US 3031147 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R. T. GOODRIE 3,031,147
FLUID MIXING DEVICE Filed Aug. 2, 1960 INVENTOR.
g3 g 2 @igg mn dffioodn'e 3,031,147 FLUID MIXHIG DEVICE Raymond T. Goodrie, Calumet City, Ill., assignor to Wrightway Engineering Co., (Zhicago, Ill., 21 corporation of Illinois Fiied Aug. 2, 196%, Ser. No. 47,004 3 Claims. (Cl. 239431) This invention relates to an improved fluid mixing device or aerator and more particularly to an improved device of this character which will operate satisfactorily against back pressure.
Various fluid mixing devices are now well known and widely used, the most familiar example being the water faucet aerator which produces a soft, bubbly, coherent stream which is non-splashing and contains large amounts of entrained air. Many different aerator designs have been proposed including various combinations of screens, apertured disks, and breakup plugs housed in a tubular casing which is detaclia'bly connected to the faucet or other outlet.
However, the aerating or fluid mixing devices previously available have not been capable of effective operation against any appreciable back pressure. For example, the familiar water faucet aerator operates quite satisfactorily as long as the outlet end of the aerator casing is free and unobstructed, but if there is even a slight obstruction or restriction to flow at the outlet side resulting in a back pressure of as little as a few pounds per square inch, the device ceases to function properly. In fact, in many aerator designs having lateral air inlet ports in the Wall of the casing, even a slight obstruction at the outlet of the device will result in backup and expulsion of water outwardly through the air ports.
Obviously, this inherent limitation in the operation of the aerating or fluid mixing devices heretofore available has restricted their field of utility and has prevented their use in many otherwise appropriate situations. For example, bathroom shower head fixtures have been proposed in which the shower head includes a compartment for a perfumed soap cake or the like through which the water must be forced. Because of the resistance to flow and consequent back pressure created by the soap compartment, the usual aerating device does not function eflectively in this type of fixture. Another example is found in the transportation of live fish in tank trucks or the like. Under these circumstances it is frequently desirable to fill the tank with aerated water by means of a pipe extending to the bottom of the tank. Consequently, an aerator in the water supply pipe must be capable of operating against the back pressure due to the fluid head of water in the tank above the outlet of the supply pipe. Similarly, there are many other industrial and commercial applications requiring aeration of a liquid or mixing of two fluids in which the aerating or fluid mixing device must operate against a back pressure, e.g. the hwdling of ferrous metal pickling liquors, treatment of photographic, chemical solutions, blending of oils, etc. I
Accordingly, a primary object of the present invention is to provide a novel and improved fluid mixing device capable of effective operation against back pressure.
A further object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved aerator which operates effectively against bapk pressure.
i ifl idditional object of the invention is to provide a novel aerating and fluid mixing device having substantially enhanced penetrating power such that the device can operate satisfactorily against back pressure at the outlet side of the device.
Another object of the invention is to provide a novel combined aerator and swivel mounting for a shower head or the like incorporating the aforementioned advantages.
Sates Patent ice Still another object of the invention is to provide a novel combined aerator and coupling for the uses de scribed above.
A still further object of the invention is to provide an improved water and detergent mixing device possessing the advantages described above.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become evident from the subsequent detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a small scale elevational view of a showerhead fixture incorporating one specific embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged vertical sectional view of a portion of the device shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken along the line 3--3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a transverse sectional view taken along the line 4-4 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of a coupling comprising another embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 6 is a longitudinal sectional view of a water and detergent mixer comprising still another embodiment of the invention; and
FIG. 7 is a transverse sectional view taken along the line 7-7 of FIG. 6.
Referring first to FIGS. 1 to 4, the invention is illustrated as applied to a shower head fixture having a swivel connection of the ball and socket type. The ball member comprises a tubular element, designated generally at 11, containing the novel aerating or fluid mixing structure. One end of the tubular element 11 has internal threads 12 for mounting the device on a water pipe or the like. The opposite end of the tubular element is shaped externally to provide the ball portion 13 of the ball and socket joint. A shower head 14, including the socket portion of the joint, is detachably connected to the ball portion 13 by means of a threaded coupling '16. In accordance with the unique and advantageous operating characteristics of the aerating device comprising the subject matter of the present invention, the shower head 14 may contain an internal compartment (not shown) containing a perfumed soap cake or the like so that the aerated stream of water issuing from the tubular element 11 passes therethrough before being discharged from the shower head 14. As described below, the advantage of the present aerating device is that it will operate effectively in spite of the flow resistance and back pressure produced by the soap compartment.
The tubular casing of the element 11 has an internal shoulder 17 adjacent the threaded inlet end 12 of the casing, and a transverse partition in the form of a washer or disk 18 is seated on the shoulder 17. The disk 18 has a single centrally located aperture 19. Another internal shoulder 21 is provided in the tubular casing 11 adjacent the outlet ball-shaped end 13 thereof, and a transverse support in the form of an apertured disk 22 is mounted on the shoulder 21. A bushing 23 is disposed within the casing 11 with its lower end supported on the disk 22 and its upper end in spaced downstream relation from the disk 18 so as to define an air entrainment chamber 24 therebetween. The wall of the casing 11 surrounding the chamber 24 is provided with a plurality of lateral slots or air inlet ports 26, two such ports being shown in this instance. The bushing 23 constitutes an internal flow restricting means in the form of a venturi-shaped axial passage which includes a converging tapered inlet portion 27 at the upstream side of the bushing, a restricted throat portion 28, and a diverging tapered discharge portion 29 at the downstream side of the bushing. The venturi passage 21-28-29 is coaxial with the aperture 19 in the disk 18.
A fluid diverter or flow dividing element, designated a generally at 31, is mounted at the upstream side of the supporting disk 22 and extends into and preferably through the venturi passage in the bushing 23. The upper portion of the element 31 has a tapered cone-shaped configuration 32 with the apex of the cone extending coaxially toward the inlet end of the device, the cone-shaped portion 32 being annularly spaced from the throat 28 so as to define an annular orifice 33 therebetween. As seen in FIG. 2, the tapered exterior surface of the cone-shaped portion 32 is parallel to and annularly spaced from the surface of the diverging portion 29 of the venturi passage for the purpose described below. The lower end of the fluid diverter 31 tapers downwardly as at 34 from the base of the cone-shaped portion 32 and terminates in a depending elongated extension or stem 36.
A breakup and mixing body or plug, indicated generally at 37, is supported from the disk 22 at the downstream side thereof. The plug 37 preferably has the generally mushroom-like configuration illustrated in FIG. 2 inasmuch as this particular configuration has been found to give highly effective performance. Thus, the plug 37 has a restricted neck portion 38 immediately below the disk 22 and then a rather abrupt radially extending enlargement or impingement portion 39 underlying the disk 22 in downstream spaced relation therefrom. The disk 22 is formed with a plurality of relatively large openings 41 so that a fluid stream issuing from the annular orifice 33 of the venturi passage will pass through the openings 41 and impinge upon the upper curved shoulder, designated at 42, of the plug portion 39. The impingement portion 39 is spaced annularly from the inner wall of the outlet end of the tubular casing 11 to permit fluid discharge from the device. The neck portion 38 of the breakup plug 37 is affixed to the disk 22 by means of a reduced end portion 43 which extends upwardly through a central opening in the disk 22 and is upset or deformed at the upstream side of the disk 22 so as to permanently secure the plug 37 to the disk 22. T he plug member 37 also has an axial bore 44 which receives the end extension or stem 36 of the fluid diverter 31, the lower projecting end of the stem 36 being upset or peened, as at 46, in order to secure the same to the plug 37. Thus, it will be seen that the disk 33, the fluid diverter element 31, and the breakup plug 37 are secured together in a unitary manner with the support disk 22 serving the dual function of supporting the upright fluid diverter 31 and the depending breakup plug 37 in coaxial relation with respect to the aperture 19 and the venturi passage 272829.
As previously mentioned, the internal structure of the aerating or fluid mixing device of the present invention is designed so that the aerating or fluid mixing function can be effectively accomplished in spite of back pressure at the outlet side of the device. With the construction herein illustrated and described, it is found that effective aeration and fluid mixing can be obtained in spite of a back pressure of as much as to pounds per square inch Where the main supply of water or other fluid to the inlet 12 has a pressure of pounds per square inch or more.
The greater effectiveness and penetrating power of the fluid stream from the device are due primarily to the cooperative functioning of the centrally apertured disk 18-19 and the venturi passage 27-2829 with its coacting fluid diverter 31. For example, as water under pressure enters the inlet end 12 of the casing '11, the central aperture 19 in the disk 18 provides an initial high velocity water stream which enters the air entrainment chamber 24 and impinges coaxially on the apex of the cone-shaped element 32. As the high velocity stream of water is uniformly divided by the element 32 and is forced through the annular orifice 33, air is drawn inwardly into the chamber 24 through the ports 26 and is entrained in the water stream by the venturi action. In order to obtain proper entrainment and mixing in the chamber 24, it is essential that the area of the annular orifice 33 be greater than the area of the central aperture 19 in the 4; disk 18 so that the chamber 24 does not fill up with water. Although the area of the annular orifice 33 is greater than the area of the central opening 19, nevertheless, there is still sufficient restriction to flow so that the annular water stream containing entrained air is still at a high velocity as it passes from the throat portion 2 8 into the diverging portion 29 of the venturi passage. Furthermore, it will be seen from FIG. 2 that because of the parallel annularly spaced relation between the cone-shaped element 32 and the diverging passage portion 29, the orifice 33 is in effect extended for an appreciable distance in a generally downstream direction Without diminishing the high velocity of the stream. This extension of the orifice affords an opportunity for equalization and uniform distribution of the annular fluid stream in the event that the cone-shaped element 32 is not exactly coaxial with respect to the center opening 19 in the disk 18.
After the high velocity fluid stream containing entrained air emerges from the extended orifice passage, the fluid passes into the slightly enlarged space at the discharge end of the venturi passage and is thence forced through the openings 41 in support disk 22 and impinges forcefully against the upper surface 42 of the impingement portion 39 of the breakup plug 37. This vigorous impingement of the fluid stream against the plug 37 produces considerable breakup and diversion of the fluid in all directions thereby producing additional intimate mixing of the water and air by reason of the rebound and splashing between the plug 37, the underside of the disk 22, and the inner Wall surface of the tubular element 11 surrounding the plug 37. The thoroughly mixed fluid stream of water and air is discharged from the outlet end of the device with considerable velocity as compared with aerators or fluid mixers of this general type heretofore known and as a result the device is capable of operating against an appreciable back pressure at the discharge side without impairment of the desired aerating and fluid mixing function.
FIG. 5 illustrates a modification of the invention in which the same internal structure is provided as shown in FIG. 2 but the tubular housing or casing is in the form of an elongated coupling 51 having internally threaded inlet and outlet ends 52 and 53, respectively. Similar parts have been given the same reference numerals in the two figures. As will be apparent, the device can be interposed between two fluid conduit sections for effecting aeration of a water stream or the like, and the device will be effective even though there is a substantial back pres sure or resistance to flow at the discharge from the fluid conduit (not shown) which is connected to the outlet 53.
FIGS. 6 and 7 illustrate an adaptation of the invention embodied in a device for mixing two liquids, such as a water-detergent mixer. The body of the device comprises an upper tubular section 61 having a threaded inlet 62 adapted to be connected to a water faucet or the like and a lower tubular body section 63 threadedly connected, as at 64-, to the upper body section 61. The upper body section 61 is fitted with an inner partition 66 having a central aperture 67 (similar to 18-19 in FIGS. 2 and 5), and the lower end of the body section 61 is integrally formed with a venturi section 62; having converging, throat, and diverging portions 71, 72, and 73, respectively (similar to 272829 of FIGS. 2 and 5). An entrainment or mixing chamber 74 is provided between the partition 66 and the venturi section 63 and communicates with a fluid passage 76 in an elongated lateral extension 77 connected in an opening 78 in the wall of the body section 61. A stop cock 79, comprising a rotary stem 81 with a port 82 and a handle 83, is mounted in the extension 77 for controlling the feeding of a fluid detergent or other liquid from a supply source (not shown) connected to the outer end of the extension 77. A ball check valve is also provided at the outer end of the extension 77 and comprises an annular seat 84 fitted in the passage 76, a ball element 86, and a retaining pin 87 extending diametrically across the passage 76. As will readily be understood, the check valve prevents reverse flow through the passage '76 and possible contamination of the detergent supply.
In this instance the wall of the lower body section 63 is provided with a plurality of slots or air inlet ports 88 below the venturi section 68, and an inner skirt member 89 is also provided to shield the air ports 8% in a manner well known in the aerator art. A support disk 91 with apertures 92 (corresponding to 22-41 in FIGS. 2 and 5) is mounted in the body section 63 below the venturi section 68 and supports an upright fluid diverter 93 and a depending breakup and mixing plug 94 in the same general relationship as the corresponding elements 31 and 3'7 in FIGS. 2 and 5. The lowermost end of the body section 63 is formed with a series of stepped internal shoulders 96 terminating in a slightly restricted outlet 97.
The operation of the FIGS. 6-7 form is generally the same as previously described. The high velocity central stream of water from the aperture 67 passes through the chamber 74 and is diverted by the element 93 through the annular orifice between the throat 72 and the element 93. The suction eflect produced by the venturi passage draws detergent into the chamber 74 from the passage 76 when the cock 79 is in open position. Mixing of detergent and water occurs in chamber 74 and continues through the venturi section. At the outlet end of the device, the mixture of water and detergent is aerated as the fluid stream impinges forcefully against the breakup plug 94, rebounds against the underside of the disk 91 and the inner side of the skirt S9, and is thereby thoroughly mixed with air entering freely through the ports 88. The aerated mixture is further mixed and confined to a coherent, soft, non-splashing stream by the stepped shoulders 96 and the restricted outlet 97.
Although the invention has been described with particular reference to certain specific structural embodiments thereof, it is to be understood that various modifications and equivalents may be resorted to without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
1. A fluid mixing device comprising in combination a tubular casing having an inlet end and an outlet end for flow of a first fluid therethrough, flow restricting means in said casing intermediate the ends thereof defining a venturi-shaped passage having a converging tapered inlet section and a diverging tapered outlet section disposed respectively upstream and downstream relative to the direction of flow of said first fluid through said casing, said sections intersecting at their innermost narrowest ends and defining at the intersection a restricted throat intermediate the opposite ends of said passage, a transverse partition extending across said casing in spaced relation upstream from said converging tapered inlet section of said flow restricting means and defining an entrainment chamber therebetween, said partition having a single central opening coaxial with said passage, the portion of said casing around said chamber having a lateral opening for admitting a second fluid to said chamber at the upstream side of said passage, a cone-shaped fluid diverter element mounted coaxially in said passage with the apex end of said element extending through said throat into said converging tapered inlet section for coaxial impingement thereagainst of a high velocity flow of fluid from said central opening of said partition, said element being annularly spaced from said throat and defining therebetween an annular orifice having an area greater than the area of said central opening, the surface of said element downstream from said throat being disposed in parallel spaced relation with said diverging tapered outlet section of said passage, and fluid breakup and mixing means mounted in said casing downstream from said diverging tapered outlet section, said last-named means including an apertured member for forming a plurality of fluid streams and impingement means downstream from said apertured member for impingement of said streams thereon.
2. The device of claim 1 further characterized in that said fluid breakup and mixing means comprises a disk disposed transversely across said casing immediately adjacent the downstream side of said diverging tapered outlet section, said disk having a plurality of fluid openings for forming a plurality of fluid streams, and a fluid breakup and mixing body mounted at the downstream side of said disk and extending toward the outlet end of said casing and adapted to have said streams impinged thereon, said cone-shaped fluid diverter element also being supported by said disk at the upstream side thereof.
3. The device of claim 2 further characterized in that said disk has a central opening, said body has a reduced diameter axial portion projecting into said central opening for connecting said body to said disk, said body also having an axial bore extending therethrough, and said coneshaped element has an elongated axial extension projecting into said bore from the upstream side of said disk for connecting said cone-shaped element to said body.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,510,396 Goodrie June 6, 1950 2,513,417 Lindsay July 4, 1950 2,690,717 Goodrie Oct. 5, 1954 2,738,798 Goodrie Mar. 20, 1956