US 3031408 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent @fihce enemas Patented Apr. 24, 19562 3,031,408 AEROSOL OVEN CLEANSER I Jacob Lincoln Perlman, Albany, and Richard D. Norden, Delmar, N.Y., assignors to B. T. Babbitt, Inc, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York No Drawing. Filed Aug. 7, 1959, Ser. No. 832,129 3 Claims. (Cl. 252-154) This invention relates to a cleanser preparation, the contents of which are particularly designed for use in effecting cleansing of ovens and other similar surfaces on which burnt-on fat or other deposits of greasy, oily or other character are encountered. More particularly, this invention relates to a cleanser package which the contents are under pressure and which package is designed to dispense the contents, in the form of a foam, to effect the desired cleansing action.
It is among the objects of the present invention to provide a cleanser package for cleansing ovens and other similar surfaces, particularly iron, steel, copper and other metal surfaces (except aluminum) and surfaces coated with vitreous porcelain or other fired-on and/or alkaliresistant coatings, which cleanser package in use is efficient in effecting ready removal of dirt and deposits including diificultly removable burnt-on, fat deposits, which cleanser effects such removal readily, whichpackage permits ready application of the cleanser, i.e., by the simple operation of a push button or valve button, and which cleanser can be used safely, i.e., does not involve a tire hazard when applied to an ovenor other heated surface which has been cooled to room temperature or near room temperature (25 30 C.);
In accordance with this invention, the package comprises a dispensing pressure-tight container having a typical aerosol dispensing valve controlling flow through a discharge conduit leading to the base of the container, as shown, for example, in United States Patent 1,892,750 of January 3, 1933, and having in such container a cleanser concentrate containing as the essential constitucuts of the concentrate, caustic alkali, an alcoholic solvent for the alkali and other constituents of the cleanser as well as for the oils and fats, an amphoteric detergent, with or without a liquid non-ionic detergent, and a foam stabilizer or flow retarder which may be wax alone or a mixture of wax with ethyl cellulose or'hydroxy ethyl cellulose, and also having in such container a propellant substantially soluble in the alcoholic type solvent and chemically inert to the cleanser constituents, i.e., the 'propellant will not react therewith either to render these constituents ineffective or to cause the propellant to hydrolyze or; otherwise decompose and lose its effectiveness as a propellant. By concentrate as used herein is meant all of the constituents of the package except for the propellant. 1
As the caustic alkali, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide is used. The caustic alkali employed should be substantially'anhydrous. While a small amount of water is not objectionable in the case of a cleanser to be stored in glass containers (the use of metal containers is preferred), the cleanser should be substantially, preferably'completely anhydrous to avoid corrosion of metal container walls. The amount of caustic alkali used based on the weight of the concentrate is from 1% to preferably about 4% by weight.
The solvent employed in the cleanser preparation is a mixture of a lower aliphatic alcohol, i.e., an aliphatic alcohol containing from'l to 3 carbon atoms, such as methanol, ethanol or propanol and a volatile glycol having from 2 to 20 carbon atoms or volatile glycol ether having from 4 to 20 carbon atoms. The caustic alkali dissolves in the lower boiling aliphatic alcohol; the flash point of the solution, however, is 'too low so that there is a possibility of the solution flaming when applied near or over an oven pilot light. To raise the flash point, the volatile glycol or ether glycol is .added. Examples of such glycols and ether glycols are butoxy ethoxy propancl, hexylene glycol, ethoxy triglycol, methoxy triglycol, diethylene glycol monobutylether (butyl 'carbit'ol) and terpinyl ethylene glycol ether (Terposol No. 8). These glycols and ether glycols not only raise the flash point of the alcoholic constituent of the solvent mixture, but also improve the solvent properties of the solvent system with respect to effecting removal of burnt-on fats and other oily or greasy deposits.
The solvent system comprises from 4% to by weight, preferably 10% to 30% by weight, of the concentrate. Of the amount of solvent employed from 4% to 20%, preferably 5% to 10%, is a low boiling aliphatic alcohol, and the rest a volatile glycol or glycol ether; the preferred content of the volatile glycol or glycol ether is about 5% to 20% based on the weight of the concentrate. v
The foam stabilizer or flow retarder is Wax with or without ethyl cellulose or hydroxy ethyl cellulose. The wax has a softening point of from 100 to 200 F. preferably 100 to 140 F. Any of the commercially available waxes such as crude scale wax, beeswax, micro crystalline wax, carnauba wax, and paraflin waxes may be used. The wax may be dissolved in the Warm concentrate or may be added in any suitable form including pellet or powder form directly to the mixture of concentrate and propellant in the container where it will eventually dissolve.
cal Company and the GKN & T ethoxy type ethyl cellulose sold by the Hercules Powder Company can be used.
The amount of wax incorporated in the concentrate should be from 0.2% to 2% by weight. An amount within this range is also 'used when employing a mixture of wax and ethyl cellulose or hydroxy ethyl cellulose as the foam stabilizer or flow retarder. The amount of ethyl cellulose or hydroxy ethyl cellulose incorporated in the concentrate should be from 0.2% to 2% by weight preferably from 0.05% to 0.5% by weight based on the weight of the concentrate. 5
As the amphoteric detergent, any of the following may 'be-used: V
(1) Compounds having the formula:
in which, R is an alkyl group containing from'8 to 18 carbon atoms; n is an integer from 1 to 2; M isfsodium, potassium, ammonium, monoethanolamine, diethanolamine or triethanolamine; and X is hydrogen or an ethoxylated group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms.
the trade narne Triton QS-IS by the Rohm & Haas Co.
(2) Compounds having the formula: 1
in which R is an alkyl group having from 8 to 18 carbon atoms; n isa'n integer from 1 to 2; M is sodium, po-
tassium, ammonium, monoethanolamine, diethanolamine or triethanolamine; and X is hydrogen or an ethoxyl'ated group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms.
Such amphoteric detergents are sold under the trade name Miranol (Miranol Chemical Company).
The non-ionic detergent employed may be any of the following,. or a mixture thereof: polyoxypropylene polyoxy ethylene condensates (Pluronics), polyoxyethylene glycol esters of fatty acids (Ethofats), alkyl phenyl polyethylene glycol ethers (Tergitols), Igepals, polyoxyethylated fatty alcohols (Emulphor), Renex, fatty acid amides (Ninols), ethylene and propylene oxide addition'products of ethylenediamine (Tetronics) and polyalkylene glycols (Ucons). These amphoteric and nonionic detergents are liquid and their incorporation in the cleanser preparation. can. be effected without introducing any water into the system. This is important in a cleanser stored in and dispensed from metal containers.
The above noted amphoteric detergents used alone or with the non-ionic detergents improve the cleansing action in that they tend to dissolve fats and oils, to soften burnt-on deposits, to condition soil encountered on oven surfaces to facilitate their removal and also increase the flash point of the lower aliphatic alcohol constituent of the solvent system. The amphoteric detergent also inhibits attack on the container i.e. minimizes corrosion when employing metal containers, as customary, and also stabilizes the alkalinity of the product i.e. butler-s the alkalinity.
The amount of amphoter-ic detergent, when used alone, incorporated in the concentrate is from to 60% by weight. When used along with an non-ionic detergent, from 10 to 30% amphoteric detergent and to 45% by weight based on the weight of the concentrate, of nonionicdetergent is incorporated in the concentrate. In general, thegreater the amount of caustic alkali the lower the amount of detergent within the above noted ranges, and conversely, the smaller the amount of alkali the greater the amount of detergent employed within the ranges above noted.
The concentrate may also contain 2-ethox'y' ethanol (Cellosolve), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (butylCellosolve), or Z-phenoxyethanol (phenyl Cellosolve'), in amount of from 0.2% to40 based on the weight of the concentrate, preferably from. 1% to about The Cellosolve, butyl or phenyl Cellosolve improves the-solvent system and also facilitates the dissolutionof the-foam stabilizer or flow retarder in the cleanser. While a cleanser containing Cellosolve, butyl or phenyl Cellosolve is preferred, satisfactory results are obtained with cleansers not containing this constituent, hence the invention includes such cleansers as well as those containing Cellosolve, butyl or phenyl Cellosolve.
The propellant, which is employed in amount of from 25% to 75% of the contents of. the container, preferably in amount of from 40% to 60%,the remainder being, the concentrate, may be one or a mixture of the following: dichloro difluoro methane (Freon 12), tetrafiuoro dichloro ethane (Freon 1'14), pentafluoro monochloro ethane (Freon 115), trifluoro t'richloro ethane (Freon 113'), cyclic hexafluoro dichloro butane (Freon C-316), octafluoropropane (Freon 218),, cyclic octafluoro butane (Freon C 318), propane, butane, pentane, i'sobutane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane anddecane. The pros pellant employed should be chosen so that it has the desired vapor pressure at atmospheric temperature, i.e., generates a pressure within the container to effect di'spensing of the cleanser, which pressure is within safe limits for the container in which the cleanser is disposed to produce the package. Also the propellant should not hydrolyze or otherwise react with the alkah in the system to lose its effectiveness as the propellant, nor should it react chemically with the alkali, detergent, solvent, flow retarder or other constituent of the cleanser to deleteriously afiecttheir solvent or cleansing, action.
The propellants above mentioned have been found suitable; the preferred propellant is a mixture of'dichloro difluoro methane and tetrafluoro dichloro ethane in approximately equal proportions. These propellants employed in the proportions above indicated are soluble in the solvent system. Thus in the package the propellant is substantially completely dissolved in the concentrate and the contents are under the vapor pressure generated by the propellant usually of the order of from 40 to 65 pounds per square inch gauge. Upon opening the dispensing valve the contents emerge as a foam which covers the spot to be cleaned, softens the burnt-on deposits, reacts with the oils and fats to saponify them, emulsifies unreacted' and reacted fats, oils and other soil present and in general conditions the charred fatty material and soil so that they are readily removed by a simple wiping action of the treated surface with an absorbent material such as cloth or paper. The surface to be cleaned should be wetted or moistened with water prior to spraying the cleaning mixture thereon. Water present on the surface activates the alkali and thus speeds the cleansing action.
When the cleanser mixture is stored in glass or other containers of a material not subject to corrosion by alkali, e.g., alkali resistant plastics such as polyethylene containers, the cleansing preparation may contain a small amount of Water of the order of from 0.25% to 3% based on the weight of the concentrate. The presence of such amount of water aids in the cleansing action.
The following examples are illustrative of the present invention which, it will be understood, is not limited to these examples. In the examples which follow, the percentage values are on a weight basis. The propellant used in all examples was a mixture of Freon 12 and Freon 114 in equal proportions. Other propellants mentioned above can be substituted for the mixture of Freons 12 and 114 and would, of course, be selected to give the desired vapor pressure.
Group AExamples These examples involved the use of sodium N-coc'o p-aminopropionate (Deriphat) as the amphoteric detergent.
Group B Examples These examples involved the use of Triton QS-lS containing. about. 15 mols of ethylene oxide per mol of sodium acyl alkyl amine.
Constituent Ex. 3, Ex. 4, Ex. 5, Ex. 6,
percent percent percent percent Potassium Hydroxide; 2.5 i 2.5 Methyl A1coh0l -...e .0 10.0
Butoxy Ethoxy Propanolmoors:
canoe Ethyl Cellulose cps Wax (Beeswax MP. Pluronic L-62 Propellant Other non-ionic detergents, such as those enumerated above, can be substituted for the Pluronic L-62 in the above examples; other amphoteric detergents can be substituted for those employed in the above examples; and other Wa-Xes can be used instead of the microcrystalline and the beeswax of the above examples.
In all cases the resultant products whenapplieiform an excellent foam,- having exceptionally good cleansing action. l
The above examples as well as other cleansers embodying' this invention may be prepared by mixing the constituents of the concentrate at a temperature such that the wax dissolves Le. 120140 F., the mixture chilled to a temperature at or below the temperature at which the propellant is in the liquid phase and the chilled mixture introduced into the dispensing container,
Alternatively the constituents of the concentrate except the wax may be mixed at room temperature, the mixture chilledtoa temperature at or below the temperature at which the propellant is in the liquid phase and the chilled mixturealong with the wax introduced into the dispensing container. Thereafter the propellant under refrigeration and in the liquid phase is introduced into the dispensing container, dissolving in the solution of the concentrate. The container is then sealed. Upon standing, the temperature of the container rises to room temperature placing the concentrate under the vapor pressure of the propellant.
Upon opening of the valve which controls the discharge from the dispensing container, a stable foam results,'which foam has little tendency to flow, blanketing the spot or spots to which it is applied and effecting softening and dissolving of burnt-on and other tenacious oily or greasy deposits which become emulsified and readily removable by a simple wiping treatment. After the burnt-on or greasy deposits become emulsified they are removed with either a damp cloth or sponge. If the deposit is heavy, a second application of the oven cleanser may be necessary or a steel wool or soap pad may be used to eifect complete removal of such heavy deposits.
It will be noted that the present invention provides a cleanser par icularly adapted for use in cleaning ovens and similar surfaces, which cleanser can readily be applied, is exceptionally eflicient in use in efiecting removal of burnt-on fatty deposits and is safe to use, presenting no fire hazards when applied to surfaces which are at room temeprature or near room temperature. In the case of the volatile combustible propellants mentioned (the hydrocarbons) there is a fire hazard if sprayed near or over a lighted pilot light. In the absence of a pilot light this hazard does not exist, e.g., it does not exist in the case of electric ovens, oven racks which are cleaned separately, charcoal grilles, etc.
This application is a continuation-in-part of our copending application Serial No. 769,585, filed October 27, 1958.
Since'certain changes may be made in the above described cleanser and different embodiments of the invention could be made without departing from the scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
What is claimed is:-
l. A package consisting of a pressure-tight container having a valve-controlled opening and containing a composition for use in cleansing ovens and similar surfaces and consisting of a substantially anhydrous cleansing concentrate. and a volatile propellant dissolved in said cleansing concentrate, said package containing from 25% to 75% by weight of propellant with the rest being said concentrate, said concentrate being confined in the container under the vapor pressure of the propellant and consisting essentially of:
(1) from 1% to by weight of a caustic alkali from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide;
(2) from 4% to 60% by Weight of an alcoholic solvent mixture, said mixture consisting of from 4% to by weight of an aliphatic alcohol containing from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, and. the rest of said mixture beinga compound selected from the group consisting of a glycol containing from 2 to 20' carbon atoms and a glycol ether containing from 4 to 20 carbon atoms;
(3) a flow retarder compatible with the other constituents of said composition and which retards flow of said cleansing concentrate and stabilizes the foam produced by said concentrate, said flow retarder selected from the group consisting of from .2% to 2% of wax and mixtures of from .2% to 2% of wax with from .2% to 2% of a material from the group consisting of ethyl cellulose and hydroxy ethyl cellulose; and V (4) from 10% to 60% by weight of an amphoteric detergent from the group consisting of (1) detergents having the formula (0H2)n00 0M i formula 151' O H/zO H: 0 1120 M R1C-III\ OX (0H2) 11C 0 OM in which R is an alkyl group having from 8 to 18 carbon atoms, n is an integer from 1 to 2, M is from the group consisting of sodium, potassium, ammo-' nium, monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and triethanolamine, and X is from the group consisting of hydrogen and an ethoxylated group having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms.
2. Thepackage as defined in claim 1, in which said cleansing concentrate also includes from .2% to 40% by weight of a member selected from thegroup consisting of 2-ethoxy ethanol, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and 2-phenoxy-etharrol.
3. A package consisting of a pressure-tight container having a valve-controlled opening and containing a composition for use in cleansing ovens and similar surfaces and consisting of a substantially anhydrous cleansing concentrate and a volatile propellant dissolved in said cleansing concentrate, said package containing from 25 to 75% by Weight of propellant with the rest being said concentrate, said concentrate being confined in the containerunder the vapor pressure of the propellant and consisting essentially of:
(1) from 1% to 10% by weight of a caustic alkali from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide;
(2) from 4% to 60% by weight of an alcoholic solvent mixture, said mixture consisting of from 4% to 20% by weight of an aliphatic alcohol contain- 1 ing from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, and the rest of said mixture being a compound selected from the group consisting of a glycol containing from 2 to 20 carbon atoms and a glycol ether containing from 4 to 20 carbon atoms;
(3) a flow retarder selected from the group consist- (4) fiom 10% to 30% by Weight of an am'ph'oteric (5) from 15% to 45% by weight'of a non-ionic deterd'etergent from the group consisting of (1) detergent from the group consisting of polyoX-ypropylenc gents having the formula polyoxyethylene condensates, polyoxyethylene glycol esters of fatty acids, alkyl phenyl' polyethylene mGOOM 5 glycol 'ethers, polyoxyethylated fatty alcohols, fatty BIN acidamides and ethylene and propylene oxide ad dition products of ethylenediamine.
in which 1 is, an alkyl g p containing from 8 to References Cited in the file of this patent 18 carbon atoms, n is an integer from 1 to 2, M 10 UNITED STAT ES PATENTS is from the group consisting of sodium, potassium, 1,892,750 Rotheim Jan. 3, 1933 ammonium, monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and 2,468,012 Isbell Apr. 19, 1949 triethanol'amine, and X is from the group consisting 2,524,590 Boe Oct. 3, 1950 of hydrogen and an ethoxylated group having from 2,619,467 Isbell Nov. 25, 1952 1 to carbon atoms, and (2) detergents having 2,716,637 Bunting Aug. 30, 1955 the formula 2,755,209 Duncan July 17, 1956 2,827,439 Helper et al Mar. 18, 1958 2 2,860,977 Tregillus Nov. 18, 1958 CmGmOM 20 2,897,104 Duncan July 28, 1959 R, -1l1 OTHER REFERENCES ()X (0H2)n00oM John: Modern Polishers and Specialties (1947),
' Chem. Publ. Co., page 288. in whichR is an alkyl group having from 8 to 18 Lesser: Soap and Sanitary Chemicals, October 1952, carbon atoms, n is an integer from 1 to 2, M is from pp. 42-45, 169. the group consisting of. sodium, potassium, ammoni- Pickthall: Manufacturing Chemist, December 1957, um, monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and triethpp. 541 and 542. anolamine, and X is from the group consisting of hy- The Miranol Amphoteric Surface Active Agents, The
drogen and an ethoxylated group having front 1 t0 Miranol Chemical Co. Inc., recd. April 29, 1958, pages 20 carbon atoms; and 2-12.