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Publication numberUS3027333 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 27, 1962
Filing dateDec 30, 1957
Priority dateDec 30, 1957
Publication numberUS 3027333 A, US 3027333A, US-A-3027333, US3027333 A, US3027333A
InventorsNathan H Friedman
Original AssigneeBurton Parsons Chemicals Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrically conductive emulsions
US 3027333 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 3,027,333 ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE EMULSIONS Nathan H. Friedman, Stratford, Conn., assignor to Burton Parsons Chemicals, Inc., Washington, D.C., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Filed Dec. 30, 1957, Ser. No. 705,820 7 Claims. (Cl. 252-521) The present invention relates to electrically conductive systems, and particularly to a new and improved system for use with electrodes in making cardiograms.

Diiferent parts of the surface of the body have different resistances to the passage of electric current. Some skin may be dry and thick, whereas other skin may be moist and thin. Still other skin may be oily, and the degree of hair on skin varies widely. All of these skin characteristics act to vary the passage of electric current from the body of a patient to electrocardiographic equipment thereby providing erratic tracings.

The principal object of this invention is to provide a system that will act to enhance the passage of electric current between the body of a patient and electrocardiographic equipment. 1

Another object of this invention is to provide such a system that will be readily applied and readily removed without any resulting condition requiring cleansing.

Another object of the invention is to provide such a system that will not only cleanse the skin, but will provide high conductivity between the skin and electrocardiographic electrodes.

Another object of the invention is to provide such a system in which, when applied to the body of a patient, contact dermatitis is lessened while increased conductivity is provided.

Another object of this invention is to provide such a system in which the growth of bacteria, molds or yeast is inhibited.

One aspect of this invention may be to provide an aqueous system that may include a base of emulsified material of an anionic, cationic, non-ionic or amphoteric type.

Another aspect of the invention may be to include with said base, any salt suitable to act as a conductor for the passage of electric current from an electrode to the body of a patient.

Still another aspect of the invention may be to employ a bufier solution with the system in order to provide the degree of acidity corresponding substantially to the acid mantle of the body skin.

Finally, inhibitors for preventing the growth of bacteria, molds or yeast may be included, although such inhibitors may be dispensed with if the system is packaged in a pressure dispensing container of the type commonly known as aerosol packages.

The above as well as other objects and novel features of the invention will become apparent from the following specification.

The base of the system forming this invention may comprise an aqueous system of an emuslified material which may be of an anionic, cationic, non-ionic or amphoteric type. Such non-ionic materials may be selected from the group including polyglycol fatty acids, Spans and Tweens and the like.

Span is the registered trademark of the Atlas Powder Company for a series of non-ionic surface active agents which are long chain fatty acid partial esters of hexitol anhydrides, including sorbitans, sorbides, mannitans, and mannides.

Tween is the registered trademark of the Atlas Powder Company for a series of non-ionic surface active agents which are polyoxy alkylene derivatives of hexitol anhydride partial long chain fatty acid esters.

3,027,333 Patented Mar. 27, 1962 "ice Percent Sodium chloride l-lO Potassium chloride l-l0 Sodium sulf e 1-10 or any highly ionizable salt in concentrations to achieve suitable conductivities.

Although the aqueous system of an emulsified material and a highly ionizable salt may be employed alone, should it be desired to produce a pH in the system that will correspond substantially to the acid mantle of the bodily skin, any one of many buifer solutions may be utilized, among which may be included a sodium citrate, a citric acid, or a phosphate buffer solution. The amount of bufier solution employed should be such as to produce a pH of between substantially 4.2 to 6.

Should the system be packaged in containers that are opened to the atmosphere during use, means may be required to prevent the growth of bacteria, molds or yeast. Such materials as esters of para-hydroxy benzoic acid or other suitable inhibitors may be employed. Should, however, the aqueous system be packaged in a pressure dispensing container of the type known as aerosol packages, the above inhibitors may not be required.

Examples of an aqueous system embodying the principles of this invention'are:

Non-ionic: Percentage Sodium nitrite 0.1 Non-ionic blend of ethylene oxide derivatives of lanolin-higher fatty alcohols 6.0 Cetyl alcohol 2.0 Sodium chloride 5.0 Glycerin 5.0 pH 5 Bufier solution 81.9

0f. T. C. MacIlvaine, Journal of Biol. Chem. 49, 183

(1921) C. J. Schollenberger, The Chemist-Analysist, 19, No.

Cationic:

Methylene bis-stearmide 10.0 Stearyl polyoxyethylamine 1.7 Glacial acetic acid 0.3 Sodium nitrit 0.1 Sodium chloride 5 .0 Glycerin 5.0 pH 5 Butler solution 77.9 Anionic:

Sodium lauryl sulfate 1.0 Glyceryl monostearate (free from soap) 11.0 Cetyl alcohol 1.0 Sodium nitrite 0.1 Sodium chloride 5.0 Glycerin 5.0 Water, distilled or de-ionized 76.9

Dispersion:

Magnesium aluminum silicate 3.5 Sodium chloride 5.0 pH 5 Buffer solution 91.5

Cf. '1. C. Macllvaine, Journal of Biol. Chem. 49, 183 (1921) C. J. Schollenberger, The Chemist-Analysist, 19, No. 3, 8 (1930).

The above systems were packaged by introducing 142 grams of each into six-ounce containers which were then pressurized to about p.s.i. with nitrogen.

Although the various features of the new and improved electrically conductive system have been described in detail to fully disclose several embodiments of the invention, it will be evident that numerous changes may be made in such details and certain features may be used without others without departing from the principles of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. An electrically conductive stable emulsion for use with body contact electrodes of electrocardiograph equipment consisting essentially of water as a dispersion me dium, from about 3.5 to 11% of methylene bis stearamide in combination With about 1.0 to 1.7% of stearylpoly oxyethylamine as a liquid dispersion phase, from about 1 to 10% of a highly ionizable salt for controlling the electrical conductivity of the emulsion, said salt being a member selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride and sodium sulfate, and a bulfer solution in sufiicient amount to provide'an overall composition-pH of about that of the acid mantle of the skin.

2. The electrically conductive composition of claim 1 wherein the highly ionizable salt is sodium chloride.

3. The electrically conductive composition of claim 1 in which the overall pH is 4.2 to 6.

4. An electrically conductive stable emulsion for use with body contact electrodes of electrocardiograph equipment consisting essentially of water as a dispersion medium, from about 3.5 to 11% of glyceryl monostearate in combination with about 1.0 to 1.7% of sodium lauryl sulfate as a liquid dispersion phase, from about 1 to 10% of a highly ionizable salt for controlling the electrical conductivity of the emulsion, said salt being a member selected from the group'consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride and'sodium sulfate, and a buffer solution in sufiicient amount to provide an overall composition 3 pH of about that of the acid mantle of. the skin.

5. The electrically conductive composition of claim 4 wherein the highly ionizable salt is sodium chloride.

6. The electrically conductive composition of claim 4 in which the overall pH is 4.2 to 6.

7. In a method of making electrocardiograms utilizing skin contact electrodes, the improvement comprising ap plying between the electrodes and the skin an electrically conductive stable emulsion consisting essentially of water as a disperion medium, from about 3.5 to 11% of an emulsifiable water immiscible material in combination with about 1.0 to 1.7% of an emulsifying agent as the liquid dispersion phase, from about 1 to 10% of a highly ionizable salt for controlling the electrical conductivity of the emulsion, said salt being a member selected from the group-consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium sulfate, and a buffer solution in sufficient amount to provide an overall composition pH of about that of the acid'mantle of the body skin.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,534,204 Mowry Dec. 12, 1950 2,555,037 Jensen May 29, 1951 OTHER REFERENCES Bennett: The Chemical Formulary, vol. IX, page 117,

vol. X, page 61, pub. by Chemical Pub. Co., Brooklyn, NY

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2534204 *Dec 30, 1947Dec 12, 1950Monsanto ChemicalsMethod of preparing amides
US2555037 *Jun 21, 1949May 29, 1951Jensen LeeFlexible electrode
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3265638 *Mar 24, 1964Aug 9, 1966Franklin InstituteElectrolyte composition
US3862633 *May 6, 1974Jan 28, 1975Allison Kenneth CElectrode
US3946730 *Jan 21, 1972Mar 30, 1976Ndm CorporationBiomedical electrode assembly
US3998215 *Apr 23, 1971Dec 21, 1976Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyBio-medical electrode conductive gel pads
US4016869 *Oct 30, 1975Apr 12, 1977Siemens AktiengesellschaftSignal collector system
US4066078 *Feb 5, 1976Jan 3, 1978Johnson & JohnsonDisposable electrode
US4125110 *Nov 7, 1977Nov 14, 1978Hymes Alan CMonitoring and stimulation electrode
US4215696 *Mar 20, 1978Aug 5, 1980Graphic Controls CorporationBiomedical electrode with pressurized skin contact
US4274420 *Oct 12, 1978Jun 23, 1981Lectec CorporationMonitoring and stimulation electrode
US4318746 *Jan 8, 1980Mar 9, 1982Ipco CorporationHighly stable gel, its use and manufacture
US4362165 *Jan 8, 1980Dec 7, 1982Ipco CorporationStable gel electrode
US4377170 *Dec 1, 1980Mar 22, 1983Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyNon-polarizable bioelectrode
US4465074 *Apr 20, 1982Aug 14, 1984Gilbert BuchalterMethod of applying an electrode to the skin of a patient
US4498474 *Mar 25, 1982Feb 12, 1985Edward ChalmersEpilation method
US4838273 *Jun 22, 1987Jun 13, 1989Baxter International Inc.Medical electrode
US5088978 *Jan 26, 1990Feb 18, 1992Gensia Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Apparatus and method for iontophoretic transfer
US5660177 *Oct 17, 1994Aug 26, 1997Biofield Corp.D.C. biopotential sensing electrode assemblies for apparatus for disease, injury and bodily condition screening or sensing
US5823957 *Jul 27, 1995Oct 20, 1998Biofield CorpD.C. biopotential sensing electrode and electroconductive medium for use therein
US7099713 *Jun 27, 2003Aug 29, 2006Battelle Memorial InstituteSkin conduction and transport systems
US20040023849 *Jun 27, 2003Feb 5, 2004Robinson Dale L.Skin conduction and transport systems
USRE31454 *Nov 12, 1980Dec 6, 1983Lectec CorporationMonitoring and stimulation electrode
DE2302618A1 *Jan 19, 1973Jul 26, 1973Ndm CorpElektrode zur aufnahme bioelektrischer potentiale
WO1996011631A1 *Oct 16, 1995Apr 25, 1996Biofield Corp.Dc biopotential sensing electrode and electroconductive medium for use therein
Classifications
U.S. Classification252/519.3, 600/372
International ClassificationA61K33/14, A61N1/04, A61K33/00, A61K9/06, A61B5/0408, B01F17/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61B5/04087, B01F17/005, A61N1/04, B01F17/0028, A61K9/06, A61K33/14, B01F17/0057, A61K33/00
European ClassificationA61N1/04, A61K33/14, A61K33/00, A61K9/06, A61B5/0408F, B01F17/00K2, B01F17/00E2, B01F17/00M