|Publication number||US3027333 A|
|Publication date||Mar 27, 1962|
|Filing date||Dec 30, 1957|
|Priority date||Dec 30, 1957|
|Publication number||US 3027333 A, US 3027333A, US-A-3027333, US3027333 A, US3027333A|
|Inventors||Nathan H Friedman|
|Original Assignee||Burton Parsons Chemicals Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (23), Classifications (24)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 3,027,333 ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE EMULSIONS Nathan H. Friedman, Stratford, Conn., assignor to Burton Parsons Chemicals, Inc., Washington, D.C., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Filed Dec. 30, 1957, Ser. No. 705,820 7 Claims. (Cl. 252-521) The present invention relates to electrically conductive systems, and particularly to a new and improved system for use with electrodes in making cardiograms.
Diiferent parts of the surface of the body have different resistances to the passage of electric current. Some skin may be dry and thick, whereas other skin may be moist and thin. Still other skin may be oily, and the degree of hair on skin varies widely. All of these skin characteristics act to vary the passage of electric current from the body of a patient to electrocardiographic equipment thereby providing erratic tracings.
The principal object of this invention is to provide a system that will act to enhance the passage of electric current between the body of a patient and electrocardiographic equipment. 1
Another object of this invention is to provide such a system that will be readily applied and readily removed without any resulting condition requiring cleansing.
Another object of the invention is to provide such a system that will not only cleanse the skin, but will provide high conductivity between the skin and electrocardiographic electrodes.
Another object of the invention is to provide such a system in which, when applied to the body of a patient, contact dermatitis is lessened while increased conductivity is provided.
Another object of this invention is to provide such a system in which the growth of bacteria, molds or yeast is inhibited.
One aspect of this invention may be to provide an aqueous system that may include a base of emulsified material of an anionic, cationic, non-ionic or amphoteric type.
Another aspect of the invention may be to include with said base, any salt suitable to act as a conductor for the passage of electric current from an electrode to the body of a patient.
Still another aspect of the invention may be to employ a bufier solution with the system in order to provide the degree of acidity corresponding substantially to the acid mantle of the body skin.
Finally, inhibitors for preventing the growth of bacteria, molds or yeast may be included, although such inhibitors may be dispensed with if the system is packaged in a pressure dispensing container of the type commonly known as aerosol packages.
The above as well as other objects and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following specification.
The base of the system forming this invention may comprise an aqueous system of an emuslified material which may be of an anionic, cationic, non-ionic or amphoteric type. Such non-ionic materials may be selected from the group including polyglycol fatty acids, Spans and Tweens and the like.
Span is the registered trademark of the Atlas Powder Company for a series of non-ionic surface active agents which are long chain fatty acid partial esters of hexitol anhydrides, including sorbitans, sorbides, mannitans, and mannides.
Tween is the registered trademark of the Atlas Powder Company for a series of non-ionic surface active agents which are polyoxy alkylene derivatives of hexitol anhydride partial long chain fatty acid esters.
3,027,333 Patented Mar. 27, 1962 "ice Percent Sodium chloride l-lO Potassium chloride l-l0 Sodium sulf e 1-10 or any highly ionizable salt in concentrations to achieve suitable conductivities.
Although the aqueous system of an emulsified material and a highly ionizable salt may be employed alone, should it be desired to produce a pH in the system that will correspond substantially to the acid mantle of the bodily skin, any one of many buifer solutions may be utilized, among which may be included a sodium citrate, a citric acid, or a phosphate buffer solution. The amount of bufier solution employed should be such as to produce a pH of between substantially 4.2 to 6.
Should the system be packaged in containers that are opened to the atmosphere during use, means may be required to prevent the growth of bacteria, molds or yeast. Such materials as esters of para-hydroxy benzoic acid or other suitable inhibitors may be employed. Should, however, the aqueous system be packaged in a pressure dispensing container of the type known as aerosol packages, the above inhibitors may not be required.
Examples of an aqueous system embodying the principles of this invention'are:
Non-ionic: Percentage Sodium nitrite 0.1 Non-ionic blend of ethylene oxide derivatives of lanolin-higher fatty alcohols 6.0 Cetyl alcohol 2.0 Sodium chloride 5.0 Glycerin 5.0 pH 5 Bufier solution 81.9
0f. T. C. MacIlvaine, Journal of Biol. Chem. 49, 183
(1921) C. J. Schollenberger, The Chemist-Analysist, 19, No.
Methylene bis-stearmide 10.0 Stearyl polyoxyethylamine 1.7 Glacial acetic acid 0.3 Sodium nitrit 0.1 Sodium chloride 5 .0 Glycerin 5.0 pH 5 Butler solution 77.9 Anionic:
Sodium lauryl sulfate 1.0 Glyceryl monostearate (free from soap) 11.0 Cetyl alcohol 1.0 Sodium nitrite 0.1 Sodium chloride 5.0 Glycerin 5.0 Water, distilled or de-ionized 76.9
Magnesium aluminum silicate 3.5 Sodium chloride 5.0 pH 5 Buffer solution 91.5
Cf. '1. C. Macllvaine, Journal of Biol. Chem. 49, 183 (1921) C. J. Schollenberger, The Chemist-Analysist, 19, No. 3, 8 (1930).
The above systems were packaged by introducing 142 grams of each into six-ounce containers which were then pressurized to about p.s.i. with nitrogen.
Although the various features of the new and improved electrically conductive system have been described in detail to fully disclose several embodiments of the invention, it will be evident that numerous changes may be made in such details and certain features may be used without others without departing from the principles of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. An electrically conductive stable emulsion for use with body contact electrodes of electrocardiograph equipment consisting essentially of water as a dispersion me dium, from about 3.5 to 11% of methylene bis stearamide in combination With about 1.0 to 1.7% of stearylpoly oxyethylamine as a liquid dispersion phase, from about 1 to 10% of a highly ionizable salt for controlling the electrical conductivity of the emulsion, said salt being a member selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride and sodium sulfate, and a bulfer solution in sufiicient amount to provide'an overall composition-pH of about that of the acid mantle of the skin.
2. The electrically conductive composition of claim 1 wherein the highly ionizable salt is sodium chloride.
3. The electrically conductive composition of claim 1 in which the overall pH is 4.2 to 6.
4. An electrically conductive stable emulsion for use with body contact electrodes of electrocardiograph equipment consisting essentially of water as a dispersion medium, from about 3.5 to 11% of glyceryl monostearate in combination with about 1.0 to 1.7% of sodium lauryl sulfate as a liquid dispersion phase, from about 1 to 10% of a highly ionizable salt for controlling the electrical conductivity of the emulsion, said salt being a member selected from the group'consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride and'sodium sulfate, and a buffer solution in sufiicient amount to provide an overall composition 3 pH of about that of the acid mantle of. the skin.
5. The electrically conductive composition of claim 4 wherein the highly ionizable salt is sodium chloride.
6. The electrically conductive composition of claim 4 in which the overall pH is 4.2 to 6.
7. In a method of making electrocardiograms utilizing skin contact electrodes, the improvement comprising ap plying between the electrodes and the skin an electrically conductive stable emulsion consisting essentially of water as a disperion medium, from about 3.5 to 11% of an emulsifiable water immiscible material in combination with about 1.0 to 1.7% of an emulsifying agent as the liquid dispersion phase, from about 1 to 10% of a highly ionizable salt for controlling the electrical conductivity of the emulsion, said salt being a member selected from the group-consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium sulfate, and a buffer solution in sufficient amount to provide an overall composition pH of about that of the acid'mantle of the body skin.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,534,204 Mowry Dec. 12, 1950 2,555,037 Jensen May 29, 1951 OTHER REFERENCES Bennett: The Chemical Formulary, vol. IX, page 117,
vol. X, page 61, pub. by Chemical Pub. Co., Brooklyn, NY
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|U.S. Classification||252/519.3, 600/372|
|International Classification||A61K33/14, A61N1/04, A61K33/00, A61K9/06, A61B5/0408, B01F17/00|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B5/04087, B01F17/005, A61N1/04, B01F17/0028, A61K9/06, A61K33/14, B01F17/0057, A61K33/00|
|European Classification||A61N1/04, A61K33/14, A61K33/00, A61K9/06, A61B5/0408F, B01F17/00K2, B01F17/00E2, B01F17/00M|