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Publication numberUS3033314 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 8, 1962
Filing dateMay 16, 1960
Priority dateMay 16, 1960
Publication numberUS 3033314 A, US 3033314A, US-A-3033314, US3033314 A, US3033314A
InventorsWetterhahn George H
Original AssigneeGen Motors Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Internal combustion engine lubricating system
US 3033314 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 1962 G. H. WETTERHAHN 3,033,314

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE LUBRICATING SYSTEM Filed May 16, 1960 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.

ax/1M ATTORNEY May 8, 1962 G. H. WETTERHAHN 3,033,314

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE LUBRICATING SYSTEM Filed May 16, 1960 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 a? a ,7 I!

I 1/ 7 5 I if a?! I? /i A TTOR/YEY y 1962 G. H. WETTERHAHN 3,033,314

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE LUBRICATING SYSTEM 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed May 16, 1960 A 7' TOP! Y May 8, 1962 G. H. WETTERHAHN 3,033,314

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE LUBRICATING SYSTEM Filed May 16, 1960 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 IN VEN TOR.

United States Patent Ofiice 3,033,314 Patented May 8, 1962 tion of Delaware Filed May 16, 1960, Ser. No. 29,396 8 Claims. (Cl. 184-6) This invention relates to internal combustion engines, particularly to lubrication systems applicable to V-type internal combustion engines for trucks or other heavy duty applications. 1

There are many differences between heavy duty engines such as are used in trucks and light duty engines such as are used in passenger automobiles. These involve materials, bearings, cooling, ignition, lubrication, etc. Also there are engines used on passenger automobiles which would be very applicable for heavy duty use if lubrication were suflicient under all conditions of operation. It is with the provision a lubrication system that will adequately cool and lubricate and supply oil to all parts of any internal combustion engine under all conditions of operation, that this invention is concerned.

In the drawing:

FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal sectional view through a 60 V-type six cylinder internal combustion engine having a lubricating system embodying the invention.

FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view of the engine and lubricating system disclosed by FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view of the engine disclosed by FIGURES l and 2 and particularly illustrating certain lubrication features involved in the engine. FIGURE 3 is taken substantially in the plane of line 33 on FIGURE 1 looking in the direction of the arrows.

FIGURES 4 and 5 are other fragmentary cross-sectional views of the engine and lubricating system disclosed by the preceding figures. FIGURES 4 and 5 are taken substantially in the planes of lines 4-4 and 5-5 on FIGURE 1 looking in thedirection of the arrows.

FIGURE 6 is a phantom view illustrating the lubricating system embodied in the engine disclosed by the preceding figures.

The engine it includes an engine block 11 having oppositely disposed rows 13 of cylinders 14. The block 11 is also formed to provide a crankcase 16 communicating with the lower ends of the cylinders 14 and closed at the lower extremity thereof by an oil pan 17. Within the crankcase 16, the block 11 is formed to provide bearings 18 that support journals 19 of a crankshaft 21 on bushings 22. The cylinders 14 contain pistons 23" that are connected to the crankarms 24 of the crankshaft 21 by connecting rods 26. The block 11 is also formed to provide bearings 27 that support journals 28, 29 and 31 of a camshaft 32 within bushings 33. The camshaft 32 is driven by the crankshaft 21 through a drive gear 34 and idler gear 36 and a driven gear 37. Inlet and exhaust valves 38 are provided for each of the cylinders 14. The valves 38 are mounted in valve guides 39' formed in heads 41 that are bolted or otherwise secured to the block 11 over the outer ends of the cylinders 14. The valves 38 are closed by valve springs '42 and opened by rocker arms 4-3 that are actuated by push rods 44 and valve lifters 46, the latter being disposed in positions such that each of the valve lifters will be operated by one of the cams 57 of the camshaft 32 of the engine. The rocker arms 43 may be mounted on the heads in any suitable manner as by employing supports ea in which rocker shafts 49 for the different rows of cylinders may be clamped or journaled. Valve actuating mechanism compartments 51 for each of the heads are enclosed by rocker arm covers 52 secured to the heads. The push rods are adapted to project through passages 53 that extend through the heads between the rocker arm compartments 51 and a camshaft gallery 54 that is formed in the block 11 between the rows of cylinders 14. The block 11 is formed within the camshaft gallery 54 to provide valve lifter guide bearings 56 that support the valve lifters 46 for operative engagement with the earns 47. I

Oil under pressure maybe provided for lubricating the moving parts of the engine by an oil pump 57 that may be located in the oil pan 17 of the engine. The pump 57 may supply oil to an oil filter 58 through a passage 59 and from the oil filter to a main supply passage 61 through a passage 62. The main supply passage 61 is formed in the block substantially throughout the length of the block and beneath the camshaft 32. The main bearings 18 for the crankshaft are supplied with oil from the supply passage 61 by bearing supply passages 63. The connecting rod bearings may be lubricated by employing passages 64 in the crankshaft that extend between the crankshaft bearings and the connecting rod bearings and that are supplied with oil by the bearing supply passages 63. The camshaft 32 is lubricated by supply passages 66 that extend between the main oil supply passage 61 and annular grooves 67 that are formed in the block and that extend around the bushings33 midway between the ends of the bushings 33. The journals for the camshaft 32 are lubricated from the annular grooves'6-7 by ports 68 that are formed on the sides of'the bushings '33-and adjacent to thrust areas 69 that are directly opposite .the places where the cams 47 engage the valve lifters 46, The thrust areas 69 are the places where the greatest loads are applied to the bushings 33 when the cams are rotated during each revolution to move the lifters 47for actuating the valve actuating mechanism by which the valves 38 are opened. The ports 68 are located between the areas 69 and the valve lifters 46 where there will be the most uniform clearance between the journals and the bushings throughout each revolution of a camshaft 32. The ports 68 in each of the end bearings of the camshaft also communicate with other ports 71 through communicating passages 72 formed in the journals 28 and 31 for the end bearings of the camshaft. The communicating passages '72 are in a position to provide communication between the ports 68 and 71 in these hearings. The-ports 71 are above the ports 68 but do not communicate with the annular passages 67. The ports 71 are spaced from the ports 68 axially of the camshaft 32 and in a position to communicate with passages 73 and 74 that are formed obliquely in the block 11. One of the passages 73 and 74 extends toward one bank of cylinders and the other toward the other bank of cylinders. The passages'7'3 and 74 are also spaced from the port 68 axially of the camshaft so as not to communicate with the annular passages 67. The opposite ends of the passages 73- and T4 communicate with passages 114 in the cylinder head 41 and end rocker arm shaft supports 48 tocarry oil to the passages '76 in the rocker shafts 49 for the differentrows of cylinders. Hollow dowels 112, having a tight fit in passage 74 in the block 11 and a snug fit in the cylinder head 41 serve as seals to reduce the sealing requirement of the cylinder head gasket 116 and to limit the amount of leakage possible in the event of failure of the cylinder head gasket. The passages 76 lubricate the rocker arms 43 and the ends of the rocker arms contacting the stems of the valves 38 and the outer ends of the push rods 44 through ports '77 that are formed in the rocker shafts 49 and in the journals thereon supporting the rocker arms 28 and 31 of the cam shaft 32 but the passages, 73. and 74 are on different sides of the camshaft. The rotation of the camshaft will therefore cause the connecting passages 72 to provide alternate communication with 'the. passages 73 and 74 so that oil under pressure will be alternately supplied to the passages 76 in the different banks 13 of the cylinders 14. Oil pressure is always less in the passages 76 than in the main engine oiling system because oil is supplied to passages 76 as full engine oil pressure only at the times when the passages 72 provide communication between the ports 68 and 71.

Oil is supplied by the annular passage around the bushing for the front camshaft bearing for lubricating the gears 34, 36 and 37 by which the camshaft 32 is driven by the crankshaft 21. The port 70 in camshaft bushing 33 communicates with passage 78 through the communicating passage 72, when the camshaft is rotated to provide a passage 72, between port 70 and a port 116 formed in the bushing 33 at the end of passage 78, to carry oil from the annular groove 67 to the metering jet 117 near the other end of the passage 78. The metering jet 117 is located immediately above the gear 37 and serves to spray oil out over the gear 37, to lubricate gears 37, 36 and 34 by which the camshaft 32 is driven by the crankshaft 21. The port '116 is above the port 68 but does not communicate directly with the annular passage 67. The port 116 is spaced from the port 68 axially of the camshaft 32 and in a position to communicate directly with passage 78 that is formed obliquely in the block 11. The rotation of the camshaft 32 will cause oil under full system pressure to be admitted to the passage 78 for an interval of a few degrees each revolution of the camshaft, with the result that oil is delivered to the passage 78 with a series of high pressure pulses. The metering jet 117 restricts the flow from the passage 78 in such a way as to convert the oil flow to a continuous low pressure spray over the gears. The stub shaft 79 on which the gear 36 is rotatably mounted is also lubricated by the passage 63 that lubricates the front main bearing of the crankshaft 21. The stub shaft 79 is secured in an opening 81 in the block 11, the inner end of the opening being formed to project into the passage 63 so that the opening will be filled with oil inwardly of the part of the shaft 79 that projects into the opening. A supply passage 82 in the shaft.79 supplies oil from the passage 63 and the opening 81 to the surface of a bushing 83 which is pressed into the gear 36.

Oil also is supplied to two valve lifter supply passages 84 by the annular passages 67 for the two intermediate bearings 27. The passages 84 extend through the block 11 in each row 13 of cylinders 14 and intersect the guide bearings 56 in which the valve lifters 46 are reciprocably mounted. The passages 84 also are above the passages 61, are parallel to the passages 61 and are above and on each side of the camshaft32. Oil is supplied to the passages 84 through passages 86, one of which communicates with one and the other with the other of the annular passages 67 in the intermediate camshaft bearings 27. The valve lifters 46 may have circumferential grooves 87 which receive the oil for each valve lifter for lubricating the guide bearings 56 and for internally supplying the valve. lifters with oil for operating the valve lifters. A channel 88 which may be formed in the block 11 surrounds the camshaft 32 and its bearings and the lower ends of the valve lifters 46 and their bearings. The channel 88 extends throughout the length of the block 11 and terminates in the end walls of the block to receive and to collect the oil that escapes from the ends of the camshaft bearings and from the lower ends of the valve lifter guide bearings. The channel 88 also will collect oil from the rocker arm compartments 51 that flows downwardly through the passages 53 andinto the upper part of the camshaft gallery 54. The channel 88 however is divided into three sections by the webs that support the intermediate bearings 27 for the camshaft 32. However, the camshaft gallery 54 is continuous through the length of the block above the intermediate bearings and the partitions formed by the webs supporting the bearings. Each section of the channel 88 is provided with overflow passages indicated at 89 and which limit the oil level in each of the channel sections. The upper ends of the passages 89 are below the axis of the camshaft 32 but above the lower extremities of the cams 47 so that the cams will dip into the oil collected by the channel sections during each revolution of the camshaft 32. The lower ends of the passages 89 communicate with the crankcase 16 and return the overflow oil from the channel sections to the crankcase. The oil below this oil level lubricates the cams so that they will always be lubricated when they engage the lower ends of the valve lifters 46.

The rear section of the channel 88 also surrounds a gear 91 on the camshaft 32 which drives a gear 93 on the lower end of a shaft 94 which drives the ignition distributor 96 for the engine 10. The shaft 94 is mounted in a bearing 97 which forms a part of the distributor 96 and which is secured in an opening in the block 11 by a clamp 98. The gear 91 also dips into the oil collected in the channel 88 for lubricating the teeth of the gears 91 and 93. Also as the gear 91 rotates in the oil in the channel the teeth of the gear will carry an excess amount of oil upwardly on the side of the gear away from the shaft 94 and centrifugal force resulting from rotation of the gear will throw this oil outwardly above the gear and into a cavity 99 in the adjacent side of the bearing 97 and above the lower end of the bearing 94. The cylinder block 11 is formed around the distributor shaft bearing 97 in such a way as to provide an enclosure 110 around. the outside of the lower part of the cavity 99 to maintain a predetermined level of oil in the cavity. The oil enters the upper part of the cavity 99 through a passage 111 in the portion of the cylinder block 11 above the enclosure 110. An inlet port 101 is formed in the bearing 94 between the cavity 99 and an opening 102 about. midway between the upper and lower ends of a bushing 103 that supports the shaft 94 in the hearing 97. The oil supplied by the port 101 to the bearing will flow in opposite directions in the bushing 103, some of the oil being discharged from the upper end and some from the lower end of the bushing. The oil that flows upwardly in the bushing will be discharged downwardly into the camshaft gallery by an outlet port 104- that is formed in the bearing 97 above the upper end of the bushing 103. The outlet port discharges the oil into a part of the camshaft gallery 54 that surrounds the lower end of the bearing 97. The oil that flows downwardly in the bushing 103 will flow outwardly into the camshaft gallery '54 through a clearance 105 between the lower end of the bearing 97 and the upper end of the gear 93. Some of the oil, however, will flow downwardly around the lower end of the shaft 94 on which the gear 93 is secured by a pin 106. The oil that flows downwardly around this end of the shaft will lubricate a hexagonal shaft 107 that projects into an opening in the lower end of the. gear 93 and which drives the oil pump 57. The lower end of the gear 93 seats in an opening 108 in the block 11 and provides a thrust bearing 109 for opposing the thrust resulting from the rotation of the gears 91 and 93. The opening 108 is in the lower part of the channel 88 and is always supplied with oil for lubricating the thrust bearing 109.

What is claimed:

1. A lubricating system for an internal combustion engine having an engine block formed to provide a crankcase and oppositely disposed rows of cylinders having valves controlling said cylinders and valve actuating means including valve lifters operating said valves and formed to provide a row of camshaft bearings between said rows of cylinders and a row of valve lifter guide hearings on eachside of said camshaft bearings and between said rows ofcylinders and having a camshaft including cams and mounted in said camshaft bearings and valve lifters mounted in said valve lifter bearings, and comprising, channel means formed along the lower part of said camshaft and the lower parts of said valve lifters and in a position to receive and to collect oil from said camshaft bearings and said valve lifter guide bearings, a main oil supply passage extending along the length of said block beneath said channel means and said camshaft and supplying oil to said camshaft bearings, a pair of valve lifter supply passages extending along the length of said block and adjacent said valve lifter guide bearings and supplying oil to said valve lifters and said valve lifter guide bearings, means supplying oil under pressure to said main oil supply passage and to said valve lifter supply passages, said oil supplied to said bearings and said lifters being discharged from said bearings and said lifters and being received by and collected within said channel means, and outlet passage means extending between said channel means and said crankcase and limiting the oil level in said channel means, said outlet passage means terminating in said channel means below the axis of said camshaft and maintaining said oil level in said channel means below said axis of said camshaft, said cams on said camshaft being immersed in said oil at said level once during each revolution of said camshaft.

2. A lubricating system for an internal combustion engine having an engine block formed to provide a crankcase and a row of cylinders and formed to provide a row of camshaft bearings and an ignition distributor shaft bearing and having a camshaft mounted in said camshaft bearings and an ignition distributor shaft mounted in said ignition distributor shaft bearing and having a pair of intermeshing gears on said camshaft and said distributor shaft and driving said ignition distributor shaft from said camshaft, and comprising, means supplying oil under pressure to said camshaft bearings, channel means formed around the lower part of said camshaft and the lower part of said intermeshing gears and receiving and collecting the oil escaping from said camshaft bearings, outlet passage means extending between said channel means and said crankcase and limiting the oil level in said channel means, said outlet passage means terminating in said channel means below the axis of said camshaft and maintaining said oil level in said channel means below said axis of said camshaft, said camshaft gear having the teeth at the lower extremity thereof immerscd in said oil below said level but being disposed to rotate mostly above said level and to drive said distributor shaft gear above said level, said teeth on said camshaft gear when said engine is operating being adapted to pick up said oil at said level and to carry said oil upwardly above said level and to discharge said oil on said ignition distributor shaft bearing and gear for lubricating said ignition distributor bearing and shaft and gear.

3. A lubricating system for an internal combustion engine having an engine block formed to provide a crankcase and a row of cylinders and formed to provide a row of camshaft bearings and an ignition distributor shaft bearing and having a camshaft mounted in said camshaft bearings and an ignition distributor shaft mounted in said ignition distributor shaft bearing and having a pair of intermeshing gears on said camshaft and said distributor shaft and driving said ignition distributor shaft from said camshaft, and comprising, means supplying oil under pressure to said camshaft bearings, channel means formed around the lower part of said camshaft and the lower part of said intermeshing gears and receiving and collecting the oil escaping from said camshaft bearings, outlet passage means extending between said channel means and said crankcase and limiting the oil level in said channel means, said outlet passage means terminating in said channel means below the axis of said camshaft and maintaining said oil level in said channel means below said axis of said camshaft, said camshaft gear having the teeth at the 6 7 lower extremity thereof immersed in said oil below said level but being disposed to rotate mostly above said level and to drive said distributor shaft gear above said level, said intermeshing gears and said camshaft being disposed and driven to rotate said ignition distributor shaft gear in a direction to throw oil against said distributor shaft bearing, a cavity formed in the side of said distributor shaft bearing for receiving said oil, a port formed in said bearing for supplying said oil to said bearing, said oil flowing downwardly in said bearing and upon said distributor shaft gear and into said distributor shaft gear around the part of said distributor shaft on which said distributor shaft gear is secured and onto and lubricating the end of oil pump drive shaft means projecting into and driven by said distributor shaft gear.

4. A lubricating system for an internal combustion engine having an engine block formed to provide a cylinder having valves controlling said cylinder and valve actuating means including valve lifters operating said valves and formed to provide a row of camshaft bearings and a row of valve lifter guide bearings and having a camshaft including cams and mounted in said camshaft bearings and valve lifters mounted in said valve lifter bearings and engaging said cams and providing thrust bearing areas on said camshaft bearings in opposed relation to said valve lifters, and comprising, a main oil supply passage extending along said block and adjacent said camshaft, oil supply ports formed in said camshaft bearings between the ends of said camshaft bearings and between said valve lifters and said thrust areas, passage means connecting said main oil supply passage to said oil supply ports, and means supplying oil under pressure to said main oil supply passage.

5. A lubricating system for an internal combustion engine having an engine block formed'to provide a row of cylinders having valves controlling said cylinders and valve actuating means including valve lifters operating said valves and formed to provide a row of camshaft bearings and a row of valve lifter guide bearings and having a camshaft including cams and mounted in said camshaft bearings and valve lifters mounted in said valve lifter bearings and engaging said cams and providing thrust bearing areas on said camshaft hearings in opposed relation to said valve lifters, and comprising, a main oil supply pasr sage extending along the length of said block and adjacent said camshaft, oil supply ports formed in said camshaft bearings between the ends of said camshaft bearings and between said valve lifters and said thrust areas, passage means connecting said main oil supply passage to said oil supply ports, and means supplying oil under pressure to said main oil supply passage.

6. A lubricating system for an internal combustion engine having an engine block formed to provide oppositely disposed rows of cylinders having valves controlling said cylinders and valve actuating means including valve lifters operating said valves and formed to provide a row of camshaft bearings including bearing bushings between said rows of cylinders and -a row of valve lifter guide hearings on each side of said camshaft bearings and between said rows of cylinders and having a camshaft including cams and mounted in said camshaft bearings and valve lifters mounted in said valve lifter'bearings and engaging said cams and providing thrust areas on said bushings in opposed relation to said valve lifters, and comprising, a main oil supply passage extending along the length of said block and adjacent said camshaft, oil supply ports formed in said bushings between the ends of said bushings and between said valve lifters and said thrust areas, annular passages formed around said bushings and communicating with said oil supply ports and passage means connecting said annular passages and said main oil supply passage and supplying oil from said main oil supply passage to said annular passages and said ports, and means supplying oil under pressure to said main oil supply passage.

7. A lubricating system for an internal combustion engine having an engine block formed to provide oppositely disposed rows of cylinders having valves controlling said cylinders and valve actuating means including valve lifters and push rods and rocker arms operating said valves and formed to provide a row of camshaft bearings including bearing bushings and disposed between said rows of cylinders and a row of valve lifter guide hearings on each side of said camshaft bearings and between said rows of cylinders and a row of rocker armsupport bearings for each row of said cylinders and having a camshaft including cams and journals and mounted in said camshaft bearings and valve lifters mounted in said valve lifter bearings and engaging said cams and providing thrust areas on said' bushings in opposed relation to said valve lifters and rocker arms mounted on said rocker arm support bearings, and comprising, a main oil supply passage extending along the length of said block and adjacent said camshaft, oil supply ports formed in said bushings between the ends of said bushings and between said valve lifters and said thrust areas, annular passages formed around said bushings and communicating with said oil supply ports and said main oil supply passage, branch passage means communicating with certain of said annular passages and supplying oil to said rocker arms and said valves and said push rods, connecting passage means communicating with said certain of said annular passages and formed on the sides of certain of said camshaft journals and rotating with said camshaft and connecting said oil supply ports to said branch passages once during each revolution of said camshaft and supplying oil for lubricating said push rodsand said rocker arms and said valves, and means supplying oil under'pressure to said main oil:supp1y,passage.

8. A lubricating system for an internal combustion engine having an engine block formed to provide oppositely disposed rows of cylinders having valvescontrolling said cylinders and valve actuating means including valve lifters and push rods and rocker aims operating said valves and formed to provide a row of camshaft hearings in cluding bearing bushings and disposed between said rows of cylinders and a, row of valve lifter guide bearings on each side of said camshaft bearings and between said rows of cylinders and a row of rocker arm support bearings for each row of said cylinders and having a camshaft including cams and journals and mounted in said camshaft bearings and valve lifters mounted in said valve lifter bearings and engaging said cams and providing thrust areas on said bushings in opposed relation to said valve lifters and rocker arms mounted on said rocker arm support bearings, and comprising, a main oil supply passage extending along the length of said block and adjacent said camshaft, oil supply ports formed in said bushings between the ends of said bushings and between said valve lifters and said thrust areas, annular passages formed around said bushings and communicating with said oil supply ports and said main oil supply passage, branch passage means communicating with certain of said annular passages and supplying oil to said rocker arms and said valves and said push rods, connecting passage mean communicating with said certain of said annular passages and formed on the sides of certain of said camshaft journals and rotating with said camshaft and connecting said oil supply ports to said branch passages once during each revolution of said camshaft and supplying oil for lubricating said push rods and said rocker arms and said valves, 2. pair of valve lifter supply passages extending along the length of said block and adjacent said valve lifter guide bearings, other passage means connecting said valve lifter supply passages to other of said annular passages and supplying oil to said valve lifter supply passages for lubricating said valve lifter guide bearings and for supplying oil to said valve lifters, and means supplying oil under pressure to said main oil supply passage.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,619,189 Witzky et a1 Nov. 25, 1952 2,907,411 Leach Oct. 6, 1959 2,930,448 Burnham Mar. 29, 1960 2,936,857 Etchells et a1. May 17, 1960

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2619189 *Jun 30, 1947Nov 25, 1952Jakob Richard JLubricating system for internal-combustion engines
US2907411 *Sep 24, 1956Oct 6, 1959Gen Motors CorpTiming chain and fuel pump drive, lubricating means
US2930448 *Oct 8, 1958Mar 29, 1960Fort Worth Steel And MachineryOil metering device
US2936857 *Oct 1, 1954May 17, 1960Gen Motors CorpEngine lubricating system
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4206739 *Aug 23, 1978Jun 10, 1980Dr. Ing. H.C.F. Porsche AktiengesellschaftCasing for the lubrication of the camshaft of an internal combustion engine for automotive vehicles
US5186129 *Mar 30, 1992Feb 16, 1993Ford Motor CompanyIntermittent oiling system for an internal combustion engine camshaft and valve train
US6631701 *Jul 31, 2001Oct 14, 2003Mark E. SeaderCamshaft lubrication system
DE2737901A1 *Aug 23, 1977Mar 1, 1979Porsche AgGehaeuse fuer die schmierung einer nockenwelle einer brennkraftmaschine fuer kraftfahrzeuge
Classifications
U.S. Classification184/6.9
International ClassificationF02B75/00, F01M1/06, F02B75/22
Cooperative ClassificationF02B75/22, F01M1/06
European ClassificationF01M1/06