. Chromium 10.00/ 32.00 Nickel 1.00/ 20.00 Iron Balance 10. A hard surfaced body as set forth in claim 9 wherein said hard particles are tungsten carbide.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,408,619 Friedlander Oct. 1, 1946 2,493,143 Ingels Jan. 3, 1950 2,632,835 Wasserman Mar. 24, 1953 2,745,771 Pease et a1. May 15, 1956 2,755,199 Rossheim et a1. July 17, 1956 2,802,756 Bloom Aug. 13, 1957 2,888,344 Noren May 26, 1959
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|U.S. Classification||428/367, 428/368, 75/240, 428/381, 428/564, 219/146.52, 219/146.51, 428/386, 428/565|
|International Classification||B24D3/04, B24D15/00, B24D3/08, B23K35/24, B23K35/32, B24D15/02|
|Cooperative Classification||B24D15/02, B24D3/08, B23K35/327|
|European Classification||B24D15/02, B23K35/32K, B24D3/08|