US 3032808 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R. S. FLEMING DOUBLE-ACTING RUBBER HINGE Filed Nov. 10, 1959 f llll l-Il Unite This invention relates to a hinge for a door or the like. The invention especially relates to a hingle of a material capable of llexure in the hin-ging movement thereof and more particularly to a hinge of a resilient material adapted to bias the hinge and door to an initial or normal position thereof.
It has been proposed heretofore to provide hinges for doors or the like of flexible material, the hinging movement being possible by virtue of the exure of the material between a supporting member and the door or other member to be swung relative to the supporting member. Hinges of such flexible type also have been made of resilient material, such as rubber. In such prior art hinging devices, although the hinging action is provided by virtue of the resilient exure of the material of which the hinge is made, the form of the hinge has not been such as to utilize the resilient action of the material to best advantage for securing the return movement of the door to the initial or normal position and for holding the door in this initial position, for example, in the closed position with respect to a door frame.
It is an object of the invention to provide an improved hinge of this type which will provide for the hinging action and for holding the hinged member or door in an initial position, for example, in closed relation to the door opening.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a hinge of improved form in cross section and contour which may be attached readily to the door jamb and to the door.
It is another object of the invention to provide a hinge of this improved form which may be made in any desired length while providing the cross section which secures the objects above mentioned.
It is an additional object of the invention to provide a hinge of resilient material of such form as to effectively dampen the swinging movement as the door returns to its initial position.
It is a feature of the invention that the cross section of the hinge transverse to the line of pivotal or hinging movement is such that webs are provided which extend outwardly from a base portion toward an outer portion of the hinge and which connect these two portions of the hinge, the base portion being adapted to be secured to the support, for example, the door jamb, and the outer portion being adapted to be secured to the member to be swung, such as a door. These webs are disposed in spaced relation to each other transversely of their extent both adjacent to the base and outwardly therefrom.
Preferably the webs are spaced a greater distance apart adjacent to the base than the outer portion of the hinge. This feature provides for flexure of the web that is disposed at the side of the hinge toward which the door is swung and the concomitant hinging or bending of the other web adjacent to the base, combined in some cases with elastic stretching of this other web when the hinge is made of resilient material. The wider spacing of the webs adjacent to the base disposes a portion of the web that is at the side of the hinge toward which the door is to be swung so that this web portion tends to fold inwardly of the hinge toward the other web when the door is thus swung. This folding of the web inwardly may produce a compressive strain in the material at that side of the hinge and the folding makes it possible to swing the door to a position at substantially right angles States Patet to its initial position and close to the supporting jamb and the building wall upon which this jamb is supported. When the hinge is made of resilient material, such as rubber, the folded Web is resiliently compressed and the opposite web may be stretched to a greater or less degree. These two strains developed in the resilient material are effective to bias the hinge and the door for movement of the door toward the initial or normally closed position.
Another feature of the hinge of the invention is that between the two spaced webs above described and preferably in the plane of the member or door to be swung, a third or inner web is disposed which is connected to the base portion and to the outer portion of the hinge. This third web flexes in the swinging movement of the member or door but serves of itself, or together with the other two webs, to maintain the outer portion of the hinge disposed at a predetermined distance outwardly with respect to the base portion. When this third web also is of resilient material it resiliently flexes in the swinging movement of the door and aids in returning the door to its initial position in cooperation with the other two webs as described.
When the hinge is made of resilient material and the door is swung from its initial position, strains are developed in the resilient material acting to return the door to its initial position, so that any tendency of the door to swing past this initial position in its return movement is damped by the sudden change from a condition in the webs of tension or compression, as the case may be, to a condition of compression or tension. These changes of the condition of strain are developed not only in the inner or central web, but are effective particularly in the two outer webs which are in spaced relation to each other at either side of the inner web.
Another advantageous feature of the hinge of the present invention is its adaptability for use in factory doors which are subject to use of a kind which might even be termed abusef Such doors often are moved from their normally closed positions by impingement of a power driven material-carrying truck or the like. Due to the fact that such doors may be somewhat flexible in construction, the use of a rigid type of hinge structure or even of a plurality of separate hinges has not proven to be satisfactory due to the torsional strains exerted upon the hinge or hinges used because of the character of the door-opening movement, i.e. hitting the door at a lower portion rather violently and the consequent flexing of the body of the door itself. The resilient hinge of the present invention has proven to be particularly advantageous in such a use.
Summarizing the present invention, therefore, it comprises a hinge made preferably as a substantially continuous llexible member including a base portion adapted to be attached to a support and an outer portion adapted to be connected or attached to a door or similar member to be swung between an initial or normal intermediate position and positions angularly related thereto in one or both directions, the hinge member further comprising `a plurality of webs connecting the base portion with the outer portion, including at least one outer web capable of folding when the door is moved angularly in the direction of such outer web, and preferably including a central or intermediate web, and the hinge preferably being constructed of some elastomeric composition as rubber or the like.
Other objects and features of the invention will be understood from the description to follow taken in connection with the drawings in which:
FIG. 1 shows a door in elevation provided with a continuous hinge along a vertical edge thereof;
FIG. 2 is a section taken on line II-II of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 shows in section the hinge of FIGS. l and 2 supporting the door in the position to which it is swung;
FIG. 4 shows in section a modification of the hinge of FIG. 2;
FIG. 5 shows in section a further modification of the hinge of the invention.
The invention will be described in connection with the embodiment thereof for hinging support of a door for a door opening in a wall 1. The door 3 shown in FIG. l is of industrial or utility type having a transparent panel 4 for clear vision. The door 3 is supported by the hinge 5 of the invention which extends along the vertical hinging edge of the door and is secured to a jamb 7, FIG. 2, by lag screws 9 which pass through holes in the flanges 11 formed on each vertical edge of a rigid base element 13 which preferably is made of metal. The contour of the rigid base element 13 in cross section, as shown in FIG. 2, is such as to provide ample rigidity as well as a substantial area between the flanges 11 for attachment of the base portion 15 of the liexible hinge 17 having its outer portion 19 attached to a rigid part 21, preferably of metal, which is bolted by bolts 23 to the stile 25 of the door 3. In the embodiment of FIG. 2 the hinge is made of a resilient material, preferably an elastomeric material such as rubber, and the base portion 15 thereof is adhesively bonded to the outer surface of the rigid base element 13 and the outer portion 19 is adhesively bonded to the surface of the U-shaped rigid part 21. This adhesive bond may be secured by a vulcanizing process or by other method known in the manipulation and manufacture of rubber or the like.
The hinge of the invention as shown in FIG. 2 is provided with outer webs 27, 29 which preferably are connected substantially integrally to the base portion 15. The webs 27, 29 extend outwardly from this base portion to and similarly are connected preferably integrally to the outer portion 19 of the hinge. The widths of the base portion 15 and of the supporting element 13 are such that the spacing of the webs 27, 29 is greater adjacent to this base portion than at the points where these webs are connected to the outer portion 19 of the hinge, in order to secure the resilient hinging action referred to above and more particularly to be described.
In this embodiment also the hinge is provided with a third or central web 31 which also preferably is connected integrally to the base portion 1S and similarly is connected to the part of the outer portion of the hinge which adheres to the outer surface of the rigid U-shaped part Z1 which envelops the stile or the edge portion of the door. The thickness of the web 31 `and the contour thereof are such that this web tends to retain its form in the unstressed condition of the hinge which determines the spacing of the rigid part 21 from the rigid base element 13, thereby to determine the position of the door with respect to the door opening in the Wall 1, having regard to the fastening of the stile 25 to the rigid part 21 by means of bolts 23. The webs 27 and 29, by virtue of their elasticity under tension act to maintain this door in the initial or closed position, since movement of the door from such position as shown in FIG. 2 will tend to compress one and to put under tension the other of the webs 27, 29, thereby to develop a counter force returning the door to its initial position.
It is contemplated, as generally referred to hereinabove, that the various portions making up the hinge, including the base portion 15, the outer portion 19, the outer webs 27 4and 29 and the central web 31, shall all be substantially integral with one another as could be made, for example, by forming the entire device by extrusion from a rubber composition, followed by suitable vulcanization of the extruded body. On the other hand, it is also contemplated and is to be considered within the purview of ythe present invention that these several parts may be initially formed separate and secured together in any suitable manner as by the use of adhesives, vulcanization or otherwise, so long as the nished construction comprises the essential elements generally described above and has substantially the same functional operation in use.
In the normal swinging action of the door, as will be understood from a consideration of FIGS. 2 and 3 in which the door is swung from the position shown in FIG. 2 clockwise `about the line of hinging, the web 29 becomes folded inwardly as shown at 35, FIG. 3, into the space 37, FIG. 2, which is provided within the hinge between the third web 31 and the web 29. This folding is secured by virtue of the disposition of the web 29 in inclined relation to the plane of the door and with respect to the base portion 15. The inward folding of the web may be further induced by curving the web 29 with an outwardly concave contour as shown. A similar space 39 is provided at the opposite `side of the hinge between the web 2.7 and the web 31.
In the swinging movement to the position of FIG. 3 the web 27 concomitantly hinges about a point adjacent to the connection of this web to the base portion 15 of the hinge. Depending upon the degree of swinging movement, the web 27 may become elastically stretched, as shown in FIG. 3, between its point of connection to the base portion 15 and its point of connection to the outer portion 19 of the hinge, thus placing the web 27 under substantial tension. The web 29 in the folded form shown in FIG. 3 is under compressive strain. These two conditions of the webs `27, 29 both act to bias the hinge to return from the position shown in FIG. 3 to the position shown in FIG. 2, thus moving the outer portion 19 in hinging or pivotal movement about the vertical hinging :line parallel to the jamb 7. The door 3 thus is returned to its closed position from the open position of FIG. 3. In such return movement, if the door by virtue of its inertia tends to swing by the initial position of FIG. 2, it is damped in such over-travel by virtue of the change of the web 29 from a condition of compression to one of tension and the corresponding change of the condition of the web 27 from tension to compression. Similar changes also occur in the surface portions of the inner web 31 which respectively are adjacent to the inner spaces 37, 39.
The resilient hinge of the invention is of such form as to be particularly adapted for support of doors of large size and substantial Weight. The wide spacing of the webs 27, 29 adjacent to the base and the provision of the central or inner web 31 serve to give the necessary support to the door not only to hold it in its normal intermediate or closed position, but also to resist displacement under shock. The hinge Vfurther is of such form as to resist damage to the hinge which may occur due to impact of trucks or other objects moving adjacent to the hinge or otherwise passing through the doorway. In the open position of the door as shown in FIG. 3 the outer surface 41 of the web 27 becomes disposed in angular relation to the surface of the jamb 7 and to the line of movement through the doorway, so that upon impact of a truck or other object against the surface 41 the object will be deected from the hinge toward the central portion of the door opening. Thus, damage to the hinge as well as to the object tends to be reduced. Moreover, ysuch impact is absorbed to a substantial degree by the resilient material of the hinge, so that the force of the impact is cushioned and is not transmitted directly to the supporting elements attached to the jamb and to the door, as is the case with metallic hinges.
It also will be understood that the form of the cross section of the hinge of the invention and its attachment to the rigid elements are such that the line of hinging may be plumbed without diiculty and the rigid base element 13 secured to the jamb by the lag screws or other fasteners 9, the webs 27, 29, 31 in their unstressed condition maintaining the outer portion 19 of the hinge and, therefore,
the stile 2S of the door in the vertical plane which contains the line of hinging.
As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 the heads and nuts of the bolts 23 are disposed within recesses 45 which are formed in the anges of the outer portion 19 which is secured to the U-shaped rigid part 21. These heads and nuts of the bolts, therefore, are below the surface of the rubber and are not subject to uncushioned impact. Within the scope of the invention, however, metal plates or washers 47, as shown in FIG. 4, may be disposed at the exterior faces of the flanges of the outer portion 19 of the hinge so that the heads and nuts of the bolts may bear on the plates 47 to secure these flanges of the outer portion 19 to the rigid U-shaped part 21 and to the stile 25 of the door. It also will be noted in FIG. 4 that the base portion 15 of the hinge may be provided with anges 49 extending over the anges 11 of the rigid base element 13, these flanges 49 being clamped to the llanges 11 by metal strips 51 extending along the hinge. The strips 51 may be held in place by the lag screws 9 passing through holes in the strips 51 and in the flanges 49 and 11 and entering the jamb. The functioning of the webs 27, 29, 31 in the embodiment of FIG. 4 is the same as that described in connection with FIGS. 2 and 3.
In FIG. 4 also is shown within the body of the inner web 31 a reinforcing material 55 which may be embedded in the rubber of this web in the central plane thereof. This reinforcing may be of textile or other fabric capable of flexure without breaking and serving to reinforce this web so as to increase the stiffness of the web in the direction parallel to the central plane thereof in order more effectively to maintain the spacing of the rigid part 21 with respect to the rigid base element 13, thus to maintain the door in proper relation to the door opening.
FIG. 5 shows a modification of the hinge of the invention in which a channel member 61 is secured to the door jamb 7 by lag screws 63 spaced along the channel. The hinge member of llexible material, preferably an elastomeric material generally indicated at 65 is provided with two base anges 67 which are disposed so as to lap upon the sides of the channel 61 and in parallel bearing relation to the outer faces of the flanges of this channel. The flanges 67 of the hinge are held against the flanges of the channel member by plates 69 held in place by bolts 71 spaced along the channel and having heads and nuts respectively in engagement with the plates 69. The outer portion 73 of the hinge 65 is provided with anges in parallel bearing face to face relation upon the stile 5 of the door and held in place by plates 75 and through bolts 77 spaced along the plates and stile and disposed in staggered relation therealong, these bolts having their heads and nuts in engagement with the plates 75.
As in the other embodiments of the invention that of FIG. 5 provides a base portion 79 to which are connected outer webs S1 and a central web S3, this central web being separated from the outer webs by spaces 85. In general the functions of the webs 81 and of the central web 83 is the same as that of the webs 27, 29 and 31 of FIG. 2. The proportions of the webs 81, 83 and of the base portion 79 may be such as to secure the desired resilient liexure as in the embodiment of FIG. 2 or these webs may be made thicker in proportion and more resistant to flexing movement to resist while permitting a desired degree of hinging movement. Such an embodiment may be suitable for doors or other hinged members Which do not require frequent hinging movement and normally are to be kept closed.
It will be understood further that in any of the embodiments the webs 27, 29 or 81 may be perforated to reduce the weight of the hinge. The central web 31 or 83 also may be perforated for this purpose. These perforations also may be provided for the purpose of modifying the rigidity and resilience of the webs. Preferably, however, the outer webs 27, 29 or 81 are formed without perfora- YSource such as smoked sheet.
6 tions in order to prevent entrance of dust and dirt into the spaces 37, 39 or 8S.
Within the scope of the invention any suitable resilient material may be utilized for the purpose of securing the spring action for return of the hinge to its unstressed condition with the door supported thereby in an initial position. A composition of cured rubber compound is preferred such as will provide the following physical properties:
Hardness 50-60 Shore A Durometer test. Tensile strength 2,000 to 3,000 lbs.
per sq. in. Flnngatnn 650 t0 800%.
The basic rubber ingredient may be from a natural A synthetic compound having elastic and other properties similar to rubber, such Aas neoprene, also may be utilized, especially where resistance to oils or greases or to extreme weather conditions is desired.
The hinge of the invention is of particular utility where the hinge and the door supported thereby are subject to direct dynamic impact or to torsion brought upon the hinge or upon the door itself as by impact of trucks or the like adjacent to the bottom of the door. The resilient structure of the hinge is resistant to wear and breakage and the form of the hinge is such that no parts protrude prominently which may be subject to physical damage or interfere with objects moving adjacent to the hinge or through the doorway. When the hinge is properly placed and supported on the jamb, the action is positive without binding, jamming or misalignment. The hinge may be made as a solid continuous piece over the full length of the door and jamb, the entire length of the hinge encasing and protecting the hinged edge of the door and closing the door opening along this edge. By utilizing suitable stripping upon the opposite or outer edge of the door and at the top and bottom of the door, tight closure of the door opening may be secured where this is desirable.
Variations in the form of the hinge and of the means for fastening the hinge to the jamb and to the door may be adopted and various materials which are of suitable exibility and resilience may be utilized for the hinge within the scope of the invention. All such variations are intended to be within the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A hinge providing a base portion adapted to be connected to a support, an outer portion adapted to be connected to a member to be swung between positions of said member angularly related to each other at either side of a median position, two lateral webs extending outwardly from said base portion and connecting said base portion and said outer portion, said lateral Webs in an initial position of said hinge corresponding to said median position of said member being disposed in spaced relation to each other both adjacent said base and outwardly therefrom and in symmetrical relation to each other at opposite sides of a median line extending in the direction outwardly of said base portion toward said outer portion, and an inner web disposed between said lateral webs adjacent said median line of said hinge and connected to said base portion and to said outer portion of said hinge, said Webs being of a material capable of llexure in the hinging movement of said outer portion with respect to said base portion at either side of said median line concomitantly with said swinging movement of said member and being formed so as to fold the lateral web that is disposed at the side of said hinge toward which said outer portion is moved in said hinging movement thereof inwardly toward said inner web concomitantly with angular movement of the other lateral web with respect to said base portion.
2. A hinge as defined in claim l in which said inner web provides a resilient connection between said base portion and said outer portion capable of flexure and of biasing said portions of said hinge and said webs toward positions thereof in which said hinge is in said initial position thereof, said inner web having sufficient compressive resilience to bias said outer portion of said hinge to outwardly spaced relation with respect to said base portion.
3. A hinge as dened in claim 1 in which said inner web is of resilient flexible material, and a exible reinforcing material cooperating with said resilient material to increase the stiffness of said inner web to maintain said outer portion of said hinge in outwardly spaced relation to said base portion thereof while providing for said hinging movement of said outer portion with respect to said base portion.
4. A hinge providing a base portion adapted to be at tached to a support, an outer portion adapted to be connected to a member to be swung between an initial position and a position angularly related to said initial position of said member, and two webs respectively connecting said base portion to said outer portion, said webs in the position of said hinge corresponding to said initial position of said member extending in the direction outwardly from said base portion toward said outer portion and being disposed in spaced relation to each other transversely of their extent both adjacent to said base and outwardly therefrom, said webs having their junctions with said base portion further apart than their junctions with said outer portion, one web folding into the space between the webs when said member is swung from said initial position, said webs being of material capable of exure in the hinging movement of said outer portion with respect to said base portion concomitant with swinging movement of said member.
5. A hinge construction for a two-way swinging door, comprising a base portion adapted to be secured to a support for said door, an outer portion adapted to be secured to an edge portion of said door, a pair of similar webs of resilient elastomeric material rigidly secured to and connected between said base portion and said outer portion, the junctions of said webs with said base portion being further apart than the junctions of said webs with said outer portion, said webs being constructed and arranged to be in their relaxed positions when said door is at a median closed position, one web folding into the space between the webs when said door is swung from said rnedian closed position, and the in-folding of webs on the side to which said door is swung being assured by the spacing of the junctions of said webs as aforesaid, the parts being further so constructed and arranged that the web on the side away from that to which the door is swung will be placed under tension incident to the swinging of the door, so as to provide a force tending to return the door to its median closed position.
6. A hinge in accordance with claim 4, in which at least the one of said webs on the side opposite that toward which said member is to be swung is of elastomeric material, capable of elastic stretching during and as a result of the hinging movement of said hinge concomitantly with the swinging movement of said member, so as to bias said member toward the initial position thereof.
7. A hinge in accordance with claim 4, comprising in addition, resiliently exible means providing sufficient stiifness in the unstressed condition thereof to support said outer portion of said hinge in its initial position outwardly from said base portion in addition to such support of said member as may be provided by said webs, so as to support said member for the swinging movement thereof.
8. A hinge in accordance with claim 5, further comprising a rigid base element to which said base portion is secured to support said base portion and said webs on said element and with respect to said support for the door, said rigid base element being adapted to be attached to said support for the door so as to dispose said webs extending outwardly from said support.
9. A hinge in accordance with claim 8, further comprising a rigid part adapted to be secured to said door, said outer portion of said hinge being secured to said rigid part, so that said rigid part is adapted to support said door in all positions thereof.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,303,886 Miller et al. Dec. l, 1942 2,734,234 Eckel Feb. 14, 1956 2,760,567 Eckel et al Aug. 28, 1956