|Publication number||US3039468 A|
|Publication date||Jun 19, 1962|
|Filing date||Jan 7, 1959|
|Priority date||Jan 7, 1959|
|Publication number||US 3039468 A, US 3039468A, US-A-3039468, US3039468 A, US3039468A|
|Inventors||Price Joseph L|
|Original Assignee||Price Joseph L|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (236), Classifications (8) |
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Trocar and method of treating bloat
US 3039468 A
June 19, 1962 Filed Jan. '7, 1959 J. L. PRICE I TROCAR AND METHOD OF TREATING BLOAT 2 Sheets-Sheet l L INVENTOR.
/ JOSEPH L. Race.
0 BY 4 43 '4, J, W,
ATTOPNEJ S June 19, 1962 J. L. PRICE 3,039,463
TROCAR AND METHOD OF TREATING BLOAT Filed Jan. 7, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 25 7 q 3 2 l2 )1 i U 2;
25 13 INVENTOR. JOSE/ b L.P//E
A 7' TORNEVS United States Patent ()fiice Patented June 19, 1962 3,039,468 TROCAR AND METHOD OF TREATING BLOAT Joseph L. Price, 390 Rosemary Lane, Residing, Calif. Filed Jan. 7, 1959, Ser. No. 785,355 4 Claims. (31. 128-347) This invention relates to an improved trocar that is primarily intended for treating bloat in animals to release the gas accumulated in the stomach or intestines.
Where bloat occurs in cattle, it is usually necessary to take prompt steps to release the gas accumulated in the stomach of the animal that is suffering, or the condition may prove to be fatal. Failure to relieve the condition by employment of ordinary expedients has heretofore resulted in recourse to the use of a trocar which punctures the skin and stomach Wall and permits escape of the gas through the cannula, or tube that encloses the puncturing mandrel. Usually this procedure is adopted as a last resort due to the fact that the affected animal will be lost if the treatment is not successful, and the scant hope exists that fatal infection will not follow the treatment.
The usual reason for the fatal infection likely to follow the use of the conventional trocar is that a certain amount of the contents of the stomach is exhausted with the gas, and when the cannula is withdrawn, some of this material enters the peritoneal cavity resulting in the fatal infection.
One of the objects of the present invention is the provision of a trocar provided with means for drawing the stomach wall and the skin, or peritoneum together around the cannula when the latter extends into the stomach and through the outer hide or skin, and in holding the peritoneum and stomach wall together until they have become so united that the cannula may be withdrawn without their separating, so that no infection can take place in the peritoneal cavity clue to the entry therein of infection producing impurities from the stomach or elsewhere.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved method of treating a bloaded condition that substantially eliminates the likelihood of infection where the hide and stomach walls are pierced in order to exhause the gas and to relieve said condition.
Other objects and advantages will appear in the description and in the drawings.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is an isometric view of the trocar that is illustrative of the invention.
FIG. 1a is a partial view of a cow showing the location where the trocar is usually used in treating bloat.
FIG. 2 is an isometric view of the cannula including the means thereon, in expanded position, that is used to engage the inner surface of the stomach wall when the latter is drawn into close engagement with the peritoneum, or inner lining of the skin.
FIG. 3 is an isometric view of the puncturing mandrel removed from the cannula.
FIG. 4 illustrates the initial step in the treatment of bloat, in which the trocar extends through the skin and stomach wall and across the peritoneal cavity. The trocar is partly in section and partly in elevation.
FIG. 5 is a further step in use of the trocar in the present method, in which the adjacent sides of the stomach wall and the skin are drawn together and the mandrel is still in the cannula. The trocar is partly in section and partly in elevation.
FIG. 6 is similar to FIG. 5 in which the mandrel is removed.
FIG. 7 is a part sectional and part elevational view of a modification of the invention that is shown in the other views, but broken in length.
In detail, the trocar herein illustrated comprises an outer, elongated, open-ended cylinder 1 (FIG. 4) having a collar 2 slidably supported thereon for movement axially of said cylinder and substantially from end to end of the latter. This collar 2 has a radially outwardly projecting annular flange 3 at one end thereof, and one axially facing side 4 of said collar (FIG. 1) is preferably slightly convex in cross sectional contour extending from the outer surface of the cylinder 1 to the outer edge of the flange in a direction away from the end of the cylinder toward which surface or side 4 faces. The outer edge 5 (FIG. 1) of the flange 3 is preferably relatively thin, but not of a cutting thinness or sharpness.
Collar 2 is provided with any suitable means for releasably looking or securing it to the cylinder 1. A set screw 6 having a finger engageable head for turning it is illustrated as one such means. It should be noted that collar 2 proects axially from the flange 3 in the form of a hub, and set screw 6 threadedly extends through such hub.
The end 7 of cylinder 1 that is nearest to the hub or collar 2 projects slightly radially outwardly of the portion of the cylinder that mounts collar 2, and is preferably exteriorly knurled (FIG. 5). Thus this end portion 7 functions as a stop to prevent the collar from sliding olf the cylinder 1.
The opposite end of the cylinder 1 is exteriorly threaded for an extension 8, that will later be described more in detail.
Telescopically slidable within cylinder 1 is an elongated cylindrical, open-ended tube 9.
This tube 9 is longer than the cylinder 1 and therefore projects axially therefrom at its opposite ends.
The inner end of the tube 9 is the end that projects from the exteriorly threaded end of the cylinder 1, while the opposite end of tube 9 will be designated the outer end.
The inner end of tube 9 is formed with a plurality of equally spaced openings 11 (FIG. 6). These openings are in an annular row extending circumferentially of the inner end of tube 9, and the side of each opening that is nearest the inner end of the tube is in the form of a bar 12 that is at said inner end. Each bar 12 extends substantially tangentially of the cylindrical inner surface of the tube 9, and is a pivot for pivotally supporting one end of an elongated finger 13. In the drawing four fingers 13 are shown.
Each of the fingers '13 is formed with a loop or partial loop at one end encircling each of the pivots or bars '12 so that said fingers can swing from positions extending axially of the tube 9 and outwardly of the latter (FIG. 4) to positions extending radially outwardly of the axis of said tube (FIG. 2).
The outer surfaces of fingers 13 are convex in direction transversely of the lengths of said fingers, and the convex curvature thereof is substantially the same as the cross sectional contour of the outer surface of tube 9. Also the outer surfaces of the fingers will be substantially aligned with the outer surface of the tube 3 when said fingers are in collapsed position extending axially of the tube 9 (FIG. 4).
The width of each finger 13 is greater than its thicknessso that a substantial outer convex surface is provided on the outer side of each finger for engagement with the inside of the stomach wall of an animal, as. will later be described in detail. Also fingers 13 are equally spaced around the inner end of tube 9.
The inner side of each finger 13 that is opposite to the above described convex outer surface, is adapted to face the axis of the tube 9 when the fingers are in collapsed position.
As best seen in FIG. 2 the inner side of each finger 13 is rabbeted along the longitudinally extending edges of each finger to form a central raised rib 15 extending longitudinally of each finger.
The outer ends of fingers 13 are undercut or transverse ly beveled on their inner sides to provide an inclined end surface 16 at the outer end that faces generally toward the axis of tube 9 when the fingers are in the collapsed position as seen in FIG. 4.
It should be noted that the outside diameter of the outer end portion of the tube 9 is slightly less than that of the remainder of the tube, thereby providing a slight shoulder at 18. The outer end portion of the cylinder 1 is of slightly reduced inside diameter where it slides on the outer end portion of the tube 9, and therefore it has a shoulder complementary to shoulder 18 that engages the latter to limit the movement of cylinder 1 in direction toward the inner end of fingers 13 or to limit the movement of the tube 9 in the reverse direction or toward the outer end of cylinder 1 (*FIG. 4).
Threadedly secured on the threaded inner end of cylinder 1 is a tubular extension 8. This extension is formed with an imperforate end portion 20 (FIG. 1) at its end that connects with the cylinder 1, which end portion is adapted to overlie the pivoted ends of fingers 13 when the latter are in col-lapsed position and when shoulder 18 is in engagement with the complementarily formed shoulder on the cylinder 1.
This extension 19 is formed with axially elongated openings 2.1 that correspond in positions with the positions of fingers K13 and the beveled outer ends of the fingers partially extend over the complementarily beveled outer end surfaces 22 (FIGS. 1, 4) of the outer ends of openings 21. Thus the tube 9 is held by fingers 13 against rotation relative to the cylinder 1 and its extension 19, and the fingers 13 will lie spaced within the confines of the outer cylindrical surface of the extension 8. However, if the tube 9 is moved inwardly relative to the cylinder 1, the fingers will slide over the slanted end surfaces 22 to the radially extending positions seen in FIG. and will be held in this position against the material of the extension 8 at the inner ends of openings 21. The outer end of the cylinder 1 carries a set screw 23 that is adapted to releasably lock the cylinder 1 relative to tube 9 when the fingers 13 are in expanded position as seen in FIG. 5.
At this point it should be noted that the inside diameter of the extension 8 is approximately that of the inside diameter of tube 9.
Telescopically extending through the tube 9 and extension 19 is a puncturing mandrel 24 (FIGS. 3, 4). This mandrel has a sharply pointed inner end portion 25 that projects from the extension 19, and the outer surface of the extension 19 extending from openings 21 are slanted at a relatively slight angle with respect to the axis of the extension so as to be substantially a continuation of the inclined surfaces of the mandrel that define the sides of the pointed end portion 25 thereof. The degree to which mandrel 24 may project from the extension 8 may be manually regulated.
The terminating inner end of the extension 8 meets the mandrel in a relatively sharp end edge so that the mandrel and the extension coact to form a pointed end on the trocar.
The sides of the mandrel are formed with grooves 26 extending longitudinally thereof in which the ribs on the fingers 13 are adapted to be received and to fit when the fingers are in collapsed position. The outer end of the mandrel is provided with an end piece 27 adapted to be grasped by the hand and to also fit the palm of the hand for pushing the trocar and the mandrel.
The outer end of the tube 9 is provided with collar 28 4 that is recessed at its outer end to receive the hub 29 of the end piece 27 on the mandrel (FIG. 4).
In FIG. 1a the trocar is generally designated 36 in the approximate position on an animal 31 where it would be used to relieve a bloated condition.
In operation, the trocar may be initially in the condition seen in FIG. 1 in which the set screws 6 and 23 are tight with the fingers 13 collapsed within the extension 8 and the hub 29 seated in collar 28 that is on tube 9. The pointed end of the trocar is then thrust into the animal 31 passing through the skin 32 and stomach wall 33 (FIG. 4). The fingers *13 will be carried on the trocar into the stomach in collapsed position as seen in FIG. 1.
The next step would be to loosen the nut 23 that locks cylinder 1 and tube 9 together, and by firmly gripping the enlargement 7 on cylinder -1 and holding it, and urging the tube 9 inwardly or in a direction into the stomach, the fingers 13 will automatically spread to expanded position within the somach as shown in FIG. 2. After the fingers are so expanded, the tube 9 is again locked or secured to cylinder 1 so there can be no relative movement between them, and the collar or hub carrying flange 3 is forced against the outer surface of the skin 32 while the tube 9 and cylinder 1 may be pulled outwardly so that the skin 32 and stomach wall 33 are tight together, at which point the set screw 6 is tigtened and the mandrel 24 is completely withdrawn from the device (FIGS. 2, 6) thereby permitting the gas to escape. Obviously the mandrel may be employed in the event the bore in the device should become obstructed for any reason.
It will be seen from FIG. 6 that the cannula with the present device comprises the extension 8 and the cylinder 1. Since the skin and stomach wall or in some instances a wall of the intestine, are tightly sealed around the cannula, no infection can occur in the peritoneal cavity from material discharged from the somach.
The device as shown in FIG. 6 may be left in place for a sufiicient time to enable the walls 32, 33 to become permanently adhered, which occurs in a relatively short time. If desired, of course, the bore in the cannula may be closed by any suitable means.
Once the walls 32, 33 have become permanently adhered to each other, the device may be removed, and within a relatively short time thereafter the opening made by the device will close and heal.
The removal of the device of FIG. 6 is accomplished by loosening the set screw 23 and moving the tube 9 outwardly so that the fingers 13 will swing inwardly to collapsed position. It is obvious that the mandrel 24 may be inserted before collapse of the fingers if so desired, but the latter will move to collapsed position whether or not the mandrel is in the device.
The fact that the face 4 of the flange 3 is convex and terminates in a relatively thin outer peripheral edge is desirable in eifecting a tight seal between the skin and the stomach wall at the outer side of the cannula or extension 8. If the surface 4 were flat, the seal would be less effective around the device because of the large area of equal pressure, instead of the greatest pressure being localized around the cannula.
It is to be understood that various modifications may be made in the trocar without departing from the spirit of the invention. In its broadest aspect, the present trocar provides means for pressing the peritoneum and stomach walls together around an enclosed passageway that communicates between the interior of the stomach or intestine and the atmosphere, thereby enabling gas within the stomach or intestine, together with solids, to be discharged into the atmosphere free from contaminating the peritoneal cavity. The use of the term stomach and stomach wall is intended to include any portion of the digestive tract, or other cavity in the body, where the device may be used to accomplish similar results, or to remove fluid of any kind from such cavity.
One of the modifications is shown in FIG. 7 in which the cannula is shown at 40 and the mandrel 41 having the end piece 42 at one end thereof slidably fits in the bore 43 of said cannula, the said bore being unbroken and continuous from end to end.
The pointed end 44 of the mandrel 41 projects from the end of the cannula that is to be thrust into the animal and the outer surface 45 of the cannula from which the pointed end 44 projects is tapered similarly to the surfaces forming the sides of said pointed end.
Adjacent to the end surface 45, the cannula is formed with an annular outwardly opening recess 46 that forms an air chamber, the outer side of which is closed by an elastic diaphragm 47 of rubber or the like. This rubber diaphragm when in collapsed position is preferably at least within the confines of the axially projected cylindrical contour of the outer surface of the cannula 40 so as not to project therefrom.
A duct 50 extends axially of the wall of the cannula to a point adjacent to the end thereof that is opposite to the pointed end of the device, and at said point it communicates with a conventional filling valve 51 having the usual releasable check valve therein to admit air under pressure into the duct 50 for passage to air chamber 46, and from which duct and air chamber the air may be released by manual manipulation of the valve. A conventional valve of the type used in tires and tubes would be suitable for valve 51.
Mounted on the cannula for movement axially thereof is a collar having a radially outwardly projecting flange 53 that is the same as flange 3 in FIG. 1 and that has a surface 54 adapted to engage the outer surface of the hide or skin of an animal, such as the skin 32 in FIG. 4. The collar may be moved axially along the cannula for securing firmly thereto in any desired position therealong by a set screw 55.
In operation, the device as shown in FIG. 7 is first thrust through the hide 32 and stomach wall 33 of an animal suffering from a bloated condition. Air is then pumped through valve 51 and duct 50 into air chamber 46 causing the diaphragm 47 to expand radially outwardly to the desired degree, such as to position 56 or to even a greater degree. The marginal portions of diaphragm 47 are firmly vulcanized to the metal of the cannula, hence there will be no leakage, and the pump or other source of air under pressure can be detached from valve 51 with the diaphragm retained in its expanded position.
The collar 53 is then moved to firmly engage the outer surface of the skin at the same time as the diaphragm 47 firmly engages and seals off the opening caused by the cannula and the walls of the skin and stomach may be drawn together in the same manner as indicated in FIG. 5.
The mandrel is then withdrawn and the gas and other material in the stomach is expelled through the bore 43 Without danger of entering the peritoneal cavity.
The diaphragm may be deflated when the skin and stomach walls are attached, and the cannula Withdrawn, leaving the opening to close and heal as it will quickly do.
1. A trocar including an elongated cannula and a mandrel removably supported therein coaxial with the longitudinal axis of said cannula, said trocar being adapted for insertion, longitudinally thereof, through the skin of an animal and through the enclosing wall of an internal cavity within such animal to a position with the opposite end portions of said cannula respectively projecting outwardly of said skin and into said cavity, expandable means carried by said trocar at the end portion of said cannula that is adapted to extend into said cavity movable from a collapsed position substantially disposed within the confines of the outer cross sectional outline of said end portion to an expanded position projecting radially outwardly of said cannula, a manually manipulatable means connected with said expandable means and projecting outwardly of the end portion of said cannula that is adapted to project outwardly of said skin for grasping by the fingers of a hand for moving said expandable means from said expanded position to said collapsed position when said expandable means is in said cavity, a collar supported on said last-mentioned end portion of said cannula for movement therealong axially thereof and a radially outwardly projecting flange rigid with said collar, means on said collar for securing the latter rigid with said cannula at any desired point along the latter, said flange being adapted to engage said skin for holding said skin and said enclosing wall together when said collar is moved toward said expandable means and when the latter is expanded within said internal cavity.
2. A trocar comprising an elongated cannula and a mandrel removably supported therein coaxial with the longitudinal axis of said cannula, said cannula comprising an outer cylinder having an inner end portion and an outer end portion and a tube telescopically supported within said cylinder having an outer end portion projecting outwardly of the outer end portion of said cylinder and an inher end portion terminating within the inner end portion of said cylinder, said mandrel projecting at one end from the said outer end portion of said tube and projecting at the other end thereof from the inner end portion of said cylinder, a collar mounted on said cylinder for movement axially thereof having a radially outwardly projecting flange rigid therewith, and means on said collar for rigidly securing it on said cylinder at any desired point along the latter, said mandrel being sli-dable longitudinally of said tube and cylinder out of the projecting end portion of said tube, and the outer sides of said other end of said mandrel being slanted to a point on its axis, the outer sides of said cylinder at the inner end thereof from which said mandrel projects being slanted similar to the slanted sides of said other end of said mandrel to facilitate thrusting said mandrel and cylinder through the skin and the stomach wall of an animal to a position with said skin in engagement with said flange and with said inner end portions of said cylinder and said tube within said stomach, and means on said inner end portion of siad tube swingable from a collapsed position within the confines of the outer outline of said cylinder to an expanded position projecting radially outwardly of said cylinder for engagement with the inner surface of said stomach wall, said inner end portion of said cylinder being formed with openings through which said fingers are adapted to move to said expanded position, said fingers being movable from said collapsed position to said expanded position upon moving said tube axially thereof relative to said cylinder in one direction and said fingers being movable from said expanded position to said collapsed position upon moving said tube axially relative to said cylinder in an opposite direction, means for releasably securing said cylinder and said tube rigidly together at one end or the other of said relative movement.
3. A trocar comprising: an elongated tubular cannula; a mandrel extending through said cannula projecting from opposite ends thereof; one projecting end of said mandrel at one end of said cannula having tapered sides terminating in a sharp point and a handle on the other projecting end of said mandrel for manual engagement for forcing the pointed end of said mandrel, in succession, through the skin of an animal and through a wall of its stomach forming openings therein; said mandrel being supported Within said cannula for withdrawal from the end of the latter that is adjacent to said handle; the outer surface of said cannula being cylindrical and substantially in continuation of said tapered sides whereby said skin and stomach wall will successively slide onto said outer surface with the edges of said openings in close sealing relation thereto upon continued movement of said mandrel and cannula into the animal after penetration of said skin and wall by said pointed end; wall engaging means on said cannula adjacent to its pointed end expandable radially outwardly thereof for engagement with the inner side of said stomach Wall after said means is moved to a position inside said stomach; means accessible to the hand of an operator at a point adjacent to said handle and connected with said wall engaging means for effecting said expansion of said wall engaging means; skin engaging means supported on said cannula at the end thereof adjacent to said handle for free movement toward said wall engaging means difierent distances sufiicient to tightly urge said skin and stomach Wall together in face to face relation when said stomach wall is against said wall engaging means and the latter is in expanded position, means for securing skin engaging means rigid with said cannula at any of said distances, and said mandrel being removable from said cannula from the end of the latter adjacent to said handle.
4. The method of treating an animal for bloat that comprises the steps of; forming a pair of substantially aligned openings in the outer skin and stomach wall of an animal, in succession and positioning a conduit in said openings extending from one to the other, in full sealing relation to the edges thereof as each opening is formed to preclude material from Within the stomach entering the cavity between said outer skin and said stomach wall; then drawing said skin and the wall of said stomach around said respective openings in tight engagement with each other, then opening said conduit to discharge of material within said stomach through said conduit.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,213,001 Philips Jan. 16, 1917 1,434,964 Rose Nov. 7, 1922 1,863,057 Innes June 14, 1932 2,638,901 Sugarbaker May 19, 1953 2,779,335 Hausser Ian. 29, 1957 2,799,273 Oddo July 16, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 11,277 Great Britain 1907 179,842 Austria Oct. 11, 1954 748,666 France July 7, 1933
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1213001 *||May 2, 1916||Jan 16, 1917||Ralph S Philips||Therapeutic apparatus.|
|US1434964 *||Mar 20, 1918||Nov 7, 1922||Dilator Syringe Corp||Douche nozzle|
|US1863057 *||Mar 3, 1930||Jun 14, 1932||Innes George A||Surgical drain|
|US2638901 *||Jul 30, 1951||May 19, 1953||Sugarbaker Everett D||Surgical clamp|
|US2779335 *||May 13, 1955||Jan 29, 1957||Hausser Will N||Self-retaining cattle trocar|
|US2799273 *||Mar 22, 1955||Jul 16, 1957||Vincent J Oddo||Haemostatic catheter|
|AT179842B *|| ||Title not available|
|FR748666A *|| ||Title not available|
|GB190711277A *|| ||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3127894 *||Sep 26, 1960||Apr 7, 1964||Smith Gail B||Method of medicine administration and device therefor|
|US3216420 *||Dec 27, 1962||Nov 9, 1965||Marvin E Claycomb||Colostomy attachments|
|US3241554 *||Aug 14, 1963||Mar 22, 1966||Baxter Don Inc||Peritoneal dialysis entry device|
|US3253594 *||Jul 30, 1963||May 31, 1966||Frank E Matthews||Peritoneal cannula|
|US3496932 *||Dec 22, 1967||Feb 24, 1970||Gen Motors Corp||Method and apparatus for substernal cardiac massage|
|US3659607 *||Apr 6, 1970||May 2, 1972||Surgical Design Corp||Method for performing surgical procedures on the eye|
|US3717151 *||Mar 11, 1971||Feb 20, 1973||R Collett||Flesh penetrating apparatus|
|US3833003 *||Jul 5, 1972||Sep 3, 1974||A Taricco||Intravascular occluding catheter|
|US3856021 *||Oct 1, 1973||Dec 24, 1974||A Mcintosh||Device for treatment of bloat of ruminants|
|US3871368 *||Oct 10, 1973||Mar 18, 1975||Van Berkum Wilmer T||Device for fixation of preparturient vaginal prolapse|
|US3889658 *||Apr 8, 1974||Jun 17, 1975||Jay H Newhall||Vivo temperature sensing method and apparatus|
|US4030490 *||Nov 14, 1975||Jun 21, 1977||Vogel George N||Female protective device|
|US4083370 *||Nov 3, 1976||Apr 11, 1978||Taylor John D||Bloat relief tube and holder|
|US4311146 *||May 8, 1980||Jan 19, 1982||Sorenson Research Co., Inc.||Detachable balloon catheter apparatus and method|
|US4364387 *||Dec 18, 1980||Dec 21, 1982||Abbott Laboratories||Connecting device for medical liquid containers|
|US4395806 *||Nov 12, 1981||Aug 2, 1983||Sorenson Research Co., Inc.||Method of manufacturing a detachable balloon catheter assembly|
|US4414974 *||Jun 9, 1981||Nov 15, 1983||General Conveyors Limited||Microsurgical knife|
|US4491126 *||Jul 6, 1982||Jan 1, 1985||Gary W. Cullor||Method and apparatus for monitoring body parts of animals|
|US4654030 *||Feb 24, 1986||Mar 31, 1987||Endotherapeutics||Trocar|
|US4790329 *||Jun 12, 1987||Dec 13, 1988||Trustees Of Beth Israel Hospital||Adjustable biopsy localization device|
|US4815467 *||Mar 13, 1987||Mar 28, 1989||Chestnut William J||Acromioplasty guide pins|
|US4834707 *||Sep 16, 1987||May 30, 1989||Evans Phillip H||Venting apparatus and method for cardiovascular pumping application|
|US4861334 *||Jun 24, 1988||Aug 29, 1989||Nawaz Arain||Self-retaining gastrostomy tube|
|US4986810 *||Sep 1, 1989||Jan 22, 1991||Neal Semrad||Toggle catheter|
|US5002557 *||Apr 6, 1989||Mar 26, 1991||Hasson Harrith M||Laparoscopic cannula|
|US5057082 *||Nov 4, 1988||Oct 15, 1991||Plastic Injectors, Inc.||Trocar assembly|
|US5122122 *||Nov 22, 1989||Jun 16, 1992||Dexide, Incorporated||Locking trocar sleeve|
|US5176697 *||Sep 28, 1990||Jan 5, 1993||Hasson Harrith M||Laparoscopic cannula|
|US5217441 *||Mar 27, 1992||Jun 8, 1993||United States Surgical Corporation||Trocar guide tube positioning device|
|US5226890 *||Nov 13, 1991||Jul 13, 1993||United States Surgical Corporation||Tissue gripping device|
|US5232451 *||Apr 25, 1991||Aug 3, 1993||Dexide, Inc.||Locking trocar sleeve|
|US5257975 *||Aug 14, 1992||Nov 2, 1993||Edward Weck Incorporated||Cannula retention device|
|US5263937 *||Feb 11, 1993||Nov 23, 1993||Shipp John I||Trocar with profile to reduce insertion force|
|US5279564 *||Sep 11, 1992||Jan 18, 1994||Edward Weck Incorporated||Cannula retention device|
|US5295994 *||Nov 15, 1991||Mar 22, 1994||Bonutti Peter M||Active cannulas|
|US5309896 *||Nov 19, 1991||May 10, 1994||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Retraction methods using endoscopic inflatable retraction devices|
|US5330497 *||Dec 15, 1992||Jul 19, 1994||Dexide, Inc.||Locking trocar sleeve|
|US5330498 *||Dec 17, 1991||Jul 19, 1994||Hill John D||Blood vessel occlusion trocar|
|US5330501 *||Feb 3, 1993||Jul 19, 1994||United States Surgical Corporation||Tissue gripping device for use with a cannula and a cannula incorporating the device|
|US5336206 *||Apr 12, 1993||Aug 9, 1994||United States Surgical Corporation||Trocar penetration depth indicator and guide tube positioning device|
|US5354270 *||Mar 22, 1993||Oct 11, 1994||Wilk Peter J||Surgical closure disk and balloon method|
|US5356421 *||Oct 7, 1992||Oct 18, 1994||United States Surgical Corporation||Safety trocar with locking handles|
|US5368574 *||Oct 1, 1992||Nov 29, 1994||Ethicon, Inc.||Percutaneous catheter introducer|
|US5370625 *||Apr 13, 1993||Dec 6, 1994||United States Surgical Corporation||Trocar guide tube positioning device|
|US5375588 *||Aug 17, 1992||Dec 27, 1994||Yoon; Inbae||Method and apparatus for use in endoscopic procedures|
|US5387196 *||May 19, 1992||Feb 7, 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Cannula assembly having conductive cannula|
|US5392787 *||Oct 1, 1993||Feb 28, 1995||Yoon; Inbae||Multifunctional devices for use in endoscopic surgical procedures and methods therefor|
|US5402772 *||Aug 13, 1993||Apr 4, 1995||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Endoscopic expandable retraction device|
|US5407423 *||Aug 25, 1994||Apr 18, 1995||Yoon; Inbae||Multifunctional devices for use in endoscopic surgical procedures and method therefor|
|US5439457 *||Oct 1, 1993||Aug 8, 1995||Yoon; Inbae||Multifunctional devices for use in endoscopic surgical procedures and methods therefor|
|US5445615 *||Dec 20, 1993||Aug 29, 1995||Yoon; Inbae||Surgical instrument stabilizer|
|US5450843 *||Mar 14, 1994||Sep 19, 1995||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Retraction apparatus and methods for endoscopic surgery|
|US5451204 *||Apr 14, 1993||Sep 19, 1995||Yoon; Inbae||Multifunctional devices for endoscopic surgical procedures|
|US5454367 *||Aug 13, 1993||Oct 3, 1995||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Method of using endoscopic inflatable retraction device with fluid tight elastomeric window|
|US5458579 *||Nov 25, 1992||Oct 17, 1995||Technalytics, Inc.||Mechanical trocar insertion apparatus|
|US5465711 *||Aug 13, 1993||Nov 14, 1995||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Surgical procedures using endoscopic inflatable retraction devices|
|US5472429 *||Feb 23, 1995||Dec 5, 1995||Yoon; Inbae||Surgical instrument stabilizer|
|US5484426 *||Oct 1, 1993||Jan 16, 1996||Yoon; Inbae||Multifunctional devices for use in endoscopic surgical procedures and methods therefor|
|US5501653 *||Dec 6, 1993||Mar 26, 1996||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Abdominal wall lifting retractor with hinged cross-member|
|US5505689 *||Oct 24, 1994||Apr 9, 1996||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Propertioneal mechanical retraction apparatus|
|US5514075 *||Nov 18, 1994||May 7, 1996||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Properitoneal mechanical retraction apparatus and methods of using|
|US5514085 *||Oct 1, 1993||May 7, 1996||Yoon; Inbae||Multifunctional devices for use in endoscopic surgical procedures and methods therefor|
|US5520609 *||May 18, 1993||May 28, 1996||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for peritoneal retraction|
|US5522790 *||Mar 14, 1994||Jun 4, 1996||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Retraction apparatus and methods for endoscopic surgery|
|US5527264 *||Feb 8, 1994||Jun 18, 1996||Origin Medsystem, Inc.||Methods of using endoscopic inflatable retraction devices|
|US5531856 *||Aug 13, 1993||Jul 2, 1996||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Endoscopic inflatable retraction devices|
|US5538509 *||Jan 31, 1994||Jul 23, 1996||Richard-Allan Medical Industries, Inc.||Trocar assembly|
|US5540648 *||Jul 13, 1994||Jul 30, 1996||Yoon; Inbae||Medical instrument stabilizer with anchoring system and methods|
|US5562603 *||Jun 5, 1995||Oct 8, 1996||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Endoscopic inflatable retraction device with fluid-tight elastomeric window|
|US5569290 *||Jan 30, 1995||Oct 29, 1996||Paul C. McAfee||Method of and apparatus for laparoscopic or endoscopic spinal surgery using an unsealed anteriorly inserted transparent trochar|
|US5599292 *||Aug 25, 1994||Feb 4, 1997||Yoon; Inbae||Multifunctional devices for use in endoscopic surgical procedures and methods therefor|
|US5613950 *||May 19, 1993||Mar 25, 1997||Yoon; Inbae||Multifunctional manipulating instrument for various surgical procedures|
|US5618309 *||Nov 10, 1994||Apr 8, 1997||Green; David T.||Cannula assembly having conductive cannula|
|US5632761 *||Mar 16, 1995||May 27, 1997||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Inflatable devices for separating layers of tissue, and methods of using|
|US5634883 *||May 26, 1995||Jun 3, 1997||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Apparatus for peritoneal retraction|
|US5634935 *||Jun 16, 1995||Jun 3, 1997||Taheri; Syde A.||Balloon dissection instrument and method of dissection|
|US5643178 *||May 26, 1995||Jul 1, 1997||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Method for peritoneal retration|
|US5649902 *||Mar 8, 1995||Jul 22, 1997||Yoon; Inbae||Multifunctional devices for endoscopic surgical procedures|
|US5653718 *||May 16, 1994||Aug 5, 1997||Yoon; Inbae||Cannula anchoring system|
|US5662674 *||Jun 6, 1995||Sep 2, 1997||Debbas; Elie||Apparatus for locating a breast mass|
|US5681341 *||Mar 14, 1995||Oct 28, 1997||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Flexible lifting apparatus|
|US5697946 *||Oct 7, 1994||Dec 16, 1997||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for anchoring laparoscopic instruments|
|US5700239 *||Jun 5, 1996||Dec 23, 1997||Yoon; Inbae||Multifunctional devices for use in endoscopic surgical procedures and method therefor|
|US5704372 *||Jul 29, 1994||Jan 6, 1998||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Endoscopic inflatable retraction devices for separating layers of tissue, and methods of using|
|US5707362 *||Apr 3, 1995||Jan 13, 1998||Yoon; Inbae||Penetrating instrument having an expandable anchoring portion for triggering protrusion of a safety member and/or retraction of a penetrating member|
|US5716327 *||Jun 25, 1996||Feb 10, 1998||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Body wall retraction system for wide cavity retraction|
|US5722986 *||Jul 24, 1996||Mar 3, 1998||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Inflatable devices for separating layers of tissue, and methods of using|
|US5728119 *||Oct 13, 1995||Mar 17, 1998||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Method and inflatable chamber apparatus for separating layers of tissue|
|US5733252 *||Feb 5, 1996||Mar 31, 1998||Yoon; Inbae||Multifunctional devices for the use in endoscopic surgical procedures and methods therefor|
|US5738629 *||Jun 5, 1995||Apr 14, 1998||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Self-retracting endoscope|
|US5743850 *||Aug 24, 1994||Apr 28, 1998||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Endoscopic inflatable retraction device with additional inflatable chamber|
|US5743851 *||Jun 4, 1996||Apr 28, 1998||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Retraction apparatus and methods for endoscopic surgery|
|US5779728 *||Jan 5, 1996||Jul 14, 1998||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Method and inflatable chamber apparatus for separating layers of tissue|
|US5782813 *||Jun 19, 1995||Jul 21, 1998||Yoon; Inbae||Surgical instrument stabilizer|
|US5800394 *||Jun 25, 1997||Sep 1, 1998||Yoon; Inbae||Method of creating an operating space endoscopically at an obstructed site|
|US5803901 *||Mar 13, 1997||Sep 8, 1998||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Inflatable devices for separating layers of tissue and methods of using|
|US5823945 *||Jun 5, 1997||Oct 20, 1998||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Endoscopic inflatable retraction device with additional inflatable chamber|
|US5823947 *||Jun 25, 1997||Oct 20, 1998||Yoon; Inbae||Method of creating an operating space endoscopically at an obstructed site|
|US5827215 *||Sep 24, 1993||Oct 27, 1998||Yoon; Inbae||Packing device for endoscopic procedures|
|US5836871 *||Jun 10, 1996||Nov 17, 1998||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Method for lifting a body wall using an inflatable lifting apparatus|
|US5855566 *||Jun 1, 1995||Jan 5, 1999||Urohealth, Inc. (California)||Trocar assembly|
|US5857999 *||May 5, 1995||Jan 12, 1999||Imagyn Medical Technologies, Inc.||Small diameter introducer for laparoscopic instruments|
|US5860997 *||Jun 5, 1995||Jan 19, 1999||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Method of dissecting tissue layers|
|US5865728 *||Nov 21, 1995||Feb 2, 1999||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Method of using an endoscopic inflatable lifting apparatus to create an anatomic working space|
|US5865802 *||Dec 13, 1995||Feb 2, 1999||Yoon; Inbae||Expandable multifunctional instruments for creating spaces at obstructed sites endoscopically|
|US5882340 *||Jul 2, 1997||Mar 16, 1999||Yoon; Inbae||Penetrating instrument having an expandable anchoring portion for triggering protrusion of a safety member and/or retraction of a penetrating member|
|US5925058 *||Jun 18, 1997||Jul 20, 1999||Origin Medsystems, Inc.||Method and inflatable chamber apparatus for separating layers of tissue|
|US5935103 *||Jul 18, 1997||Aug 10, 1999||Heartport, Inc.||Blood vessel occlusion device|
|US5941852 *||Jun 1, 1995||Aug 24, 1999||Imagyn Medical Technologies California, Inc.||Trocar assembly|
|US5941894 *||Jul 18, 1997||Aug 24, 1999||Heartport, Inc.||Blood vessel occlusion device|
|US5954739 *||Jun 23, 1997||Sep 21, 1999||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Method of dissecting tissue layers|
|US5957888 *||Oct 10, 1995||Sep 28, 1999||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical cannula having a variable length|
|US5997505 *||Jul 18, 1997||Dec 7, 1999||Heartport, Inc.||Method of cannulating an ascending aorta using a blood vessel occlusion device|
|US6042596 *||Sep 25, 1997||Mar 28, 2000||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Method of performing balloon dissection|
|US6059734 *||May 5, 1998||May 9, 2000||Yoon; Inbae||Methods of collecting tissue at obstructed anatomical sites|
|US6102928 *||Jan 19, 1999||Aug 15, 2000||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Method of dissecting tissue layers|
|US6146401 *||Jul 29, 1998||Nov 14, 2000||Yoon; Inbae||Expandable multifunctional instruments for creating spaces at obstructed sites endoscopically|
|US6187023||Jun 5, 1995||Feb 13, 2001||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Method of dissecting tissue layers|
|US6224619||Sep 17, 1996||May 1, 2001||Heartport, Inc.||Blood vessel occlusion trocar having size and shape varying insertion body|
|US6248088||Sep 24, 1993||Jun 19, 2001||Inbae Yoon||Methods for performing endoscopic procedures|
|US6277089||Mar 31, 1998||Aug 21, 2001||Inbae Yoon||Method for ablating portions of the uterus|
|US6277136||Feb 18, 1999||Aug 21, 2001||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Method for developing an anatomic space|
|US6283948 *||Jul 13, 1999||Sep 4, 2001||Ethicon, Inc.||Trocar obturator having grooved passageway|
|US6328729||Apr 27, 1999||Dec 11, 2001||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Colporrhaphy method and apparatus|
|US6358266||Oct 9, 1996||Mar 19, 2002||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Active cannulas|
|US6361543||Mar 18, 1997||Mar 26, 2002||Sherwood Services Ag||Inflatable devices for separating layers of tissue, and methods of using|
|US6451042||Jan 6, 1999||Sep 17, 2002||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Method and apparatus for dissecting tissue layers|
|US6497687||Jun 22, 2000||Dec 24, 2002||Erblan Surgical Inc.||Safety trocar with progressive cutting tip guards and gas jet tissue deflector|
|US6524283||May 23, 1995||Feb 25, 2003||Sherwood Services Ag||Method and apparatus for anchoring laparoscopic instruments|
|US6565590||Aug 17, 2001||May 20, 2003||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for developing an anatomic space|
|US6602218||Jun 5, 2001||Aug 5, 2003||Inbae Yoon||Apparatus for ablation of the endometrium of the uterus|
|US6605037||Oct 26, 1998||Aug 12, 2003||Sherwood Services Ag||Endoscopic inflatable retraction device|
|US6620181||Mar 16, 2000||Sep 16, 2003||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Method of dissecting tissue layers|
|US6679900||Feb 13, 2002||Jan 20, 2004||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for developing an anatomic space for laparoscopic hernia repair and patch for use therewith|
|US6695856||Feb 13, 2002||Feb 24, 2004||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for developing an anatomic space for laparoscopic hernia repair and patch for use therewith|
|US6758853||Feb 13, 2002||Jul 6, 2004||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for developing an anatomic space for laparoscopic hernia repair and patch for use therewith|
|US6860892||May 28, 1999||Mar 1, 2005||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Specially shaped balloon device for use in surgery and method of use|
|US6908454||Feb 13, 2003||Jun 21, 2005||Taut, Inc.||Anchoring assembly for a medical instrument|
|US6953467||Apr 5, 2002||Oct 11, 2005||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Apparatus and method for developing an anatomic space for laparoscopic hernia repair and patch for use therewith|
|US6989003||Aug 31, 2001||Jan 24, 2006||Conmed Corporation||Obturator and cannula for a trocar adapted for ease of insertion and removal|
|US7163510||Sep 17, 2003||Jan 16, 2007||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical instrument access device|
|US7179272||Feb 25, 2004||Feb 20, 2007||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Apparatus and method for dissecting tissue layers|
|US7214236||Jul 2, 2004||May 8, 2007||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for developing an anatomic space for laparoscopic hernia repair and patch for use therewith|
|US7217273||Dec 5, 2003||May 15, 2007||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Fluid operated retractors|
|US7226462||Jun 10, 2004||Jun 5, 2007||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Specially shaped balloon device for use in surgery and method of use|
|US7235064||Feb 25, 2003||Jun 26, 2007||Sherwood Services Ag||Method and apparatus for anchoring laparoscopic instruments|
|US7238154||Sep 1, 2005||Jul 3, 2007||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retraction apparatus and method|
|US7297153||Aug 22, 2005||Nov 20, 2007||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Apparatus and method for developing an anatomic space for laparoscopic hernia repair and patch for use therewith|
|US7300399||Nov 24, 2004||Nov 27, 2007||Atropos Limited||Surgical device for retracting and/or sealing an incision|
|US7300448||Oct 6, 2003||Nov 27, 2007||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Balloon dissector with cannula|
|US7311719||Apr 8, 2003||Dec 25, 2007||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Active cannulas|
|US7377898||May 30, 2007||May 27, 2008||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retraction apparatus and method|
|US7473221||Sep 21, 2001||Jan 6, 2009||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US7481765||Oct 5, 2005||Jan 27, 2009||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US7540839||Aug 6, 2003||Jun 2, 2009||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor|
|US7559893||Oct 6, 2003||Jul 14, 2009||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor device|
|US7650887||Jun 3, 2003||Jan 26, 2010||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor|
|US7695487||Apr 24, 2003||Apr 13, 2010||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Balloon dissection apparatus|
|US7704207||Oct 12, 2006||Apr 27, 2010||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Circular surgical retractor|
|US7727146||Oct 12, 2006||Jun 1, 2010||Applied Medical Resources||Wound retractor with gel cap|
|US7736306||Oct 12, 2006||Jun 15, 2010||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Hand access laparoscopic device|
|US7744617||Mar 19, 2003||Jun 29, 2010||Covidien Ag||Method and inflatable chamber apparatus for separating layers of tissue|
|US7749415||Oct 12, 2006||Jul 6, 2010||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Method of making a hand access laparoscopic device|
|US7766823||Aug 11, 2003||Aug 3, 2010||Covidien Ag||Endoscopic inflatable retraction device, method of using, and method of making|
|US7815567||Oct 12, 2006||Oct 19, 2010||Applied Medical Resources, Corporation||Split hoop wound retractor|
|US7867164||Sep 22, 2003||Jan 11, 2011||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor system|
|US7878974||Jun 15, 2010||Feb 1, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Hand access laparoscopic device|
|US7883461||Jun 1, 2010||Feb 8, 2011||Applied Medical Resources||Wound retractor with gel cap|
|US7892172||Apr 27, 2010||Feb 22, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Circular surgical retractor|
|US7909760||Oct 12, 2006||Mar 22, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Split hoop wound retractor with gel pad|
|US7913697||Jan 25, 2010||Mar 29, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor|
|US7931658 *||Mar 18, 2005||Apr 26, 2011||Interrad Medical, Inc.||Temporary retention device|
|US7935127||Nov 22, 2006||May 3, 2011||Interrad Medical, Inc.||Temporary retention device|
|US7951076||Oct 7, 2005||May 31, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access system|
|US7963975||May 10, 2004||Jun 21, 2011||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Balloon dissector with balloon tip cannula|
|US8016755||Dec 3, 2010||Sep 13, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US8016794||Mar 9, 2006||Sep 13, 2011||Interrad Medical, Inc.||Anchor device and method|
|US8016813||Sep 3, 2009||Sep 13, 2011||Interrad Medical, Inc.||Anchor device and method|
|US8021296||Jul 14, 2006||Sep 20, 2011||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor|
|US8038653||Jul 16, 2008||Oct 18, 2011||Interrad Medical, Inc.||Anchor systems and methods|
|US8066673||Mar 21, 2006||Nov 29, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Cannula stabilization seal|
|US8066689||Jul 11, 2007||Nov 29, 2011||Apollo Endosurgery, Inc.||Methods and systems for submucosal implantation of a device for diagnosis and treatment with a therapeutic agent|
|US8070676||Dec 3, 2010||Dec 6, 2011||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US8105234||Jan 27, 2009||Jan 31, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US8109873||May 12, 2008||Feb 7, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical retractor with gel pad|
|US8128592||Jul 11, 2007||Mar 6, 2012||Apollo Endosurgery, Inc.||Methods and systems for performing submucosal medical procedures|
|US8147453||Mar 13, 2006||Apr 3, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Balloon trocar|
|US8157835||Jun 1, 2010||Apr 17, 2012||Applied Medical Resouces Corporation||Access sealing apparatus and method|
|US8172869||Apr 12, 2010||May 8, 2012||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Balloon dissection apparatus|
|US8187177||Nov 29, 2006||May 29, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical instrument access device|
|US8187178||Jun 5, 2008||May 29, 2012||Atropos Limited||Instrument access device|
|US8187296||Oct 22, 2007||May 29, 2012||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Apparatus and method for developing an anatomic space for laparoscopic hernia repair and patch for use therewith|
|US8226552||May 12, 2008||Jul 24, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical retractor|
|US8235054||Feb 22, 2011||Aug 7, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor|
|US8241330||Nov 2, 2007||Aug 14, 2012||Lanx, Inc.||Spinous process implants and associated methods|
|US8252004||Mar 25, 2011||Aug 28, 2012||Interrad Medical, Inc.||Temporary retention device|
|US8262568||Oct 13, 2009||Sep 11, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Single port access system|
|US8267858||Jan 18, 2011||Sep 18, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retractor with gel cap|
|US8282665||Oct 22, 2007||Oct 9, 2012||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Apparatus and method for dissecting tissue layers|
|US8287503||Mar 8, 2007||Oct 16, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Balloon trocar|
|US8298185 *||Sep 14, 2010||Oct 30, 2012||Suremka Medical, Llc||Retractable cannula for surgical procedures|
|US8308639||Mar 17, 2011||Nov 13, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Split hoop wound retractor with gel pad|
|US8313431||Oct 15, 2010||Nov 20, 2012||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Split hoop wound retractor|
|US8317691||Apr 20, 2009||Nov 27, 2012||Atropos Limited||Wound retractor device|
|US8317771||Jan 15, 2010||Nov 27, 2012||Apollo Endosurgery, Inc.||Methods and systems for performing submucosal medical procedures|
|US8328764||Feb 6, 2009||Dec 11, 2012||Interrad Medical, Inc.||System for anchoring medical devices|
|US8328837||Dec 7, 2005||Dec 11, 2012||Xlumena, Inc.||Method and apparatus for performing needle guided interventions|
|US8328839||May 17, 2011||Dec 11, 2012||Covidien Lp||Balloon dissector with balloon tip cannula|
|US8343047||Jan 22, 2009||Jan 1, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical instrument access device|
|US8343108||Sep 29, 2010||Jan 1, 2013||Interrad Medical, Inc.||Systems and methods for anchoring medical devices|
|US8357086||May 3, 2012||Jan 22, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical instrument access device|
|US8357193||May 3, 2010||Jan 22, 2013||Xlumena, Inc.||Apparatus and method for deploying stent across adjacent tissue layers|
|US8360969 *||Mar 28, 2008||Jan 29, 2013||Frantz Medical Development, Ltd.||Securable cannula and method|
|US8375955||Feb 5, 2010||Feb 19, 2013||Atropos Limited||Surgical procedure|
|US8382707||Mar 3, 2009||Feb 26, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Balloon trocar advanced fixation|
|US8388526||Apr 23, 2008||Mar 5, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Wound retraction apparatus and method|
|US8414487||Feb 8, 2011||Apr 9, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Circular surgical retractor|
|US8425539||Oct 4, 2007||Apr 23, 2013||Xlumena, Inc.||Luminal structure anchoring devices and methods|
|US8444603||Sep 8, 2011||May 21, 2013||Interrad Medical, Inc.||Anchor systems and methods|
|US8454632||Apr 21, 2009||Jun 4, 2013||Xlumena, Inc.||Tissue anchor for securing tissue layers|
|US8454645||Oct 5, 2007||Jun 4, 2013||Covidien Lp||Balloon dissector with cannula|
|US8480575||Aug 28, 2012||Jul 9, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Single port access system|
|US8491472||Nov 23, 2011||Jul 23, 2013||Apollo Endosurgery, Inc.||Methods and systems for submucosal implantation of a device for diagnosis and treatment with a therapeutic agent|
|US8496581||Mar 15, 2012||Jul 30, 2013||Applied Medical Resources Corporation||Surgical access apparatus and method|
|US8540745||Dec 17, 2012||Sep 24, 2013||Covidien Lp||Balloon dissector with cannula|
|US20110306841 *||Jan 19, 2010||Dec 15, 2011||Lozman Philip R||Surgical Retention Port and Method of Use|
|US20120065589 *||Sep 14, 2010||Mar 15, 2012||Worrel Daniel A||Retractable Cannula for Surgical Procedures|
|US20120130417 *||Jan 31, 2012||May 24, 2012||Keke Lepulu||Apparatus and method for penetrating and enlarging adjacent tissue layers|
|USRE34021 *||Nov 13, 1989||Aug 4, 1992||Abbott Laboratories||Percutaneous fixation of hollow organs|
|EP0432363A2 *||Aug 10, 1990||Jun 19, 1991||Dexide, Inc.||Locking trocar sleeve|
|EP0487175A1 *||Mar 18, 1991||May 27, 1992||Thomas A. Castillenti||Laparoscopic trocar with self-locking port sleeve|
|WO1992010141A1 *||Nov 22, 1991||Jun 25, 1992||Adair Edwin Lloyd||Trochar system for laparoscopy|
|WO1994017845A1 *||Feb 4, 1994||Aug 18, 1994||Life Surgery Inc||Trocar with profile to reduce insertion force|
|WO1995002367A1 *||Jul 15, 1994||Jan 26, 1995||Aws Shakir Mustafa Salim||Percutaneous sigmoid colon volvulus deflation device|
|WO1995002368A1 *||Jul 15, 1994||Jan 26, 1995||Aws Shakir Mustafa Salim||Percutaneous colostomy catheter|
|WO1996033752A2 *||Apr 18, 1996||Oct 31, 1996||Inbae Yoon||Retractable safety penetrating instrument with laterally extendable spring strip|