US 3040372 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 26, 1962 D. H; ELLIS 3,040,372
' DOOR CLOSER MECHANISM Filed Dec. 19, 1958 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 r\----1I, I
INVENTOR: DAVID H. ELLIS N ATT'YS June 26, 1962 n. H. ELLIS DOOR CLOSER MECHANISM 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 19, 1958 QOE INVENTOR: DAVID H. ELLIS ATT'YS June 26, 1962 D. H. ELLIS DOOR CLOSER MECHANISM 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Dec. 19, 1955 W W F INVENTOR. DAVID H. ELLIS BY ATT'YS D. H. ELLIS DOOR CLOSER MECHANISM June 26, 1962 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR: DAVID H. ELLIS ATT'Ys Mm w Filed D90. 19, 1958 tinned States Patent 3,04%,372 Patented June 26, 1962 fire 3,040,372 DUGR CLOEiER MECHANISM David H. Ellis, West Chicago, 111., assignor, by mesne assignments, to The Oscar C. Rixson $0., Franklin Park, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Filed Dec. 19, 1958, Ser. No. 781,565 Claims. (Cl. 16-62) This invention relates to door checks and closers of the single-arm type which may be either mortised or surface mounted on the upper portion of a door and which are adapted to be connected to a head jamb by an arm which is adapted to slide in a guide rail on the head jamb. More particularly, this invention relates to a door closer mechanism of the aforesaid type which may be fully concealed within the door and frame structure and which utilizes a traveling spindle for the operating arm to translate door opening movement into return energy for maximum efficiency of operation.
Prior door check and closer mechanisms have recognized the advantages of combining a spring operated closing unit with a fluid checking unit in order to provide a smooth and gradual closing action. However, since these units by their very nature are compelled to act in opposition to each other, they have been physically separated in prior devices. This physical separation necessitated a duplication of connecting mechanisms and extra space to accommodate a power mechanism of adequate size, with the result that casing requirements made a fully concealed installation substantially impossible.
Also, due to the problems attendant the installation of door check and closer mechanisms, the size of such devices, particularly thickness of the unit, is very critical. Likewise the energy which must be stored during the opening movement of the door to affect the return of the door to the closed position is .appreciable, especially in the case of a single-arm fully connected type of device where more power is required than with the usual brokenarm type. Thus, it is highly desirable in mechanisms of this type to utilize as much of the space occupied by the device as is possible for storing energy.
Therefore, it is an object of this invention to provide an improved arrangement wherein a spring operated closing unit and a fluid operated checking unit utilize the same cylinder and are actuated by the same connections.
Since the spring operated closing unit and the fluid speed-checking unit must act in opposition to each other, force translating devices previously used are generally inapplicable where these units occupy the same cylinder.
Therefore, it is an object of this invention to provide a door check and closer mechanism of the aforesaid single-arm type wherein force translation is accomplished by an improved traveling spindle mechanism.
A further advantage of the traveling spindle arrangement is that since the movement involved in the opening of the door is translated into both rotational and longitudinal movement, a uniformly continuous build up of spring resistance pressure, relative to operating arm angle, is obtained and a faliing-away of spring pressure as in conventional devices is avoided, thereby preventing the door from flying and slamming at the end of the opening movement.
Also, it is a further object of this invention to provide a door checking and closing mechanism having improved means for regulating the closure speed during the principal or stroke portion of the closing cycle and also independently adjustable means for providing a different speed for the terminal or latching portion of the closing cycle.
Another object of this invention is to provide a door closer unit of the aforesaid type adapted for universal mounting to accommodate either a push or a pull dooropening movement, either a right-hand or left hand operation of the unit, and either mortised or surface mounted installation of the unit.
Further objects are to provide a door checking and closing mechanism of the aforesaid type having an improved reservoir system adapted to cooperate with the fluid operated checking unit to facilitate a smooth opening movement of the door; to provide an improved and simplified door closer assembly; to provide such a device that is of more compact construction without sacrifice of power; and to provide a door closer mechanism of greater strength and power and yet of such construction that it can. be mortised into a door of conventional thickness. v
Further objects and advantages of this invention will become evident as the description proceeds and from an examination of the accompanying drawings which illustrate a specific embodiment of the invention.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a top plan view, partly fragmentary, of a preferred form of the invention shown mortised in the top portion of a door;
FIG, 2 is a sectional view taken substantially on the plane of the line 22 of FIGURE 1;
FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view of an operating-arm guide rail used in connection with the invention, showing it attached to the head jamb;
FIG. 4 is a view taken substantially on the plane of the line 44 of FIGURE 3 and which shows the side of the guide rail assembly; a
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of the guide rail assembly showing the manner of assembly;
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary perspective view of one end of the guide rail assembly;
FIG. 7 is a detail sectional view taken substantially on the plane of the line 7-7 of FIGURE 3 showing the operating-arm guide roller engaged in an adjustable holdopen stop member; I
FIG. 8 is a detail and elevational view of the holdopen stop member;
FIG. 9 is a detail sectional view of the traveling spindle subassembly, taken substantially on the plane of the line 9-9 of FIGURE 2, showing the connecting carriage assembly;
FIG. 10 is a detail sectional view of the hydraulic checking mechanism taken substantially on the plane of line Iii-1t} of FIGURE 2;
FIG. 11 is a detail sectional view of the hydraulic checking mechanism taken substantially along the plane Y FIG. 13 is a detail sectional view taken substantially on the plane of the line 1313 of FIGURES 2, 9 and 14 showing the traveling spindle subassembly;
FIG. 14 is a sectional view of the traveling spindle subassembly as taken substantially on the plane of the line 1414 of FIGURE 2 particularly showing the attachment of the connecting rods to the clevis yoke;
FIG. 14a is a plan view of the clevis yoke;
FIG. 15 is a detail sectional view of the primary or stroke closing speed control valve;
FIG. 16 is a detail sectional view of the primary and secondary or latching closing speed control valves;
FIG. 17 is a schematic sectional view of the hydraulic checking mechanism;
FIG. 18 is a top view of an embodiment of the invention shown mounted on the surface of a door and head jamb for a pull opening door operation;
FIG. 19 is a view in elevation of the arrangement shown in FIGURE 18.
In the form shown in the drawings, the subject invention is shown as being comprised generally of a longitudinally split casing structure 1, two identical hollow cylinders 3, two identical piston subassemblies 6, and a traveling spindle subassembly 5.
The frame or casing structure is preferably made of two substantially identical castings, comprising front and back sections 1.1 and 1.2 (see FIG. 13) generally rectangular in shape and disposed in face to face relation. As shown, each section is formed with recessed reservoir portions 7 along the abutting longitudinal edges for a purpose to be described. This frame structure is formed to receive the .two parallel hollow cylinders 3 which may be secured to one of the sections by any suitable means which provides secure bonding. These cylinders extend longitudinally on said frame, it being noted that they occupy a significant portion of the frame. The remaining portion of the frame structure is adapted to receive the traveling spindle subassembly which is suitably secured thereto so as to be positively held against any movement under operating load. Each of the cylinders is closed and sealed at the far or outer end by means of a plug 9 appropriately grooved adjacent its inner end to receive an O-ring seal 11.
Each piston assembly, shown generally at 6, is comprised of a piston 13, a connecting rod 15, means for conmeeting the piston to the rod for movement therewith, and a compression spring 17 surrounding the connecting rod 15 for a considerable portion of its length.
Each piston 13 is formed with a head 19 facing the closed outer end of the cylinder and terminating in a hollow cylindrical skirt portion 21 as is best seen in FIG- URE 10. The head 19 is provided with a passage 23 formed to receive a check valve 25 of a conventional type, normally held in seated position by a light spring 25.1, and arranged to allow substantially free fluid flow from behind the piston in the direction of the closed end of the cylinder, that is, to the space in front of the piston head, but adapted to prevent the reverse fiow.
The side wall of the head portion 19 is provided with a beveled slot on the lower portion, as at 29, in alignment with a port 27 for passage 81 (see FIG. 17), for a purpose to be described.
Connecting rod 15 is formed, at the end nearest the piston, with a shoulder 31 which forms a seat for spring member 17 and which terminates in an attaching stud 33 as is shown in FIGURE 10.
In the embodiment shown, the connecting rod 15 is connected to the piston 13 by means of a cup shaped member 35 which is formed to receive attaching stud 33 through an aperture in the bowl portion of member 35. The attaching connection is such as to provide a nonrotatable universal-joint relationship between the connecting rod and the cup member to allow freedom of alignment of the piston and rod and yet prevent, rotation of the piston about the axis of the rod. The cylindrical end of the cup member extends into the cylindrical end portion of piston 13 and is secured thereto by means of a pin 37 which extends through both.
When the piston assembly just described is inserted into each of the cylinders, a sealing unit is inserted around the connecting rod 15 adjacent the rear open end of the cylinder. This sealing unit is comprised of an annular thrust member 39, against which the near end of spring member 17 rests, an annular spacing member 41, an annular seal 43 extending between said spacing member and the connecting rod to effect a sealing relationship, and an annular end plate 45 secured within the cylinder.
The piston assemblies are identical in each of the cylinders.
The traveling spindle assembly is comprised generally of a frame portion, a rack, a spindle having a gear connection with the rack, two traveling carriage mechanisms, and a yoke andclevis assembly.
As shown in FIGURES 13 and 14 the frame portion of the traveling spindle assembly is comprised of two generally U-shaped side rails 47, substantially identical end portions 49, and longitudinal support members 51. The U-shaped side rails 47 may be stamped out of metal and are provided with substantially identical openings 53 in each leg to accommodate the movement of the spindle and yoke as will be described. Each side rail has four lugs 55, see FIGURE 12, extending longitudinally from each leg, two in either direction for connection with the end portions 49. The end portions 49 are comprised of laminations of identically shaped stamped pieces of metal formed as shown in FIGURE 12 to receive securing lugs from the side rails, the rack and the transverse'support members. These lugs may be peened over the outer surfaces of the end portions to provide a rigid unitary structure. v
The support members 51 are also stamped out of metal and are formed with openings to accommodate the movement of the spindle, yoke and clevis, these openings be ing similar in shape to those formed in the legs of the side rails previously described.
The rack 56 is likewise formed of a plurality of laminations of identically shaped stamped pieces of metal which are securely held within the frame by means of end lugs extending through the end plates 49. They are further secured by a rivet member 58 which extends across the entire subassembly and by rivet 58.1 which secures the opposite end of the rack laminations.
The spindle 57 is secured to a gear 59 for rotation therewith and lateral movement along rack 56. Spindle 57 extends beyond the side rails 47 of the sub -assembly frame and is restrained from axial movement by washers 54 located between shoulders 62 on the gear and the side rails 47. V
The traveling carriage members 60 are best-shown in FIGURE 9, and as shown are formed of a plurality of laminations of identically shaped stamped pieces of metal which may be held together in any conventional manner such as, for example, rivets. A circular opening in each carriage member, preferably lined with a bearing unit such as a roller or needle bearing, is provided for receiving the spindle 57 which rotates therein. A traveling carriage unit is located within each of the U-shaped rails 47 on either side of the subassembly frame, these rails being so shaped to act as guides for the movement of the the carriages with the traveling spindle 57. In the preferred embodiment, a needle or roller bearing unit 61 is located between each of the carriages and the base portions of the U-shaped rails, on the side opposite the rack 56, to reduce the friction therebetween.
Each carriage member is further provided with an opening 63 for receiving the ends of a yoke bar 65 which is spaced from the gear and extends between the carriage members for movement therewith. A clevis 67 is pivotally attached to the yoke bar 65 by a pin 68 and is further pivotally attached to the ends of the two connecting rods 15 by pins 68.1 in order to compel movement of the pistons with the spindle.
It will now be seen that with this improved mechanical-end assembly, and because of its sealed-off relation with the hydraulic-end of the closer unit, the entire assembly can be incorporated into the side wall of the casing 1 so that the rack 56 can be substantially coincident with the wall and for practical purposes a part thereof, as shown in FIG. 13. This means that the rack will occupy a minimum of the space between the casing side walls and a maximum of space will be available for the spindle 57 and gear 59.
This factor is practicularly important in a closer of the present type Where, for power advantage, a maximum size of spindle gear is essential. The over-all thickness of the unit case is of course predetermined by the thickness of the door into which it is to be mortised for a fully concealed installation and hence by putting the rack to the outside-as substantially a part of the casing wall-and by making the whole spindle unit slide within the casing, almost all of the internal thickness of the casing interior can be occupied by the spindle gear.
In the construction shown this arrangement is further enhanced by periphery grooving the gear 59, as shown in FIG. 13, to receive the medial longitudinal strengthening ribs or support members 51 which also are recessed into the casing side walls.
Now turning to the hydraulic checking mechanism, it will be seen that each of the recesses or partial reservoirs 7 formed in one half-section of the casing 1 are covered by means of a hollow cap member 69, such as that shown in FIGURE 11, which is generally of U-shaped section with tapered closed ends and which projects into a corresponding recess in the opposite casing half-section. This cap member may be a metal member inserted within recess 7 and secured thereto by any suitable means which will provide a firm, secure fluid proof bond. The function of the reservoirs 7 and the hollow cap members therefor is to provide a sufficient supply of fluid to the outer ends of the cylinders, as the pistons are withdrawn ot the left of FIGURE 1, to compensate for the displacement of the piston rods and springs on the inner sides of the pistons.
-It has been found to be particularly advantageous, however, to form the cap member from a collapsible resilient material capable of yielding under pressure and yet capable of retaining fluid without being dissolved by that fluid. Synthetic rubber has been found to be particularly effective especially when the cap portion is comprised of such material in thicknesses approximating onethirty-second of an inch.
In FIGURE 11a is shown an arrangement preferably used when the cap member 70 is made of collapsible material. In this view the cap member is shown formed to provide an internal and external shoulder 71 and a perforated plate-like stiffening member 73 is inserted into the cap members to rest on the inner shoulder 71. This collapsible cap is then inserted within the recess 7 in the same manner as the metallic member and secured thereto in the same way. Thus, when the cap collapses, the perforated stiifening member permits a free flow of fluid from the cap portion of the reservoir yet prevents a lateral collapse of the cap which would tend to loosen it from its fastening in the recess 7. i
The reservoirs 7 communicate with the interior of the cylinders on the rear side of the piston 13 through appropriate passages 75 formed in the body of the casing structure and the cylinders 3. Further, the cylinders are adapted to communicate with each other through passages 77 appropriately formed in the casing body and the cylinders, on both sides of the pistons 13, in order to provide coordinated action between the cylinders.
The flow of fluid from in front of piston 13 back into the chamber behind the piston in each cylinder is accomplished by means of two by-pass passages 79 and 81. By-pass passage 79 is appropriately formed in eachof the cylinders 3 and the case structure 1 as shown in FIGURE 6 15 and leads directly from the cylinders into the reservoirs 7. See FIG. 17. A regulating valve 83 controls the flow of fluidthrough by-pass passage 79. The valve shown in FIGURE 15 is a preferred form since it has been determined that valves made of resilient material and which are expanded to restrict an orifice give more sensitive control and require less space than the conventional cock type or needle valve. The valve of this kind shown is the subject of copending application Serial Number 765,492, filed October 6, 1958, by Silvius Burritt, Jr. and Herman P. Pichler, now Patent No. 2,992,808. This valve 83 comprises an axially compressible cylin drical body, of rubber or the like, disposed in a bore intersecting the passage 79. This body is of less diameter than the bore, to permit the passage of fluid around the body, and seats on the bottom of the bore so thatwhen the body is axially compressed it will expand radially to restrict the flow of fluid around the body and hence through the passage 79.
By-pass passage 81 is appropriately formed in casing structure 1 and cylinders 3, and this passage leads from that portion of the cylinder in front of .the piston 13- when the piston is in the forward position shown in FIGURE l0to an opening 32 in the cylinder spaced slightly behind the rear end of the skirt of piston 13 as seen in FIGURE 17. The location of the opening 82 is such that it becomes exposed by the piston skirt 21 just prior to the closing of the port 79 by the forward end portion 29' of the piston.
A second regulating valve 85 controls the flow of fluid through passage 81 and is preferably of the same type as valve 83 previously described.
The operative connection of my improved door closer with the head jamb is made through an operating arm,
adapted to slide in a guiding means secured to or mor- H tised in the head jamb of the door structure.
.In the embodiment shown an arm. 87 is keyed to the upper end of the spindle 57 to rotate therewith. The outer end of arm 87 is provided with a guide roller 89 rotatably attached thereto. Guide roller 89 is formed of spool shape with a decreased diameter through the middle portion and has a greater diameter at the ends, the end flanges being beveled inwardly toward the roller body. Guide roller 89 is adapted to function in cooperation with a guide rail assembly comprised, as shown, of an elongated rectangular housing frame or box 91, a guide bar comprising a resilient bearing member 95, and a stop member 113. It is to be noted, however, that my improved door closer may be used with any suitable guide rail assembly, although the one shown is the preferred form.
Housing frame 91 is comprised of a substantially U-shaped channel having two end portions 92. The housing frame is adapted to be mounted on a head jarrrb by being mortised or surface mounted. One side of the U-shaped channel is provided with a plurality of apertures 99 substantially in a straight line. One 'end of the frame 91 is provided wtih a circular aperture 101 and, the other end is provided with a slightly larger circular aperture 103 to which access may be had through a cutout portion 105.
A guide rod 97, substantially cylindrical in form and having a decreased diameter portion 107 and 108 at each end, is mounted in the apertures 101 and 103 to extend from end to end of the frame 91. A cap is provided on one end of the rod 97 with a cylindrical end portion 110 having a diameter larger than that of aperture 103. This cap is formed with a shank portion 112 substantially perpendicular to the end portion 110 and formed to re ceive the end of guide rod 97 which is secured thereto in a manner leaving a decreased diameter portion 108 of the rod 97 exposed. A lever arm 111 is secured to the shank portion 112 at suflicient distance from end portion 110 to accommodate end wall 92 therebetween.
A stop member 113, preferably made out of metal, is
"7 formed with a bore passage 115 for slidably receiving the guide rod 97. This member is formed with a front portion 117 having a centrally concave shape proportioned to receive and seat the' body of the roller 39. The rear of the stop member, opposite the concave part, is provided with a cylindrical outwardly projecting lug 119. The guide rail unit is assembled by first placing the guide roller 89 of the operating arm 87 on the resilient bearing member 95 with the increased diameter ends of the guide roller straddling the resilient bearing member. Stop member 113 is then selectively located in the frame 91 by means of the lug 119 which is inserted into an appropriate aperture 99 and the guide rod 97 is then inserted through passage 115 of stop member 113, behind the guide roller 89, and the reduced end 197 is inserted into aperture 101 in the opposite end wall 92 of the frame 91. The reduced portion 111% of the guide rod is then inserted through slot 195 into the opening 193 and the rod is moved axially to seat the shank 112 therein. The lever arm 111 is then turned into the position shown by the dotted lines in FIGURE 6, over a detent 121 formed in end wall 92 to secure the lever arm in this locked position. This assembly ofthe operating arm to the guide rail is done after the guide rail and closer unit have been installed.
When it is desired to change the position of the stop member 113, after assembly, a screw driver or similar instrument is inserted between the guide rod 97 and the rear side of the housing 91 having the apertures 99. The rod 97 is then sprung outwardly to disengage the stop member lug 119 from the existent aperture and the stop member is then moved along the rod 'to the new desired position where the lug 119 is then engaged in an appropriate aperture 99.
When it is desired to remove the guide roller from the guide rail assembly, the lever arm 11 is first turned downwardly in a substantially vertical direction, as shown in solid outline in FIGURE 6. The rod 97 is then moved axially in the direction of the head 1141 and the reduced diameter portion 108 is slipped out through cutout portion 105. The guide bar 97 is then removed from the assembly and the roller 89 is freed to be disengaged from the guide rail.
In operation, guide roller 89 is moved along the resilient bearing surface 95 by the operating arm 87 during the opening and closing movements of the door. Guide bar 95 and the increased diameter end portions of the guide roller assure contact between the guide roller and the resilient bearing surface at all times and when the roller is engaged with the stop member, for automatic hold-open of the door, the resilient guide bar provides an additional brake or bind to hold the door against the action of the closer.
In the operation of the subject door closing and checking device it is to be particularly noted that it is adapted to be used either for a push or a pull door opening movement and for either right-hand or left-hand operation. In any case the teeth of the rack must always point away from the direction of the door opening movement in order to eflfect the proper movement of the traveling spindle assembly. In the instant construction this is made possible by extending the spindle beyond both ends of the side rails of the traveling spindle subassenrbly so that it is accessible from either side of the unit case. Thus, the door closing and checking unit may be mounted with the teeth of the rack facing in either direction by merely inverting the unit, and the arm may be mounted to whichever end of the spindle is uppermost. In this last regard it is to be noted that each of the cylinders has its own valving system, there being a pair of the valves 33 and 85 for each cylinder and each set of valves being accessible 1 for adjustment from a respective side of the unit casing. As shown in FIGURE 11 the cylinders are cross connected by a pass-age 77 on the front side of the pistons in their forwardmost position, hence only one pair of E valves are needed to control both cylinders. Thus the valves on the upper side of the unit, which are the accessible ones, are the only valvesthat need to be operated andthose on the bottom side of the unit should be fully closed before the unit is mounted.
As shown in FIGURES 1 and 2, the door closing and checking construction is mortised into the upper portion of the door to accommodate a pushing movement for opening the door. That is, the teeth of the rack 56 are pointed outwardly and the door hinged to move inwardly.
When the door 4 is pushed inwardly, the rear end of arm 87 is moved inwardly with the door, thereby forming an angle with the guide'rail. Guide roller 89 acts as a pivot for this movement of the arm and is itself moved from right to left along resilient bearing member 95. Spindle 57 is accordingly rotated by the swinging of the arm 8'7 and by virtue of the gear 59 is moved longitudinally from right to left along rack 56.
The movement of the spindle 57 acts through the traveling carriage mechanisms 61), yoke bar 65, clevis 67, and connecting rods 15 to move the piston heads 13 from right to left in cylinders 3. As the piston heads move from right to left, shoulders 31 on the connecting rods compress springs 17 against annular thrust members 39.
Simultaneously, fluid from behind. the pistons 13 and from the reservoirs 7 is being forced through check valves 25 and passages 79 into the space created between the closed ends of the cylinders 3 and the faces of the pistons 19. 7
It is to be noted that the right to left movement of the pistons 13 results in the creation of more space for fluid in front of the pistons than the volume of fluid displaced from behind the pistons.
This is because the space behind the pistons 13 is occupied in part by not only the fluid, but also by the springs 17 and the connecting rods 15. Thus, the fluid displaced by the movement of the pistons is not as great as that demanded to fill the space in front of the receding piston and a vacuum in front of the piston could occur.
Thus, the reservoirs 7 are necessitated in order to provide additional fluid as well as to accommodate expansions of fluid-due to temperature changes.
Another side efiect of the disproportionate displ cement is that the vacuum created by the receding pistons results in a very rapid flow, initially at least, of fluid from behind the piston to the front of the piston. Due to the speed thus created, the fluid leaving the reservoirs tends to create its own vacuum within the reservoir which opposes the action of the first vacuum and produces a sluggish door opening movement. It is for this reason that, in the modification of this invention shown in FIG- URE 11a, a collapsible reservoir is utilized which yields to pressure differential and partially collapses to prevent the formation of the opposition vacuum. Thus in this embodiment, the atmospheric pressure is used to aid the displacement action and to insure a forceful flow of fluid to the front side of the pistons. This incidentally also reduces the residual pressure on the seals 43 surrounding the connecting rods at the rear ends of the cylinders.
When the force applied to push the door open ceases, the compressed springs 17 act through shoulders 31 to push pistons 13 from left to right. In so doing, the springs 17 cause spindle -57 to move from left to right, acting through connecting rods 15, clevis 67, yoke bar 65, traveling carriage mechanisms 619,,and gear 59. This movement of spindle 57 exerts a turning force on arm 87 which, since it is pivoted on guide roller 89, is forced back toward a position parallel with the guide rail, thus pulling the door to the closed position.
However, Simultaneously, the hydraulic checking mechanism is acting in opposition to this closing movement. Since the check valves 25 will not permit the fluid in front of the piston to flow through the piston in the reverse direction, this fluid acts to retard the motion of the piston from left to right and hence, the closing movement of the door. To control the rate of the closing movement, then, it is only necessary to control the flow of fluid from in front of piston 13 tobehind the piston and to the reservoirs.
When pistons 13 move from left to right, the fluid in front of the piston is initially moved through passages 79 leading to reservoirs 7 and thence through passages 75 to the rear of the pistons. This initial closing movement of the door is called the stroke, for convenience, and the speed of this movement is controlled by means of the stroke valve 83 which is adjustable to control the rate of fluid fiow through passage 79.
Usually it is desirable to have a relatively fast closing movement during the initial portion of the stroke movement and a gradual slowing at its end. ing the terminal or latching portion of door movement it is often desirable tohave a somewhat faster rate in order to assure latching the door at the closed position.
In the instant invention this is accomplished as follows: As the door approaches the latching portion of the closing cycle, which usually approximates the last 20 degrees of closing movement, the piston head 19 moves toward the port providing entrance to passage 79. This port is located to correspond to the terminal portion of the stroke movement. The beveled portion 29 of the piston 13, which is usually a slot in the piston head, thus gradually moves over the port '79 diminishing the flow of fluid therethrough, and consequently the rate of door closing movement. Immediately before piston 13 completely shuts off port 79, the forward movement of the rear cylindrical skirt portion 21 of the piston 13 exposes outlet port 82 leading from passage 81 and communicating with the space in front of the piston through the cylinder passage 27. The rate of fluid flow through this passage is controlled by means of the latch valve 85 which may be adjusted to provide a faster, or if desired, a slower, rate of fluid flow through passage 81-, than that provided through passage 79, the rate of the closing movement during this portion of the cycle being related directly to the adjustment of valve 85.
The door then completes its movement through the latching portion of the closing movement into the closed position.
FIGURES l8 and 19 illustrate a pull side installation of the improved closer wherein the closer unit and the guide rail are mounted externally of the door and head jamb. In this case, end brackets 125 for the closer unit and 126 for the guide rail are employed to mount the operating members on the door and jamb surfaces. It will be understood, however, that a mortised closer unit may be used with an externally mounted head rail or a mortised head rail may be employed with an externally mounted closer unit.
The main advantages of this invention reside in its improved construction whereby a single unit may be used, without modification, for practically every possible mounting or door operation situation; in the novel arrangement and form of the operating mechanism which permits a full powered unit to be made of such narrow width as to admit of its being mortised into a door of conventional thickness; in the arrangement of the operating mechanism whereby the hydraulic end is completely separate from the mechanical end and is fully sefled against leakage of the hydraulic fluid through the mechanical section; and in the novel arrangement of a traveling operating spindle which permits the use of a single operating arm in such a manner thatthe stress of closing action is constant and the stresses on the jamb and hinges are evenly distributed over all points.
Further advantages are to be found in the improved arrangement and assembly of the operating parts whereby material savings in manufacturing costs are realized;
l and in the simplified construction of the components of However, dureasily assembled in the unit casing with a minimum of time and labor costs and without the need for complicated fastening. and adjusting procedures.
Although but one specific embodiment of this invention has been herein shown and described it will be understood that numerous details of the construction shown may be altered or omitted without departing from the spirit of the invention as defined by the following claims.
1. A door checking and closing mechanism comprising a frame structure adapted to be. secured to the upper portion of a door, a cylinder fixed on said frame structure, a rack fixed on said frame structure adjacent one end of said cylinder and in axially aligned relation therewith, a rotatable spindle having a gear fixed thereto in driving relation with said rack for movement along said rack upon rotation of said spindle, an arm having one end fixed to said spindle and its other end adapted to be slidably engaged with a head jarrrb above said door whereby said. spindle will be rotated when the door is moved to opened position relative to the head jamb, a piston in said cylinder connected to said spindle for axial movement in said cylinder in response to the movement of said spindle and gear along said rack, and aspring for resisting the movement of said piston in response to the movement of the spindle.
2. A door checking and closing mechanism according to claiml wherein the connection between the spindle and piston comprises a piston rod extending through said one end of the cylinder, and the said one end of the cylinder is sealed about said piston rod.
3. A door checking and closing mechanism according to claim 1, wherein the connection between the spindle and piston comprises a piston rod extending through said one end of the cylinder, the said one end of the cylinder is sealed about said piston rod, said cylinder being filled with hydraulic fluid and including means for hydraulically checking the movement of said piston in a direction away from said one end of the cylinder.
4. A door checking and closing mechanism according to claim 1, wherein said frame structure comprises two aligned sections, one section containing said cylinder and the other containing said rack, spindle and gear, the connection between said piston and spindle comprises a piston rod extending through said one end of the cylinder, and said cylinder being filled with hydraulic fluid and having its said one end sealed about said piston rod, whereby the frame structure section containing said rack, spindle and gear is free of hydraulic fluid and dry, said cylinder including means for hydraulically checking the movement of said piston in a direction away from said one end of the cylinder.
5. A door checking and closing mechanism according to claim 1, wherein the spindle is journalled in a sliding carriage movable in the frame structure in a direction parallel with the 'rack, and the frame structure is provided with guide means to restrain said carriage to movement along the rack and hold said gear in driving engagement with the rack.
6. A door checking and closing mechanism according to claim 1, wherein the spindle is journalled in a sliding carriage movable in the frame structure in a direction parallel with the rack, and the frame structure is provided with guide means to restrain said carriage to movement along the rack and hold said gear in driving engagement with the rack, the spindle extending axially from each end of the gear and each end of the spindle extends into an adjacent side wall opening of the frame structure, whereby said arm may be selectively attached to either end of the spindle.
7. A door checking and closing mechanism according to claim 1, wherein the spindle extends axially from each end of the gear and each end portion of the spindle is journalled in a sliding carriage unit movable in the frame structure in a direction parallel with the rack, and the 1 1 frame structure includes a U-shaped guide member for each of said carriage units for restraining said carriages to movement along the rack and for holding said gear in driving engagement with the rack.
8. A door checking and closing mechanism comprising a frame structure adapted to be secured to the upper portion of a door, a cylinder fixed on said frame struc ture and having an open and a closed end, a rack fixed on said frame structure adjacent the open end of said cylinder and in axially aligned relation therewith, a rotatable spindle having a gear fixed thereto and in driving relation with said rack for movement therealong in response to rotation of said spindle, an arm having one end fixed to said spindle and its other end adapted to be slidably engaged with a head jamb above said door whereby said spindle will be rotated when said door is moved to opened position relative to the head jamb, a connecting rod extending from said cylinder and connected to said spindle for movement axially in response to movement of said spindle and gear along said rack, a piston in said cylinder secured to said connecting rod, sealing means adjacent the open end of said cylinder and surrounding sa-id connecting rod, the space between said piston and said sealing means being substantially filled with fluid, spring means within said cylinder for resisting motion of said piston toward the open end of the cylinder, a passage through said piston to permit relatively rapid flow of fluid therethrough from said space to the closed end of said cylinder when the piston is moved toward the open end and a check valve in said passage for preventing reverse flow of fluid therethrough, and means for providing controlled flow of fluid from the'closed end of said cylinder to the aforesaid space upon reverse movement of the piston.
9. In a door checking and closing mechanism having a spring closing unit and a fluid checking unit mounted within a supporting frame, a fluid reservoir comprising an open-sided channel in a side wall of said supporting frame, said channel having communication with said fluid checking unit, a collapsible dome-like cap member secured over the open side of said channel to close the same, and a perforated stiffening plate within said collapsible cap member and extending transversely thereof for substantially the length of said channel to prevent lateral collapse of said cap member.
10. In a door checking and closing mechanism, a checking and closing unit comprising a frame portion, a cylinder on said frame portion having a first sealed end portion and a second sealed end portion, said cylinder extending parallel with a side wall of said frame, a piston mounted for reciprocation within said cylinder, spring means within said cylinder urging said piston toward said first end portion, means for moving said piston toward said second end portion in response to the opening movement ofa door to which the mechanism is attached, said cylinder being adapted to be filled with fluid,
sin ing a rectangular frame structure having a width permitting the frame to be mortised into the upper edge of a door, parallel cylinders within said frame structure extending longitudinally thereof, a rack member fixed within said frame structure and 'aligned with said cylinders, a spindle member mounted within said frame structure and adapted to be rotated by an arm having a sliding connection with the head jamb of the door when the door is opened, a gear fixed on said spindle member and in driving relation with said rack to cause said spindle member to move in the axial direction of said cylinders when the spindle member rotates, a piston in each of said cylinders having a piston rod extending axially from one end of the cylinders and connected to said spindle for simultaneous movement therewith, said cylinders being each substantially filled with fluid and having sealing means adjacent each of the cylinder ends, spring means within each of said cylinders for resisting the motion of said pistons toward said one end when the door opened and normally urging the pistons in the opposite direction, means on said pistons for permitting relatively rapid flow of fluid through the pistons as the pistons move when the door is opened and including checking means for preventing reverse flow therethrough upon movement of the pistons in the opposite direction, and adjustable meanswfor providing a controlled rate of return fluid flow toward said one end of the cylinders as said pistons move in said opposite direction.
12. A door checking and closing mechanism according to claim 11, wherein the base of said rack member is substantially contiguous with one side of the frame structure, and wherein the combined diameter of the gear and the thickness of the rack is substantially equal to the width of the frame structure.
13. A door checking and closing mechanism comprising a frame structure adapted to be secured to the upper portion of a door, two parallel cylinders on said frame structure, a rack member fixed within said frame structure in alignment with said cylinder, a rotatable spindle member mounted within said frame structure, said spindle member having a gear fixed thereto and in driving relation with said rack member, an arm fixed to said spindle and having a sliding connection with the head jamb of the door whereby said spindle will be rotated when said door is opened and caused to travel along said rack member, a piston in each of said cylinders connected to said spindle for longitudinal movement relative to said cylinders, spring means within each of said cylinders for resisting the movement of said pistons as said spindle is travelled along said rack member when the door is opened, and hydraulic means within said cylinders for resisting the reverse movement of the piston when the door is being closed.
14. A door checking and closing mechanism according to claim 13, wherein one of the cylinders has spring means a channel formed in a side wall of said frame portion to 1 comprise a reservoir extending lengthwise of said cy1- inder and communicating with said cylinder between said second end portion and the limit of movement of said piston toward said second end portion, a collapsible resilient cap covering said channel from end to end and enclosing a rigid perforated plate of greater width than said channel and arranged to prevent collapse of said cap laterally into said channel, means on said piston permitting relatively free flow of fluid through the piston toward the first end portion when said piston moves toward said second end portion and including check means for preventing reverse flow of fluid upon movement of the piston in the opposite direction, a passage in said cylinder and in said frame leading from said cylinder adjacent its first end portion intosaid reservoir, and means for adjustably controlling the rate of fluid flow through said passage.
11. A door checking and closing mechanism compristherein for resisting the movement of the respective piston when the door is opened, and the other of the cylinders includes hydraulic means for resisting the reverse movement of the piston in said other cylinder when the door is closed.
15. A door checking and closing mechanism comprising a frame structure adapted to be mortised into the upper portion of a door, parallel cylinders Within said frame structure each having a piston and accommodating spring operated piston driving means and hydraulic piston movement checking means adapted to act in unison, a rack member fixed in said frame structure in alignment with said cylinders, a rotatable spindle member having a gear fixed thereon and in driving connection with said rack member, and an arm having one end fixed to said spindle pull said pistons so as to load the spring operated piston 13 driving means, said spring operated piston driving means being adapted to act in opposition to the resistance of the hydraulic checking means to cause said spindle member to move in the opposite direction along said rack and rotate said arm to cause closing movement of the door.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,147,909 Williams July 27, 1915 Garrison Aug. 8, 1933 Norton Dec. 17, 1935 Garrison June 23, 1936 Bernhard May 3, 1938 Stronach Feb. 1, 1949 Van Veen et a1 May 31, 1949 Myklestad Oct. 1&6, 195'1 Comey et a1 Nov. 13, 1956 Schroeder Sept; 15, 1959