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Publication numberUS3032097 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 1, 1962
Filing dateJul 7, 1958
Priority dateJul 7, 1958
Publication numberUS 3032097 A, US 3032097A, US-A-3032097, US3032097 A, US3032097A
InventorsMarshall David M
Original AssigneeBabcock & Wilcox Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for burning fluent fuel
US 3032097 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 1952 D. M. MARSHALL 3,032,097

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR BURNING FLUENT FUEL Filed July 7, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG.7

INVENTOR.

David M. Marshall ATTORNEY D. M. MARSHALL 3,032,097

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR BURNING FLUENT FUEL May 1962 Filed July 7, 1958 INVENTOR.

David M. Marshall ATTORNEY 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Patent Ofifice Patented 3,032,097 IVHETHGD AND APPARATUS FOR BURNING FLUENT FUEL David M. Marshall, Packanack Lake, N.J.. assignor to The Bahcock 8: Wilcox Company, New York, N.Y., a

corporation of New Jersey Filed July 7, 1958, Ser. No. 746,689 12 Claims. (6i. 158-11) This invention relates to a method and apparatus for burning a fluent fuel, and more specifically to an improved method and apparatus for burning a gaseous fuel, the instant invention constituting an improvement over that disclosed in US. Patent No. 2,826,249.

In firing furnaces or combustion chambers of a vapor or steam generator and the like, it is generally customary to utilize burner means capable of burning either oil, gas and/or coal, separately or in combination depending on the amount and availability of a particular fuel. Combination oil and multiple spud gas burners of the kind disclosed in the aforementioned patent have been found to be generally satisfactory for firing steam generators, for example, where oil and gas are the principal fuels to be burned. However, in the operation of the multiple spud gas burner having all of the gas discharge orifices located in the tip end of the spuds, actual experience has shown that at gas pressures of approximately 1 lb. per sq. in. occurring at the lower boiler loads, flame instability and poor combustion are noted with the flame being completely extinguished when the gas pressure drops to lb. per sq. in. When such flame-out occurs likeli hood of an explosion in the furnace is quite possible.

Therefore an object of this invention is to provide a novel method and means for burning a fuel so as to attain reliable flame stability and good combustion at very low fuel pressures, e.g. at gas pressure ranging from 1 lb. per sq. in. to less than that of 4 inches of water gas pressure which is desirable for very low load operation of a steam generator.

Another object is to provide an improved method of burning fuel and means for practising the same wherein the requisite stability and good combustion characteristics at very low fuel pressures are attained over an extended range of burner capacities.

The method by which the above objects are attained comprises essentially the steps of imparting a whirling motion to a supply of combustion air to form a whirling band of air and introducing a fluent fuel into the band of whirling air to be mixed therewith. Accordingly, the fuel is divided into a plurality of fuel streams for in troduction into the whirling band of air, a portion of the fuel streams being introduced thereinto with directional components generally counter to and radially inwardly toward the center or vortex of the rotating or whirling band, and another portion of the fuel streams being introduced thereinto in a substantially diametrically opposed direction with directional components which are generally in the direction of the whirling band of air and radially outwardly toward the outer periphery thereof.

While the gas burning apparatus for practicing the foregoing method may be susceptible of a number of variations of a preferred form to be herein described, the instant gas burning apparatus and the variations thereof for practising this invention comprise essentially an air register arranged in communication with a burner port which extends through a wall portion of a combustion chamber, means for imparting a whirling movement to the combustion air to form a rotating band of air, and a fluent fuel or gas burner for ejecting the fuel into the band of air in a definite manner with respect thereto to be mixed therewith. More specifically the gas burner includes an endless or annular gas manifold which is re moved from the heat of the furnace and is arranged to be disposed in a plane parallel to the plane of a burner throat port in a furnacewall, the manifold being connected to a source of gas supply under pressure. Spaced about the gas manifold and connected thereto preferably by readily releasable coupling means are a plurality of individually removable elongated gas spuds which are substantially equal in length and which extend through the air register and toward the burner throat, the tip ends of the gas spuds being arranged so as to have their free ends terminate in a plane substantially parallel to the entrance opening of the burner throat. Where the gas burner, herein described, is utilized in conjunction with an oil burner as disclosed in U.S. Patent 2,826,249, the free ends of the gas spuds are likewise disposed in a circle concentric about an impeller utilized in conjunction therewith.

According to this invention each of the gas spuds are disposed within the whirling band of air so as to have an opposed windward and leeward wall portion with respect to the whirling air, each spud having a plurality of gas discharge orifices longitudinally spaced in the windward wall portion and arranged to direct streams of gas into the whirling air band with directional components that are generally counter to and toward the inner periphery of the whirling air band. Substantially diametrically opposed orifices located in the leeward wall portion are an ranged to discharge other streams of fuel with directional components that are generally in the direction of and toward the outer periphery of the air flow. If desired the face portion of the spud exposed to furnace radiation may be provided with a fuel discharge orifice whereby the relatively cool gas flowing therethrough serves to cool thetipend. Y

A feature of the invention resides in the provision whereby the instant gas burner may be utilized in conjunction with a liquid fuel burner and may be fired separately or in combination therewith.

Another feature resides in the provision of an improved gas spud having an extended range of capacities.

Still another feature resides in the provision wherein the low pressure limit at which flame-out occurs is materially lowered.

And still another feature resides in the provision that the operating load range of a steam generator utilizing the instant burner arrangement is appreciatively increased.

And still another feature of this invention resides in the provision that the improved gas burner is relatively simple in construction, economical to fabricate, easily maintained and positive in operation.

Other features and advantages will be readily apparent when considered in view of the drawings and description in which FIG. 1 is a sectional side view of the improved gas burner of the instant invention illustrated in conjunction with a liquid fuel burner;

FIG. 2 is a furnace end view of the improved burner of this invention illustrating the manner in which the streams of fuel gas are introduced with respect to the whirling band of air.

FIG. 3 is an enlarged detail view of the fuel discharge end portion of an improved gas spud in accordance with this invention.

FIG. 4 is a furnace end view illustrating the face portions of the gas spud illustrated in FIG. 5.

FIG. 5 is a section taken along line 55 of FIG. 3.

FIG. 6 is an enlarged detail view of a modified gas spud fuel discharge end portion.

FIG. 7 is a front view of the spud illustrated in FIG. 6.

While the burner of the instant invention may be utilized as a gas burner only, it will be noted that the novel gas burner arrangement herein described is readily adapted for use in a multiple fuel burner arrangement whereby either a liquid fuel atomizing means and/ or a pulverized coal .burning means may be utilized in conjunction therewith for burning an alternate fuel, either separately or in combination therewith. However, for the purpose of description, the improved gas burner of the instant invention is herein illustrated in an arrangement in combination with a liquid fuel burning means.

Referring to the drawings, the burner combination is illustrated with the instant gas burning means 11 in combination with a liquid fuel atomizing means 12 which may be, for example, of the type shown in U.S. Patent 2,260,062. Accordingly, the liquid fuel atomizing means 12 is mounted centrally of a circular type burner 10 whichis in alignment with burner throat 13 extending into port 14 formed in a wall portion 15 of a furnace of a steam generating unit or the like. The burner throat 13 is formed of a suitable refractory material and includes a cylindrical relatively short entrance section 13a which is continuou with a diverging conduit section 1% leading into the interior of the furnace. Spaced from the furnace wall 15 and extending substantially parallel thereto is an outer casing 16 in which the space formed therebetween constitutes an air plenum 17 for the how of combustion air from a forced draft fan (not shown) to the burner port.

An air entrance means in the form of a truncated cone 18 is supported immediately adjacent to the exterior side of the port 14 to direct air into the port. In the illustrated arrangement, the directing cone 18 converges toward the entrance of the port, the cone being supported to a structural frame work extending between the furnace wall 15 and the casing 16. The combustion air is directed to the come 18 from an air register 1 having an outer wall 20 and an inner wall 21, inner wall 21 being connected to the entrance cone 18. It will be noted that between the walls 20 and 21, the air register is provided with adjustable air doors 22 suitably controlled by operating means 23. The adjustment of the doors 22 impart a whirling or swirling movement to the air which is supplemented by a plurality of vanes 24 in cone 18 so that the air discharging from the register tends to'form a whirling band of air hugging the peripheral portion of the throat.

An annular cover plate 25 closes an access opening 26 in the casing 16 and a cylindrical housing or casing 27 extends inwardly from the inner periphery of the access cover plate 25 through the air plenum 17 to the outer wall 20 of the air register 19, the casing or housing 2'7 embracing the burner means 11 and 12 which extend therethrough. The outer ends of the two fuel dispersing means 11 and 12 extend through the small circular cover 28 closing the central opening in the annular cover plate 25, the circular cover 28 forming an outer closure for the casing or housing 27.

The circular cover 28 supports a central sleeve member 29 through which there extends a distance piece 39 forming part 'of the fuel oil atomizer 12. If desired, the distance piece 30 may be rendered axially adjustable along the central axis of the burner 10. At the outer end of the distance piece there is connected thereto a liquid fuel supply assembly 31 which connects the fuel pipe or oil burner barrel 32 disposed centrally of the distance piece 30 with a source of fuel and oil (not shown). On the innerend of the barrel 32, there is provided a fuel atomizing head 33 which is spaced a short distance from the burner port, the atomizing head 33: being preferably of the type producing a conical spray of atomized oil having the axis of the conical spray co-axial with the entrance cone 18 and the burner port 14.

Attached to the inner end of the distance piece 30 and externally surrounding the atomizer head 33 is an air deflector or impeller means in the shape of a truncated cone 34 having the base 34a thereof extending outwardly toward the furnace chamber, the impeller-cone being concentrically disposed about the longitudinal axis of the burner means it). The conical surface of the impeller means is provided with a series of equally spaced air openings 35 and corresponding air deflector plates or vanes 36 associated therewith for imparting a whirling motion to the air directed through the impeller to the central portion of the burner port. If desired, an observation port (not shown) may be provided in the circular cover 23. Also an igniting means (not shown) is provided. Intermediate the ends of the distance piece 30 and more closely adjacent the forward end of the oil burner 12, there is provided a support member or spider 38 for supporting the distance piece in position within the casing 27.

The improved gas burner arrangement 11 of the instant invention includes an endless or annular gas manifold 39 disposed in a plane substantially parallel to the burner port 14 and spaced therefrom, the manifold 3? being disposed immediately adjacent the cover plate 28 on the outer side thereof. Means (not shown) are suitably arranged to connect the manifold to a suitable source of gas supply under pressure. Spacially disposed and preferably equidistantly spaced about a peripheral portion of the gas manifold, there are provided a plurality of nipples 4% in communication with the interior of the manifold 39.

r Releasably connected to the other end of each nipple 4% is an elongated gas conduit or spud 42. As shown the plurality of elongated gas spuds 42 are concentrically disposed about the longitudinal axis of the burner, the spuds 42 extending through spaced openings 43 in the circular cover 28 and inwardly through the casing 27 toward the burner port 14.

In accordance with this invention the gas spuds may have a discharge end portion conforming to a number-of different shapes, two forms of which are herein illustrated. Referring to FIGS. 3 to 5 the discharge end portion of the gas spuds includes a tip end 43 having a pairof converging side faces 44 disposed in planes extending at opposite oblique angles to an axial plane of the spud and intersect therein, the side faces 44 terminating just short of the line of intersection. The side faces 44 thus formed are joined by a relatively narrow central face portion '45. The opposite ends of the central face portion 45 terminate in end faces 46 which are located in oblique planes disposed at right angles to the oblique planes of the side faces 44. Because the tip 43 is exposed to the heat of furnace radiation, it is preferably made of a high heatresistant alloy casting and is joined by suitable means to an alloy pipe which forms the barrel portion 4'7 of the spud. In addition the faces 44, 45 and as may be provided with one or more orifices 48 so that the relatively cool gases flovyiing therethrough assists in maintaining the tip end 43 coo Important to the successful operation of the instant gas burner is the particular arrangement of the discharge orifices 49 spaced longitudinally along the barrel portion 47 of the spuds 42 adjacent the tip end 43 as will now be described.

Referring to FIG. 5 it will be noted that the orifices 49 in a wall portion of the spud barrel have diametrically disposed counterpart orifices 49 in the opposite Wall portion thereof, the arrangement being such that a major portion of the orifices 49 in one of the wall portions lie below the horizontal axial plane, as viewed in FIG. 5, while the orifices 49' diametrically opposed thereto in theopposite wall lie above the horizontal axial plane. For example, in a gas burner having a capacity of 63 MBK/hr. and having 8 spuds as illustrated, the discharge end portions of the spud barrels are drilled so as to have four rows of radially drilled orifices A, B, C, and D in one wall and diametrically disposed rows A, B, C, and D of orifices 49 disposed in the opposite Wall; the orifices in one row being staggered relative to the orifices in the next adjacent row. It is to be further noted that the rows in each of the opposed wall portions are angularly displaced from one another by approximately 11% so that row A is positioned at approximately 22 /2" below the horizontal centerline as viewed in FIG. 3 and row D being approximately 11% above the centerline. Thus the spacing of the diametrically disposed row of orifices A B C and D' with respect to the horizontal centerline, as viewed in FIG. 3, is opposite to that of rows A, B, C and D. For example, orifices 4% in row A are approximately 22 /2 above the centerline and row D being approximately 11% below the centerline, rows C and C being on the centerline.

In accordance with this invention the spuds 42 with the drillings herein described are disposed within the band of whirling air and are arranged so that their discharge end portions are disposed adjacent the throat 13 in the circle concentric with the periphery thereof. It will be further noted that the spuds are arranged so that the central face portion 45 of each spud is disposed radially about the axis of the burner as best seen in FIG. 2. With the spuds 42 so arranged it will be noted that the wall portion containing rows A, B, C and D is directed into the rotating air to form the windward side of the spud when the band of air is whirling in a counterclockwise direction as indicated by the air flow arrows St) in FIG. 2. Thus the wall portions of each spud containing row A, B, C and D is directed away from the flow of air and constitutes the leeward wall portion of the spuds.

With the spuds thus disposed Within the rotating air band, orifices 4-5 on the windward wall portion tend to discharge a major portion of the gases issuing therefrom in a direction which is generally counter to the rotation of the air flow and toward the axis or inner periphery of the rotating band of air as indicated by arrow 51. The orifices 4 9' in the leeward wall portion of the spud 42 on the other hand tend to direct a major portion of the gases in the general direction as that of the rotating air and outwardly toward the outer periphery thereof as indicated by arrows 51A, in which the resultant directional component is generally opposite that which occurs on the windward wall portion. With this arrangement wherein the spud drillings or orifices 49, 49' in the barrel portion 47 thereof direct the major portion of the gases outwardly therefrom in the directions described with respect to the direction of the whirling band of air, experiments have indicated that good combustion characteristics are attained at gas pressure below 4 inches of water. This is believed to be due to the particular directional components and velocities of the gases with respect to that of the rotating air flow which results in more of the gas being influenced by the whirling band of air in a manner to enhance mixing of the gas and air.

With the arrangement above described it has been further discovered that flame stability is likewise enhanced throughout the operating range of the gas burner. This is believed to be due to the eddies or turbulence created by the air in flowing over the barrel portion 4-7 of the spuds 42 to produce a condition that tends to promote flame stabilization.

The spud arrangement illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7 is identical to that of FIG. 3 with the exception that at the face portion 52 thereof is Hat and has at least one orifice 53 therein for cooling as hereinbefore described. When utilized in a burner arrangement as described, the orifices 5'4 in the barrel portion 55 thereof are disposed with respect to the air flow in the same manner as herein de scribed.

In the gas burner arrangement described it will be noted that the capacities or rating of the burner may be readily increased or decreased as may be required by either increasing or decreasing the number of spuds and/ or varying the number of orifices in the barrel portion thereof. Since the capacity of a spud burner is largely dependent on the number of orifices drilled therein, it will be noted that by spacing the holes along the length of the barrel substantially in the manner described a greater range of burner capacities may be attained over those spud arrangements wherein orifices are restricted to the tip end only and thus limited in number of orifices which could be disposed therein due to the relatively small area thereof. Thus the capacity of the instant arrangement is not limited by the area of the tip ends.

While the structural details of the gas burner described may vary depending on desired burner size or capacity which may require more or less spuds and/or orifices drilled therein, the method of burning the gaseous fuel remains unchanged. Generally the improved method of burning a gaseous fuel which is practiced by an embodiment of the apparatus herein described comprises the steps of imparting a whirling movement to a supply of air to form a whirling mass or band of combustion air and introducing a plurality of gas streams into the whirling air band at a plurality of substantially equally spaced points within the band of whirling air. Accordingly, at each point of gas introduction, the gas is injected into the air stream in diametrically opposed directions. With respect to the direction of air flow, a portion of the gas introduced at the given points is directed with a resultant component which is counter to the air flow and toward the inner periphery of the band of air and another portion of the gas at the point being directed in an opposite direction having a resultant component which is generally in the direction of and toward the outer periphery of the moving band of air.

While the instant invention has been disclosed with reference to a particular method and a particular embodiment for practising the same, it is to be appreciated that the invention is not to be taken as limited to all of the details thereof as modifications and variations thereof may be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

l. A burner comprising a throat adapted to extend through a furnace wall, an air register for receiving combustion air in communication with said burner throat, means for imparting a whirling movement to said air discharging from said register to form a band of whirling air tending to hug the periphery of said throat, and burner means for discharging fuel into said whirling band of air to be mixed therewith, said burner means including a tubular spud having a tip end adjacent the throat and disposed within the whirling band of air so as to have a wall portion thereof windward and an opposed wall portion thereof leeward with respect to said whirling air, means supplying a fuel to said spud, said spud having fuel discharge orifices disposed in said windward wall portion to direct the major portion of the stream of fuel discharging therefrom toward the inner periphery and counter to said whirling air band and fuel discharge orifices disposed in said leeward wall portion to direct a major portion of the stream of fuel discharged therefrom toward the outer periphery and in the general direction of said whirling air band.

2. In combination with a furnace wall having a burner throat port extending therethrough, an air register for receiving combustion air in communication with said burner throat port, means for imparting a whirling movement to said air discharging from said register to form a band of whirling air tending to hug the periphery of said throat port, and gas burner means discharging streams of gas into said whirling band of air to be mixed therewith, said gas burner means including a tubular gas spud having a tip end adjacent the throat port and disposed within the whirling band of air so as to have a wall portion thereof windward and an opposed wall portion thereof leeward with respect to said whirling air, means supplying a fuel gas to said spud, said spud having a plurality of gas discharge orifices disposed in said windward wall portion to direct a major portion of the streams of gas discharging therefrom toward the inner periphery of said whirling air band and a plurality of orifices disposed in said leeward wall portion to direct a major portion of the streams of gas discharging therefrom toward the outer periphery of said whirling air band, said orifices being spaced longitudinally along a length of said spud adjacent the tip end thereof.

3. In combination with a furnace wall having a burner throat port extending therethrough, an air register for receiving combustion air in communication with said burner throat port, means for imparting a whirling movement to said air discharging from said register to form a band of whirling air tending to hug the periphery of said throat port, and gas burner means discharging streams of gas into said whirling band of air to be mixed therewith, said gas burner means including a plurality of elongated tubular gas spuds and each having its tip end adjacent the throat port, said gas spuds being disposed within the whirling band of air so as to have a wall portion thereof windward and an opposed wall portion thereof leeward with respect to said whirling air flowing thereover, means supplying a fuel gas to said spuds, each of said spuds having a plurality of gas discharge orifices disposed in said windward wall portion to direct a major portion of the streams of gas discharging from the windward orifices toward the inner periphery of said whirling air band and a plurality of gas discharge orifices disposed in said leeward wall portion to direct a major portion of the streams of gas discharging from the leeward orifices toward the outer periphery of said whirling air band, said orifices being adjacent the tip end and longitudinally spaced along a length of said spud.

4. In combination with a furnace wall having a burner throat port extending therethrough, an air register for receiving combustion air in communication with said burner throat port, means for imparting a whirling movement to said air discharging from said register to form a band of whirling air tending to hug the periphery of said throat port, and gas burner means discharging streams of gas into said whirling bands of air to be mixed therewith, said gas burner means including a plurality of elongated, tubular gas spuds having their tip ends adjacent and circumferentially spaced within the periphery of and about the axis of said throat port, said gas spuds being disposed within the whirling band of air so as to have a wall portion thereof windward and an opposed wall portion thereof leeward with respect to said whirling air flowing thereover, means supplying a fuel gas to said spuds, each of said spuds having a plurality of gas discharge orifices disposed in said windward wall portion to direct a major portion of the streams of gas discharging therefrom toward the inner periphery of said whirling air band and a plurality of gas discharge orifices disposed in said leeward wall porton to direct a major portion of the streams of gas discharging therefrom toward the outer periphery of said whirling air band, said orifices being diametrically opposed and longitudinally spaced along a length of said spud adjament the tip end thereof.

5. In combination with a furnace wall having a burner throat port extending therethrough, an air register for receiving combustion air in communication with said burner throat port, means for imparting a whirling movement to said air discharging from said register to form a band of whirling air tending to hug the periphery of said throat port, and gas burner means discharging streams of gas into said whirling band of air to be mixed therewith, said gas burner means including a plurality of elongated tubuiar gas spuds having their tip ends adjacent the throat port, means supplying a fuel gas to said spuds, said tip end each having a face portion disposed in a plane oblique to an axial plane of said spud, said face portions having a fuel discharge orifice therein, said gas spuds being disposed within the whirling band of air so as to have a wall portion thereof windward and an opposed wall portion thereof leeward with respect to said whirling air flowing thereover, each of said spuds having a row of gas discharge orifices disposed in said windward til 0 0 wall portion to direct streams of gas toward the inner periphery of said whirling air band and a row of gas discharge orifices disposed in said leeward wall portion to direct streams of gas toward the outer periphery of said whirling air band, said rows of orifices being diametrically opposed and extending longitudinally along a length of said spuds adjacent the tip ends thereof.

6. In combination with a furnace wall having a burner throat port extending therethrough, an air register for receiving combustion air in communication with said burner throat port, means for imparting a whirling movement to said air discharging from said register to form a band of whirling air tending to hug the periphery of said throat port, and gas burner means discharging streams of gas into said whirling band of air to be mixed therewith, said gas burner means including a plurality of elongated, tubular gas spuds having their tip ends adjacent the throat port, means supplying a fuel gas to said spuds, each of said tip ends having a pair of oblique face portions intersecting in an axial plane, a fuel discharge orifice in at least one of said face portions of said tip ends, said gas spuds being disposed within the whirling band of air so as to have a wall portion thereof windward and an opposed wall portion thereof leeward with respect to said whirling air flowing thereover, each of said spuds having a row of gas discharge orifices disposed in said windward wall portion to direct streams of gas toward the inner periphery of said whirling air band and a row of gas discharge orifices disposed in said leeward wall portion to direct streams of gas toward the outer periphery of said whirling air band, said rows of orifices being diametrical- 1y opposed and extending longitudinally along a length of said spuds adjacent the tip ends thereof.

7. The invention as defined in claim 6 wherein said gas spuds are circumferentially spaced within the periphery of and about the axis of said throat port with the intersection of said oblique face portions directed radially about the axis of said port.

8. An improved combination oil and/or gas burner comprising a circular burner throat adapted to extend into a burner port in a furnace wall, an air register for receiving combustion air in communication with said burner throat, means for imparting a whirling movement to said air discharging from said register to form a band of whirling air tending to hug the periphery of said throat, an oil atomizing means extending through said air register and toward said port, an impeller supported by said atomizing means adjacent said throat and concentrically disposed with the periphery of said throat, and gas burner means discharging streams of gas into said whirling band of air to be mixed therewith, said gas burner means inbinding a plurality of elongated, tubular gas spuds circumferentially spaced about said atomizing means, means supplying a fuel gas to said spuds, said spuds having their tip ends disposed adjacent the throat in a circle concentric with the periphery of said throat, each of said tip ends having a face portion, a fuel discharge orifice in said face portions, said gas spuds being disposed within the whirling band of air so as to have a wall portion thereof windward and an opposed wall portion thereof leeward with respect to said whirling air flowing thereover, each of said spuds having a plurality of gas discharge orifices disposed in said windward wall portion to direct a major portion of the streams of gas discharging therefrom toward the inner periphery of said whirling air band and a plurality of gas discharge orifices disposed in said leeward wall portion to direct a major portion of the streams of gas discharging therefrom toward the outer periphery of said whirling air band, said orifices in said wall portions being diametrically opposed in rows that extend longitudinally along a length of said spuds adjacent the tip ends thereof.

9. An improved combination oil and/or gas burner comprising a circular burner throat adapted to extend into a burner port in a furnace wall, an air register for receiving combustion air in communication with said burner throat, means for imparting a whirling movement to said air discharging from said register to form a band of whirling air tending to hug the periphery of said throat, an oil atomizing means extending through said air register and toward said port, an impeller supported by said atomizing means adjacent said throat and concentrically disposed with the periphery of said throat, and gas burner means discharging streams of gas into said whirling band of air to be mixed therewith, said gas burner means including an endless gas manifold, a plurality of elongated, tubular gas spuds connected to and circumferentially spaced about said manifold, said spuds extending through said air register and having their free tip ends disposed adjacent the throat in a circle concentric with the periph ery of said throat, each of said tip ends having a pair of face portions lying in oblique planes with respect to an axial plane of its respective spud and said oblique faces intersecting in said axial plane, a fuel discharge orifice in at least one face portion of said tip ends, said tip ends being circumferentially spaced about the axis of said throat so that the respective intersections of the planes of said oblique face portions are radially disposed about said axis of said throat, said gas spuds being disposed within the whirling band of air so as to have a wall portion thereof windward and an opposed portion thereof leeward with respect to said whirling air flowing thereover, each of said spuds having a row of gas discharge orifices disposed in said windward wall portion to direct streams of gas toward the inner periphery of said whirling air band and a row of gas: discharge orifices disposed in said leeward wall portion to direct streams of gas toward the outer periphery of said whirling air band, said rows of orifices being diametrically opposed and extending longitudinally along a length of said spuds adjacent the tip ends thereof.

10. An improved method of burning a fluent fuel comprising the steps of introducing a supply of combustion air into an air register of a burner, imparting a whirling movement to said air to form a band of whirling air, discharging a fluent fuel into said whirling band of air to be mixed therewith so that a portion of said fuel has a directional vector generally counter to the direction of the whirling air and toward the inner periphery of said whirling band of air and another portion of said fuel having a directional vector in the general direction of said whirling air and toward the outer periphery of said whirling band of air.

ll. An improved method of burning a. fluent fuel comprising the steps of introducing a supply of combustion air into an air register of a burner, imparting a whirling movement to said air to form a band of whirling air as said air egresses from said register, introducing a fluent fuel into said whirling band of air to be mixed therewith, dividing said fuel into a plurality of fuel streams, directing a portion of said fuel in a direction having a vector which is generally in a direction counter to that of the whirling air and toward the inner periphery of said whirling band of air and directing another portion of said fuel in a direction having a vector in the same general direction of said whirling air and toward the outer periphery of said whirling band of air.

12. An improved gas spud comprising an elongated tubular fuel conduit having a tip end and longitudinal ex tending opposed wall portions disposed on opposite sides of an axial plane extending longitudinally of said conduit, said tip end having a face portion, said face portion having a fuel discharge opening therein, a plurality of fuel discharge orifices spaced in rows angularly disposed about the axis of said conduit, said rows extending longitudinally in each of said opposed wall portions of said conduit adjacent the tip end thereof, the rows of orifices in each of said wall portions being diametrically opposed and arranged so that a majority of the orifices in one of said opposed wall portions are disposed within a substantially 25 angle on one side of a second axial plane extending longitudinally of said conduit and disposed perpendicular to said first mentioned axial plane and said second plane including one leg of said angle.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,093,499 Tobias Apr. 14, 1914 2,439,609 Mittendorf Apr. 13, 1948 2,826,249 Poole Mar. 11, 1958 FOREIGN PATENTS 310,580 Italy Aug. 25, 1933

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3163203 *Dec 6, 1961Dec 29, 1964Brown Fintube CoLiquid and gaseous fuel burner
US3179152 *Feb 9, 1961Apr 20, 1965Babcock & Wilcox CoCombination oil and gas burner
US3302684 *Apr 15, 1965Feb 7, 1967Aero Flow Dynamics IncCombination gas and liquid fuel burner
US3330485 *Jun 28, 1965Jul 11, 1967Siemon Mfg CompanyGas burner having an air deflector plate
US3349826 *Jun 9, 1965Oct 31, 1967Babcock & Wilcox CoCombination oil and gas burner
US4373896 *Apr 3, 1981Feb 15, 1983Zwick Eugene BBurner construction
US4374637 *Oct 31, 1978Feb 22, 1983Zwick Energy Research Organization, Inc.Burner construction
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Classifications
U.S. Classification431/9, 431/176
International ClassificationF23D17/00, F23D14/20, F23D14/00
Cooperative ClassificationF23D14/20, F23D17/002
European ClassificationF23D17/00B, F23D14/20