|Publication number||US3039475 A|
|Publication date||Jun 19, 1962|
|Filing date||Apr 13, 1959|
|Priority date||Apr 11, 1958|
|Publication number||US 3039475 A, US 3039475A, US-A-3039475, US3039475 A, US3039475A|
|Inventors||Bonnet Jacques, Neukomm Serge|
|Original Assignee||Sasmoco Sa|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (24), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Q 3,039,475 TOBACCO PROCESS, AND PRODUCT Serge Neukomm, Prilly, andJacques Bonnet, Lausanne, Switzerland, assignors to Sasmoco S.'A.,'Lenzerheide, Grisous, Switzerland No Drawing. Filed Apr. 13, 1959, Ser..No. 805,664 Claims priority, application Switzerland Apr. 11, 1958 .9 Claims. (Cl. 131--140) It is well known to those skilled in the art that tobacco smoke contains certain carcinogenic. substances and that these substances are not present in the tobacco itself but are formed during the combustion of the tobacco and are therefore present in the tobacco smoke.
Our invention relates to a new and improved process for treating or impregnating tobacco.
It is an object of the invention to provide a method for treating tobacco for the purpose of modifying its combustion process to thereby diminish the amount of the carcinogenic substances formed during the combustion, particularly of polycyclic hydrocarbons such as 3,4-benzo-pyrene.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a method capable of modifying the surface of the vegetative fiber of tobacco and the permeability of the vegetative cells therein.
The result of the treatment according to our invention is that the smoke of the treated tobacco contains less carcinogenic hydrocarbons and also less irritating and carcinogenic polymeric substances which are usually formed by combustion of untreated tobacco. Further objects of the invention will appear in the course of the following detailed description of our invention.
The new process for treating tobacco broadly stated comprises impregnating tobacco with a substance containing a metallic component and at least one permeabilitymodifying agent taken from the class of halogenated hydrocarbons generally known as organic solvents, i.e. volatile liquids which are non-inflammable due to their halogenation. The treatment of tobacco is carried out in two steps which are:
First, an operation of preparing the fiber of tobacco by a careful and mild action of the permeability-modifying agent which preferably is an organic solvent, which has the eifect of modifying the surface of the vegetative fiber and consequently the permeability of the vegetative cells themselves;
Second, an operation of actual impregnation by the action of an impregnating mixture consisting of (l) a volatile, non-inflammable liquid of the class known as organic solvents which preferably is the same as the permeability modifying agent used in the first step, and (2) less than of a metal substance in the form of an organo-metallic compound in solution, or a metal, a metal oxide or a metal salt in suspension in said liquid acting as solvent or dispersant, respectively; these solutions or suspensions will be referred to in the following specification as impregnation mixtures.
Concerning such impregnation mixtures it will be noted that if these mixtures are formed by a solution the organometal compound can penetrate inside the vegetative cells; but, if the impregnation mixture is a suspension, the small particles of metal, metal oxide or metal salt are fixed on the surface of the fibers which have been prepared by the action of the permeability-modifying agent during the above mentioned first step.
The metal component can be an organo-metallic compound, preferably of a bivalent or trivalent metal such as aluminum, magnesium, cadmium, bismuth or iron, e.g. in the form of their alcoholates which are preferred because of their good solubility, or of their organo-metallic acids,
the metal being preferably attached to the carbon atom in them-position of the carboxylic radical, e.g. aluminum diethyl malonate. These organo-metal compounds are used in solution. The metal component can, however, just as well be an elemental metal or a metal oxide or a metal salt which is transformed into an elemental metal or a metal oxide during the combustion of tobacco,,.i.e. at a temperature of about 500 C. and above. Such compounds comprise e.g. aluminum, magnesium, manganese, cadmium, bismuth, iron, platinum, iridium and palladium.
It is preferred to use the same organic solvent or the same mixture of solvents for both steps. A particularly appropriate group of solvents for carrying out the process of the present invention on a large scale is the group of non inflammable halogenated hydrocarbons.
Suitable hydrocarbons are disclosed, for instance, in the patent to Roselius, No. 2,048,624, as carbon tetrachloride, acetylene dichloride (sym-dichloroethylene), chloroform, and methyl dichloride.
The process of the present invention is preferably carried out at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.
The industrial application of the process of the invention is preferably carried out on cut tobacco when conveyed along by the processing chain. The operation of preparing the fiber will preferably last a short period only. If e.g. carbon tetrachloride is used as the permeabilityrnodifying agent in the first step and as solvent in the impregnation mixture in the second step, it is caused to act on the fiber for about one hour. A solvent tobacco ratio of 1.6 by weight has been found to give best results.
Carbon tetrachloride is preferred as the solvent in the preparatory step and carbon tetrachloride mixed with 0.1% of aluminum diethyl malonate is preferred as impregnant for the impregnation step.
In the actual impregnating operation following immediately the preparing operation, the tobacco is treated and preferably sprayed with a small amount of the impregnation mixture. In certain cases the preparation and the impregnation of the fiber will be carried out simultaneously by admixing the metal containing substance to the solvent used for the preparing operation.
The following non-limitativ-e examples illustrate how the process according to the invention is carried out in practice:
Example 1 parts by weight of Maryland tobacco being conveyed along the processing chain in the production of cigarettes, are introduced, after being cut in the conventional manner, into parts by Weight of carbon tetrachloride containing dissolved therein 0.1% by weight of aluminum diethyl malonate. The cut tobacco is left for one hour in contact with the liquid, and is then removed from excess liquid, if any is left. Residual solvent evaporates rapidly at the air. The conventional treatment in the processing chain then continues.
Example 2 100 parts by weight of Maryland tobacco are introduced, after being cut, into 160 parts by weight of carbon tetrachloride and left for about 1 hour in contact therewith. The cut tobacco is then removed from excess liquid, if any is left, and sprayed with a solution of about 0.1% of aluminum diethyl malonate in carbon tetrachloride to impregnate the cuttings. The solvent is permitted to evaporate from the impregnated cuttings. The conventional treatment in the processing chain then continues,
The results obtained by the process of the present invention are illustrated on two samples of Maryland tobacco which have been treated in accordance with this process on a semi-industrial scale and analysed. The values given in the following table were obtained by analysis of the condensate of smoke produced from treated and untreated tobacco, respectively:
Analysis of smoke produced from acco The values in the above table are given in micrograms per 100 cigarettes. They clearly show the effect of the treatment on the composition of the cigarette smoke. The invention provides a process which allows in a reproduceable Way a decrease of 4060% of polycyclic hydrocarbons, whereby the amount of pentacyclic hydrocarbons is more reduced than the amount of triand tetracyclic hydrocarbons.
1. A method for treating tobacco for the purpose of modifying its combustion process to thereby diminish the amount of carcinogenic substances formed during the combustion, comprising the step of impregnating tobacco at room temperature and under atmospheric pressure with a mixture consisting essentially of an organo-metallic compound selected from the group consisting of the alcohalates and organo-metallic acids of aluminum, magnesium, cadimium, bismuth and iron, and volatile, liquid non-inflammable halogenated hydrocarbon in excess of the amount of tobacco being treated, in which hydrocarbon said organo-metallic compound is dispersed, thereby obtaining a tobacco, the smoke of which has a greatly reduced content of polycyclic hydrocarbons.
2. A method as described in claim 1, wherein the organo-metallic compound is aluminum diethyl malonate.
3. A method as described in claim 1, wherein the hydrocarbon is carbon tetrachloride.
4. A method as described in claim 1, wherein said mixture consists essentially of carbon tetrachloride mixed with 0.1% of aluminum diethyl malonate.
5. A method for treating tobacco for the purpose of modifying its combustion process to thereby diminish the amount of carcinogenic substances formed during the combustion, comprising:
(a) pre-treating tobacco with an excess amount of volatile, liquid non-inflammable halogenated hydrocar- 4 bon, thereby modifying the permeability of the vegetative cells thereof; and
(b) impregnating the pre-treated tobacco at room temperature and under atmospheric pressure with an impregnation mixture selected from the group consisting of (I) a mixture consisting essentially of an organo-metallic compound and volatile, liquid non-inflammable halogenated hydrocarbon in which said organo-metallic compound is dispersed,
(II) a suspension of a metallic substance in non-inflammable halogenated hydrocarbon; wherein said organo-metallic compound is selected from the group consisting of the alcoholates and organo-metallic acids of aluminum, magnesium, cadmium, bismuth and iron; and wherein said metallic substance is selected from the group consisting of elemental aluminum, magnesium, manganese, cadmium, bismuth, iron, platinum, iridium and palladium, the oxides thereof, and salts thereof which are transformable at a temperature above 500 C. to an oxidation stage of the respective metal ranging from the elemental metal to the metal oxide stage, thereby obtaining a tobacco, the smoke of which has a greatly reduced content of polycyclic hydrocarbons.
6. A method as described in claim 5, wherein the weight ratio of said hydrocarbon to the tobacco pretreated therewith is about 1.6.
7. A method as described in claim 5 wherein the time of pretreatment is one hour.
8. Tobacco treated according to the process described in claim 1.
9. Tobacco treated according to the process described in claim 5.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 345,076 Robinson July 6, 1868 665,791 Love Aug. 14, 1900 2,859,753 Hitchcock et a1. Nov. 11, 1958 2,902,998 Durandeaux Sept. 8, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS 567,098 Germany Apr. 26, 1933 670,855 Germany Jan. 26, 1939 599,816 Great Britain Mar. 22, 1948 1,131,423 France Oct. 22, 1956 68,053 France Oct. 14, 1957 5 1,180,320 France Dec. 29, 1958
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|U.S. Classification||131/334, 131/352|
|Cooperative Classification||A24B15/246, A24B15/28|
|European Classification||A24B15/24B6, A24B15/28|