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Publication numberUS3028178 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 3, 1962
Filing dateOct 22, 1959
Priority dateOct 22, 1959
Publication numberUS 3028178 A, US 3028178A, US-A-3028178, US3028178 A, US3028178A
InventorsDoran Michael D, Pietrangeli James D
Original AssigneeDoran Michael D, Pietrangeli James D
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Book constructions
US 3028178 A
Images(3)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 3, 1962 J. D. PIETRANGELI ETAL 3,028,178

` BOOK CONSTRUCTIONS Filed 00t- 22, 1959 5 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTORS JAMES D. P//VGL/ `\3 7 /39 BY E f /38 /37 ATTORNEJ/ April 3, 1962 1. D. PIETRANGELI ETAL BOOK CONSTRUCTIONS 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed OGb. 22, 1959 INVENTORS ATTORNEY in; w

Apnl 3, 1962 J. D. PIETRANGr-:Ll ETAL 3,028,178

BooK coNsTRucTIoNs Filed Oct. 22, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 l l 72 7/ 7/ 73 7 INVENTORS ATTORNEY] This invention relates to the dissemination of information and more particularly to books, but the term books is intended to include catalogues, magazines, manuals, albums and the like, and they may be printed, may be in manuscript, and may contain vblank portions for the purpose of Writing in or otherwise adding information, as in the case of photograph albums.

Considering a conventional textbook for example, the same frequently contains material which is repeated or referred to on a leaf or leaves other than the first leaf containing the material. This material may be in a short paragraph, a long paragraph or more than one paragraph or it my be a picture, a formula, a chart, an equation or the like.

An important object of the invention is to provide a book construction in which at least some of the leaves thereof are made up of a plurality of separated leaf sections which may be manipulated, as turned, independently of another or other leaf sections of the leaf made up of said sections, whereby the same material, which may be repeated in a conventional book a plurality of times, is not repeated at all yet the reader may readily rearrange leaf sections so that, on any selected leaf, the desired material will appear for use, thus keeping redundancy at a minimum.

Another important object is to provide a book construction containing leaves consisting of two or more leaf sections, separated wholly one from the other, and hinge means between the sections and a support, as the cover, so thatv each leaf section may be turned independently of the other or other sections to bring selected material on one section of one leaf into juxtaposition with the material on a section of another leaf.

From time to time writers may revise portions of the text of a book, such as a text book, quite often substituting only a word, a phrase, asentence or a paragraph of a leaf. Considering a conventional book of conventional leaves, even one with loose-leaves, this would require the substitution of van entire leaf to include the revision, even though the change might entail but the substitution of one word.

In the use of our books, the revision almost always does not entail the substitution of a leaf but, rather, only a leaf section, thus being much more economical in publishing costs of a book. Torn or mutilated leaf sections may have others substituted for them, rather than the substitution of an entire loose-leaf as of a conventional loose-leaf book.

A further important object is to provide for flexibility' in bookmaking. Not only would one be able to remove and/or insert total leaves or leaf sections, but it would also be possible to re-arrange the existing leaves for ad- States atent ditional integrations, thus adding functionally moreV leaves to the book.

Furthermore, the structure of our books would necessarily impose upon an author the integration of his material in a very observable and concrete manner.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent during the course of the following detailed description of the invention, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, forming portions of this disclosure, and in which drawings:

FIG. l is a perspective view of a book containing separately hinged sections of leaves, the sections being sepa- ICC rated by. spacer means, this being one form of the invention.

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a fragment of the book of FIG. 1 but with different leaf sections in juxtaposition.

FIG. 3 is also a perspective View of a fragment of the book of FIG. 1 but wtih still different leaf sections in juxtaposition.

FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the book of FIG. 1 but in a closed position. FfG. 5 is a perspective view of another form of the invention and illustrating an example of an arrangement of leaf sections differing from the arrangement in FIG. 1

FIG. 6 is a vertical sectional view, substantially on the line 6-6 of FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a third form of the invention, illustrating an example of an arrangement of leaf sections differing from the arrangements Ashown in FIGS. 1 and 5.

FIG. 8 is a vertical sectional view substantially on the line 8 8 of FIG. 7 but with the book of FIG. 7 closed. FIG. 9 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sectional view of an example of spacer means which may be emf` ployed in the book of FIGS. l to 4 inclusive.

FIG. l0 is an enlarged vertical sectional view showing examples of spacer means of different heights, as may be employed, for example, in the book of FIG. 5.

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary perspective view of the use of hinge means differing from those shown in others of the views.

In the drawings wherein for the purpose of illustra.- tion are shown several forms of the invention, the letter A illustrates one form thereof; B, a second form thereof; and C, a third form. i

Referring to FIGS. 1 to 4 inclustive, taken with FIGS. 9 and ll, the form A of the invention preferably comprises a book having a front cover 15, back cover 16, a plurality of leaves which include leaves 17 each comprising a plurality of leaf sections 18 and may include conventional leaves, such as a so-called title leaf 19, leaf or leaves 20 containing a preface, leaf or leaves 21 of table of contents, leaf or leaves 22 containing an index, leaf or leaves 23 of references and leaf or leaves 24 containing instructions for use o-f the book and even'the conventional blank pages at the ends of a book. A sheet 25 may also be included to support the spacer and orienting means 27. The leaves 19 and 24 may be arranged in any suitable order. The book is also shown as including hinge means 26 and leafl section spacingand orienting means 27. There may be provided a spine 28 as in FIG. 11.

The .covers 15 and 16 may be of any suitable material or materials, such as leather,`paper, cloth, a hardened plastic, or combinations thereof. They -may be provided with a plurality of spaced-apart openings 3.0, as slots, in.- wardly of their edges 31. i l 4 Leaves 17, comprising a plurality of leaf sections 18, as of major importance. In the example shown in FIG. l each leaf- 17 comprises four leaf sections 18 but the nurnber of sections may vary as desired. Each leaf section 18 is a unit, having opposite edges 35 and 36 and opposite edges 37 and 38 with an edge 35 of one leaf section 18 and an edge 36 of another leaf section 18 defining opposite edges of a leaf 17, the edges 37 defining the lfore-ledge vof the leaf 17 and the opposite edges 38 defining the edge The various leaves. 19 to 25, if included, are preferably full-size conventional leaves of paper or the like, provided with slots to align with the openings 30 and 39.

Hinge means 26 may be any suitable means, such as a plurality of conventional spaced-apart attened resilient or flexible hardened plastic or resilient metal rings 45 extending from and preferably integral with a spine 46, the free end portions 47 of the rings preferably carving over but free of the inner face of the spine 41 so that leaf sections 18 and any or all of leaves 19 to 25 may be slipped between the free end portions 47 and spine 41 for attaching or detaching of the covers or 16, leaves 19 to and/ or the leaf sections 18, since the free end portions 47 may be inserted in the openings 30, 39 and the like openings in the leaves 19 to 25 (or any of these leaves which may be employed).

It was discovered by us that, because of several factors, the result of using relatively small leaf sections 18 where it was possible to employ only one to, say, five openings 39 per leaf section, the sections, due to the fact that the openings 39 must needs be large enough to accommodate the rings 45 without binding or impeding the turning of the hinged leaf sections, tended to cant, so that the book leaves took on an untidy and somewhat confusing appearance. Moreover, the consequent canting of the leaf sections tended to Wear or tear the leaf section material at the openings 39. We experimented and finally obviated this by the provision of the use of leaf section spacing and orienting means 27. This means preferably comprises a plurality of spacings and orienting elements 50 which may be in the form of substantially parallel, spaced apart ridges or corrugations extending from the inside face of one or both covers 15 and 16 or from one or two leaves 25, placed inwardly of the innermost of a leaf 19 to 24 if any or all of such leaves 19 to 24 were included in the book. The spacing and orienting elements 50, as best shown in FIG. 4, may extend from a suitable sheet 51 as of heavy paper, cardboard, hardened plastic or even of metal, which may or may not be secured to the cover or sheet 25 as by a suitable adhesive, similar to the adhesive 52 in FIG. 9. Such adhesive may be glue, air-drying compounded rubber base solvent cement, air-drying rubber solvent cement (for use with paper and board and the like), or other well-known adhesives for bonding materials, such as named above. Ridged spacing and orienting elements 50 may be acute angular in vertical section, as shown in FIG. 4, with the sheet 25 folded at intervals to provide the elements 50. In the example shown in FIG. 4 there are ve such elements 50 disposed upon the back cover 16, defining four compartments or recesses 53 and five elements 50 also defining four recesses 53. Of course, if the means 27 comprises a sheet of sufficiently rigid material, the sheet may be provided with openings similar to and aligning with the openings 39 and extending from the bottom portion to the top portion of the sheet to receive the rings 45. Because of the relativelyy large number of such rings (seventeen being illustrated in FIG. 1), the sheet will not tend to cant.

Referring now to the indicia, generally designated as 28 with a suitable exponent, shown by way ofY example as printed matter which may be in paragraph form, in the form of tables, graphs, charts, and illustrations, for example.` As illustrated in FIG. l, the form A of the novel book (which may be, by Way of example, a textbook on General Psychology) includes, at the left-hand half, page "1 which comprises leaf sections 18, bearing indicia 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D, designated as 28a 28h, 28e, and 28d respectively. The opposite page 2 comprises leaf sections 18 bearing indicia 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D designated as 28e, 28f, 28g, and 28h. The leaf sections are shown as separated by spacing and orienting means 27. Following pages also contain leaf sections 18 of substantially the same size and indicia numbering the leaves and leaf sections consecutively in the same manne ras described rabove and as may be appreciated from FIGS. 2 and 3. Page numbered "1 is shown, by way of example, to contain indicia, as 281, 23k, 26m, 2811 and 28D, with indicia 2Sj being material relating to the major concepts of the subject of General Psychology; indicia 26k and 28m being material relating to a psychologist or psychologists and his or their contributions to the subject; indicia 23H being material relating to certain important terms used in teaching the subject; and 28p being material outlining certain experiments carried out and/ or to be carried out, all the material being related. Page "2 and following pages would contain other indicia relating to the subject, carrying on the thought and teaching but, from time'to time, material would be repeated in a conventional textbook need not be repeated in our books, since it is only necessary to refer to pertinent designated material but turning the designated leaf section 18 to bring it into view. For example, if the reader is interested in page 2 and leaf section numbered 4B is also related in text or material to leaf section numbered 2A, leaf sections numbered 2B and 3B may be turned, bringing leaf section numbered 4B into View immediately below leaf section 2A and above leaf sections 2C and 2D.

Of course, in the revision of portions of the text or material of our books, or for the purpose of substituting a torn or mutilated leaf section, a new leaf section, rather than a full leaf, may be substituted.

Now referring to the form B of our book as shown, by way of example in FiGS. 5 and 6, taken with FIG. 10, this differs from the form A by the provision of leaf sections of various areas and, consequently, of compartments or recesses of various areas. By Way of example, leaf sections 60, 61 and 62 are shown as of three different lengths, leaf section 60 being the shortest, and leaf sections 63 which, while each may be of the same area, are larger in area than the leaf sections 60, 61, 62, 64, 65 and 66, While the leaf sections 65 and 66 may be smaller in area than the other sections, and the section 65 smaller in area and shorter than the leaf section 66. As a result, the spacing and orienting means 70 differs, but preferably only in that the penultimate spacing and orienting element 71 is spaced nearer the last or lowermost spacing and orienting element 71 than it is spaced from the other elements 71 or 72, thus providing a smaller recess or compartment 73 for the leaf sections 65 and 66. The leaf sections 63 are accommodated between the second and fourth spacing and orienting elements 71 counting from the lowermost element 71 shown in FIG. 5 and shown to the left in FIG. l0, since the element 72 is of less height than the adjoining elements 71, while the element 72 and one of each adjacent element 71 define recesses 74 for accommodation of the leaf sections 64.

All leaf sections 61 to 66 inclusive as well as the covers 75 and 76 may be provided with openings which may be slots at their inner end portions for accommodation of the rings of the hinge means which may be similar to the hinge means 26 heretofore described, andcomprise a plurality of resilient or exible spaced-apart rings 86 carried by a spine S7 and having free end portions Substantially similar to the free end portions 47.

The provision of the leaf sections 60, 61, 62, 65 and 66, are for various reasons. For example, indicia 90 may appear, as guide indicia, at the fore edge portions of the leaf sections 60, 61, 62, 65 and 66 to facilitate quicker locating certain material, or these leaf sections may be of different colors as guides for the reader in order to locate certain material more quickly. Of course, the leaf sections, as in the uppermost compartment, may be slightly longer than the next leaf section so that each leaf section will have an area for indicia 90 vor the like.

1t is now obvious that the leaf sections 63 are provided to accommodate material of greater area (as a complex organic chemical equation) than material on leaf sections 64, for example.

Now, with reference to the form C of the invention, as shown in FIG. 7, this form differs from the forms A and B by providing hinge means 100 adjacent, for example, the upper portions of a cover 105 and leaf sections 110 as well as hinge means 115, substantially like the hinge means 26 and 85, for hinging leaf sections 120. There is also the provision of guiding and orienting means 125 comprising guiding and orienting' elements 126 extend'- ing with their longitudinal axes substantially normal to the longitudinal axes of the guiding and spacing elements 131 of the guiding and spacing means 130 which means 130 is preferably substantially like the means 27 and 70.

The hinge means 100 and 115 may be substantially like the hinge means 26 and 85 with the rings 101 and 116 respectively extending through suitable slots in the leaf sections and covers 105 and 1 tl6.-

The provision of the leaf sections 110, having their openings (as slots 111 at their upper edge portions), permits them to be swung upwardly and thus increases the total area of a leaf since both the material on the turned leaf section 110 as well as the material upon the uppermost right-hand unturned leaf section 100 of FIG. 7 may be considered and, consequently, the total material spread upon the leaf may be considered by the reader. It isnow obvious that the material upon this turned leaf 110 may be considered in connection with any of turnedA leaf sections 120. These leaf sections may be much longer than illustrated in the event the material to be carried thereon justifies the length.

The various guiding and orienting elements may vary in shape, particularly in their transverse cross section. For example, in place of the spacing and orienting elements S of FIGS. l and 4, the elements may be of the forms shown in FIGS. 8 and l0 at 71 and 72, for example, in FIG. l0 and 126 in FIG. 8.

Instead of the hinge means 26, 85, 100 and 115 other suitable hinge means may be provided. Another, of various possible examples, is the hinge means 135 of FIG. l1 which comprises a plurality of conventional split rings 136 carried by, for example, a book spine 137 connecting the covers 138 and 139 and in such construction, there would be provided a plurality of openings 140 in the rear-edge portions of the leaf sections 141 to accommodate the rings. These openings 140 would preferably be circular and, to prevent binding of the leaf sections 141 upon turning the latter, the openings 140 must be, of necessity, larger in diameter than the transverse cross sectional diameters of the rings 136 so that suitable spacing and orienting means, such as the means 27, may be employed.

Each form of the invention embodies a book including a plurality of leaves consisting of leaf sections or units disposed in a plurality of stacks, with each leaf section having an edge substantially paralleling and facing an edge of a next-adjacent leaf section of the same leaf, so that this edge of each leaf section of the stack is in the same plane. By the employment of appropriate hinge means, each leaf section of a stack may be turned independently of the other leaf sections of the same leaf or independently of other leaf sections of the stack.

In addition, each form of the invention also embodies the use of indicia means, which may be, for each book, substantially like the indicia set out in detail in the description of the form A of the invention, since the various objects of the invention are embodied in all the forms disclosed by way of example.

There is also disclosed, by way of example, spacing and orienting means, applicable to all the forms of the invention, whereby compartments or recesses are provided to accommodate the leaf sections of a stack for the purposes given, by way of example, in this specification.

Various changes in the shape, size and arrangement of parts may be made to the forms of invention herein shown and described, without departing from the spirit of the invention or scope of the following claims.

What is claimed is:

l. A book including a plurality of leaves, each of at least some of said leaves consisting of a plurality of leaf sections with said leaf sections being `disposed in a plurality of stacks, each leaf section having a plurality of edges with an outer edge of one leaf section of a leaf being substantially parallel to and spaced from an adjacent outer edge of the next adjacent leaf section of said leaf, whereby a space is provided between said edges; separate means hinging each leaf section of a stack to the other leaf sections of said stack so that each leaf section of said stack may be turned independently of the leaf sections of the other leaf sections in said leaves; and spacing and orienting means, disposed in the spaces between said outer edges for said leaf sections to retain the adjacent edges of adjacent leaf sections substantially in parallelism and spaced from each other.-

2. A book including a plurality of leaves, each of at least some of said leaves consisting of a plurality of leaf sections with said leaf sections being disposed in a plurality of stacks, each leaf sectionhaving a plurality of edges with an outer edge of one leaf section of a leaf being substantially parallel to and spaced from an adjacent outer edge of the next adjacent leaf section of said leaf, whereby a space is provided between said edges; separate means hinging each leaf section of a stack to the other leaf sections of said stack so that each leaf section of said stack may be turned independently of the leaf sections of the other leaf sections of said leaves; and spacing and orienting means, disposed in the spaces between said outer edges for said leaf sections to retain the adjacent edges of adjacent leaf sections substantially'in parallelism and spaced from each other and all the leaf sections of a stack with the like edges of the leaf sections of said stack ist like planes.

3. A book including a plurality of leaves, each of -at least some of said leaves consisting of a plurality of leaf sections with said leaf sections being disposed in a plurality of stacks, each leaf section havinga plurality of edges with an edge of one leaf section of a leaf being substantially parallel to and spaced from an adjacent edge of -the next adjacent leaf section of said leaf, whereby a space is provided between said edges; separate means hinging each leaf section of a stack to the other leaf sections of said stack so that each leaf section of said stack may be turned independently of the leaf sections of the other leaf sections of said leaves; and spacing and orienting means for said leaf sections to retain the adjacent edges of adjacent leaf sections substantially in parallelism and spaced from each other including a plurality of spaced-apart ridges,'dening compartments for leaf sections disposcd between two adjacent ridges.

4. A book including a plurality of leaves, each of at least some of said leaves consisting of a Vplurality of leaf sections with said leaf sections being disposed in a plurality of stacks, each leaf section having a plurality of v edges with an edge of one leaf section of a leaf being substantially parallel to and spaced from an adjacent edge of the next adjacent leaf section of said leaf, whereby a space is provided between said edges; separate means hinging each leaf section of a stack to the other leaf section of said stack may be turned independently of the leaf sections of the other leaf sections of said leaves; and spacing and orienting means for said leaf sections to retain the adjacent edges of adjacent leaf sections substantially in parallelism and spaced from each other, comprising a base sheet provided with a plurality of spaced-apart ridges,

vdefining compartments for leaf sections disposed between two adjacent ridges, portions of said base sheet providing bottoms for said compartments.

5. A book including a plurality of leaves, each of at least some of said leaves consisting of a plurality of leaf sections with said leaf sections being disposed in a plu- 7 rality of stacks, each leaf section having a plurality of edges including a fore edge, a rear edge and an edge of one leaf section of a leaf substantially parallel to and spaced from an adjacentedge of the next adjacent leaf section of said leaf, whereby a space is provided between said edges, each leaf section being provided with an opening adjacent said rear edge; means hinging each leaf section of a stack to the other leaf sections of said stack so that each leaf section of said stack may be turned independently of the leaf sections of the other leaf sections of said leaves, including a split ring extending through said opening, the Walls of said opening -being spaced from the periphery of said ring; and spacing and orienting means for said leaf sections to retain the adjacent edges of adjacent leaf sections substantially in parallelism and spaced from each other, comprising a base sheet provided with a plurality of spaced-apart ridges, defining compartments for leaf sections disposed between two adjacent ridges, portions of said base sheet providing bottoms for lsaid compartments.

6. A book including a plurality of leaves, each of at least some of said leaves consisting of a plurality of leaf sections with said leaf sections being disposed in a plurality of stacks, including a stepped stack; indicia upon -said leaf sections; each leaf section having a plurality of edges with an edge of one leaf section of a leaf being substantially parallel to and spaced from an adjacent edge of the next adjacent leaf section of said leaf page, whereby a space is provided between said edges, some of said leaf sections of said stepped stack being provided with fore edges disposed in stepped relation, one from another, with the uppermost leaf section of the entire stepped stack being the leaf section of least length of said stepped stack; and other leaf sections of said stepped stack being progressively of greater length, whereby indicia upon the fore edge portions of some of said leaf sections of said stepped stack may be viewed by an observer looking down upon said stepped stack; means hinging each leaf section of a stack to the other leaf sections of said stack so that each leaf section of said stack may be turned independently of the leaf sections of the other leaf sections of said leaves; and spacing and orienting means for said leaf sections to retain the adjacent edges of adjacent leaf sections substantially in parallelism and spaced from each other including a plurality of spaced-apart ridges, defining compartments for leaf section disposed between two adjacent ridges.

7. A book including a plurality of leaves, each of at least some of said leaves consisting of a plurality of leaf sections with said leaf sections being disposed in a plurality of stacks; indicia upon said leaf sections; each leaf section having a plurality of edges with an edge of one leaf section of a leaf being substantially parallel to and spaced from an adjacent edge of the next adjacent leaf section of said leaf, whereby a space is provided between said edges, means hinging each leaf section of a stack to the other leaf sections of said stack so that each leaf section of said stack may be turned independently of the leaf sections of the other leaf sections of the other leaf sections of said leaves; and spacing and orienting means for said leaf sections to retain the adjacent edges of adj acent leaf sections substantially in parallelism and spaced from each other including a plurality of spaced-apart ridges, defining compartments for leaf section disposed between two adjacent ridges; each of said leaf sections having an upper edge portion with all leaf sections of at last one stack having said separate means disposed at their upper edge portions.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Great Britain Y- Dec. 13, 1948 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent Noa 3,028,178 April 3, 1962 James D. Pietrangeli et al.,

It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.

Column 2, line 56, for "as" read are column 3, line 75, for "manne ras" read manneras column 4, line 14, before "would" insert which line 16, for "but" read by column 6, line l5, for "in" read of line 64, after "Stack" insert so that each leaf section of sald stack column 7, line 28, strike out "page".

Signed and sealed this 14th day of August 1962..

(SEAL) Lttest:

DAVID L. LADD ERNEST W. SWIDEH Commissioner of Patents Lttesting Officer

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2314790 *Apr 15, 1942Mar 23, 1943Jenter CorpFolder
GB614253A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3283760 *Mar 3, 1964Nov 8, 1966Yeager Ella EWork slip holder for teacher's use in classrooms
US4175340 *Sep 30, 1977Nov 27, 1979Deutch Howard EForm book
US5626365 *May 24, 1995May 6, 1997Petteway; Becky A.Two-way book
US5788503 *Feb 27, 1996Aug 4, 1998Alphagram Learning Materials Inc.Educational device for learning to read and pronounce
US5836614 *Mar 14, 1997Nov 17, 1998Park; Nam KyoBook with various sections
US6210172 *Feb 2, 1998Apr 3, 2001Jehan ClementsDo-it-yourself storytelling book
Classifications
U.S. Classification281/16, D19/27, 434/178
International ClassificationB42B5/00, B42B5/10, B42D1/00
Cooperative ClassificationB42D1/001, B42B5/10
European ClassificationB42B5/10, B42D1/00B