US 3040411 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 26, 1962 c. B. MESSENGER 3,040,411
PROCESS OF' CONSTRUCTING A CONCRETE SUPPORT STRUCTURE Filed May 7. 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. l
IN VEN TOR.
ATTORNEY June 26, 1962 c. B. MESSENGER PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTING A CONCRETE SUPPORT STRUCTURE Filed May 7. 1956 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. M Ww/f7@ ATTORNEY June 26, 1962 c. E. MESSENGER 3,040,411
PROCESS OR CONSTRUOTING A CONCRETE SUPPORT STRUCTURE INWWMK ATTORNEY nite l States atent O if C@ 3,040,411 PROCESS F- CNSTRUCTING A CGNCRETE SUPPORT STRUCTURE Charles B. Messenger, 2440 Benton St., Denver 14, Colo. Filed May 7, 1956, Ser. No. 583,2
9 Claims. (Cl. 25-155) The present invention relates to methods formodiied types of lift slab construction. Previously, different methods of lift slab construction have been disclosed and practiced by others, `and some of the methods previously known have been adapted and have proved their economic advantages in the construction industry.
- It is an object of the present invention to present different improved modiiications of the lift slab technique that are especially suited to specific types of building construction and which satisfy specific architectural and structural needs.
A specific object of this invention is to provide a technique for obtaining low cost foundation and floor supports which incorporate heating system features.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a unitary floor and wall support structure which encloses a warm air plenum for a built-in heating system.
A separate object of the present invention is to provide a method of lift slab construction in which the slab floors and integral upright supports or support walls are raised unitarily into positions of use.
Specific objectives of the present invention are to provide methods whereby construction of aV multi-floor structure may proceed in orderly manner to early completion of a strong well-designed supportrstructure.
A main object of this invention is to provide separate methods of lift slab construction in which the slab elements of a building, together with unitarily-poured upright wall or column support members for the building, are raised into position before completion of the strucvtural foundation elements of the building.
Further objects .and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the appended description `and drawings, in which- FIG. l is an end elevation with parts in section,
FIG. 2 is an end elevation with parts in section showing a second step in the practice of this invention,
5 FIG. 3 is an end elevation with parts in section showing another step in the practice of this invention,
FIG. 4 is an end elevation with parts in section showing a structure completed in accordance with a first embodiment of this invention,
FIG. 5 is a perspective view showing the overall arrangement of a floor slab and support structure made in accordance with this invention,
FIG. 6 is a side elevation in partial section showing an alternate means of raising the floor slab, p
FIG. 7 is an elevation in partial section showing a still further means for raising the iloor slab and support structure,
FIG. 8 is a perspective view with partial cutaway showing the use of a structure made in accordance with this invention as part of a heating system,
FIG. 9 is an elevation with parts in section showing features of a separate embodiment of this invention, and
FIG. 10 is an elevation'with parts in section showing a second step in the practice of this separate embodiment of the invention.
Briefly stated, the present invention provides a modication of the lift slab technique in which the floor or roof slabs and unitarily-poured upright support columns or walls are raised to position before completion of the building support foundation.
A rst embodiment of this technique is utilized to provide a door support for residences and small buildings 2 v of such design and placement that the monolithic oor slab and wall support structuren-ray be used as elements of the heating system ofthe structure. a
Referring now to the drawings, FIGS. l through 4 illustrate steps to be followed during practice of the first embodiment of this invention to obtain a iloor support structure that is raised but a slight distance abovethe ground. In FIG. 1 it will be seen that a trench ll is dug in the ground 12' in position corresponding tothe desired location of the building foundation. After the ytrench is dug, formsv 13 .are placed inV the trench and heldl in position by stakes 14 to dene the-,outer extremities and dimensions of a desired building floor. Next, inflatable bags 16 are placed on top of the earth mound disposed between the forms 13. Where necessary, solid type insulation material 17 is placed along the inside wall 18 of the trench. This insulation 17 is used only in instances where it is desirable to prevent heat loss through the support walls of thestructure. However, it should be noted that the solid type insulation, not only prevents such heat loss but is also useful in this type application to prevent crumbling of the wall 18 of trench 11.
Tie wires 19, which are engaged with insulation 17, are provided so that the insulation will be integrally secured to concrete which is subsequently to be poured into the void created-between the forms13, the insulation 17 and the support bags 16 or, as shown, the membrane covering 21 which covers the bags 16. This subsequent-.step in thepractice of the invention is shown in FIG. 2 where the concrete 22 is shown in ,place and linished to provide a smooth level top door surface 23. When the concrete is sulciently hardened and when it has cured so that it has the requisite strength, the unitary structure, inclusive y*of the floor.24 and upright support walls 26, may .be raised upwardly out of contact with the supporting ground 12. Since the insulation 17l is secured to the support walls, 26 by the ties 19, the support Walls and. -insulation 17 will be moved upwardly out of the trench 11.
One means for raising the door structure 24 would be to introduce air under pressure greater than atmospheric into the bags 16. This means of elevating the structure is shown in FIG. 3, where the bags 16 are shown in expanded shape. Y
After the structure has been raised to its desired position and leveled by differential adjustments of the air with- .in selected bags 16, additional concrete is poured into the footing trench 11 to provide a footing structure 27, as shown in FIG. 4. As soon as the footing has hardened, the bags 16 may be deflated and removed from the resultant cavity 28 formed by the floor structure 24, the insulation 17 on the upright supports 26 and the supporting ground 12. p
This raised oorstructure is architecturally desirable and advantageous for several different reasons. First, the
cavity 28 may be utilized to provide a dead-air space which acts yas an insulator .to prevent transmission of n ground temperatures into a structure erected above the 60 :ture is intended for habitation.
'floor 24. Such dead-air insulation space has been -found desirable in northern climes,especially when the struc- Likewise, this type of structure providingan air space between the ground and the floor support structure is desirable and advantageous where `heavy ground moisture conditions are prevalent. If the moisture is kept out of contact with the concrete slab, improved health conditions result, and the applicatron of various type floor coverings to the top surface 23 may be made without fear of later damage due to rnoisture. In regions where expansive soils are encountered, the provision of the air space 28 between the ground 12 and the floor structure 24 will prevent cracking of such floor.l i
A main advantage in the provision of such `air space 3 is the possibility of utilizing this space as a plenum charnber in conjunction with a building heating system. This utilization of the structure made in accordance with this invention is shown in FIGS. 5 and 8. In FIG. 5 a slab 'structure is shown in which the floor 24 is supported 'above the footings 27 and the ground 12 by the unitarilypoured support walls 26. As shown in the previous drawings, insulation 17 should be attached to the inner face of the upright support walls 26 to prevent heat loss through such walls, which will in part be exposed to the weather.
In pouring the slab s'truc-ture shown in FIG. 5, a central opening 29 is provided together with la plurality of smaller openings 31 disposed about the periphery of the slab structure. These elements, when combined with the air space 28 between the slab 24 and the supporting ground 12, may be used as a warm air heating system -for -the structure. An arrangement of such heating system is shown diagrammatically in FIIG. 8, where it will be noted that ya forced air downdraft furnace 32 is positioned above the opening 29. A main cold air return trunk 33 is provided to conduct return air into the furnace 32 where it is forced by means of a fan (not shown) downwardly through a heat exchanger (not shown) to be warmed and discharged into the air space 28 or plenum' existing beneath the floor slab 24 and above the supporting yground 12. This heated air will course outwardly fromits point of introduction along paths, as shown by the arrows, to the outlet openings 31 along vthe periphery of the structure.
Since the warmed air in the plenum will be in contact with the lloor structure 24, the floor itself will be warmed to provide a moderate radiant heat factor in addition to the considerable comfort advantage over usual type of cold concrete floors. The warm air on discharge through the openings 31 may likewise be directed throughout the building or separate rooms thereof in a manner similar to that used in Warm air heating systems. In this illustration the cold air return vents 34 are shown in relatively elevated position. With a downdraft furnace the elevated position would, of course, lbe most economical; however, this positioning falso is `advantageous if it is desirablefto incorporate air conditioning features into the proposed heating system.
It is realized that raised concrete floors have previously been used as elements of a warm air plenum type heating system, and accordingly the advantages of such heating system designare previously known. However, the method of the present invention provides improved and more economical means for obtaining such features.
Alternate means for raising the unitary floor slab and structure are shown in FIGS. 5, 6 and 7. In FIGS. 5 and 7 the use of hydraulic jacks is illustrated. Here it will be noted that a hydraulic jack 36 mounted on a tripod support 37 is secured `to .anchor bolts 3-8 in the floor structure 24. With the application of hydraulic pressure through the line 39, the cylinder 41 will be extended downwardly through an opening 40 in the oor 24 to engage a prepoured foundation pier 42 thereby lifting the floor slab 24. When the oor slab 24 is in the desired elevated position, the support foundation 27 will be poured under the upright walls 26 in the manner previously described,
An alternate means for accomplishing the `same purpose is shown in FIG. 6, in which a mechanical screw jack 43.is threaded through la collar 44, which is attached to the anchor bolts 38. Extension of the screw 43 will necessarily cause raising of the floor slab 24, so that the building footing may be poured under the floor slab support or wall 26.
An alternate application of the basic feature of this invention is shown in FIGS. 9 and l0. 'This embodiment of the invention is intended for use in the construction of larger type and multi-storied buildings. As in the previous embodiment, a main objective of this system is to pour monolithically a floor slab and upright supports for 4 such slab at ground or operational level, and subsequently to raise `such unitary ystructure above the operational level for the pouring of successive elevations of the building. After all elevations have been poured and raised, a footing or foundation for the building may be completed under the raised structure.
The steps followed in practice of this moditication of the invention would include the excavation of foo-ting piers downwardly into the earth structure at spaced positions on the building site. After the pier holes have been dug, a working level below the ground or operational level is obtained by pouring concrete into a portion of the.
pier holes. Next, forms fare set at ground or operating level for a floor slab and for any beams used to support the oor slab. Additional column forms are attached to Vthe slab or beam forms and allowed to extend downwardly into the pier hole opening. Next, concrete is poured to complete a unitary floor slab beam support and upright column structure.
After the concrete is properly hardened, this unitary structure will be raised above operational level or to approximately the level of the floor slab forms, so that a second structural elevation may be poured in similar manner. After all building elevations have been poured and cured, the entire building will be raised to its final position, and subsequently the foundation below the operational level will. be poured to complete the structure.
In FIGS. 9 and l0 the foregoing lmethod for carrying out these steps is illustrated. In FIG. 9 it will be seen that a foundation pier 46, having a belled footing 47, is provided. A support working level 48 is established by enlarging the lsize of the `foundation pier 46, and a caisson 49 extendsv above such work support 48 up to the ground or operational level 51. An improved `feature of this construction which permits continuity for the reinforcing steel is possible if openings are provided, as by tubes 52 extending downwardly through the foundation pier 46. If such openings are provided, the reinforcing steel for the upright support columns may be extended all the way down into the belled footing 47 portion of the pier.
After the footings have been poured and :the caissons 49 set, slab forms 53 and slab support beam forms 54 may be placed at the operational level. Likewise, forms 56 for the upright columns are extended downwardly into the cavity within caisson 49. After the forms have been set, reinforcing steel 57 may be placed in the beam and slab forms and upright reinforcing rods 58 may be extended downwardly through the column forms 56 and down through the open tubes 52 in the foundation pier 46. After all the forms and reinforcing steel has been set, a monolithic concrete pour is made to co-mplete slab 59, support beams 61 and upright columns 62 as a unitary structure or building elevation designated 63.
After the concrete is properly hardened and cured, lifting apparatus, such as the hydraulic cylinders 63, shown in FIG. l0, may be used to raise the unitary structure 63 to a position above the operational level 51. As shown in FIG. l0, the structure 63 is preferably raised, so that the bottom 66 of the columns 62 is just even with the top of the slab form 53. As the structure 63 is raised, it will be noted that the upright reinforcing steel 58 is raised upwardly out of the tubes 52. Accordingly, `a subsequent elevation for the building structure may be poured beneath the first or top elevation 63 that will be bonded to such top structure by the continuous reinforcing 'rods 58. Necessarily, additional rods can be introduced into the tubes 52 and secured to the rods 58 before subsequent elevations of the building are poured.
Once all the proposed floors or elevations of the building have been poured and have been raised to their intended level, additional concrete can be introduced into a form within the caisson 49 to complete the foundation pier structure 46. In actual practice of the invention a slab would probably be poured at the ground or oper-ational level prior to the setting of forms forintended upper elevations. This step would be followed to provide a smooth -bottom support surface for the pouring of the raised slabs.
Since each of the raised elevations, such as 63, will have to be allowed to cure a considerable length of time :after they are poured and before they are raised to an elevated position, it is desirable that other building, rnechanical and finishing operations be carried out onthe structure as soon as each separate slab is poured and be.- fore the structure is raised. With proper design it would be possible to finish each of the raised floors of the building while such elevation is atthe operational level. With the present day use of aluminum face panels and other modern construction mthods, this type of construction schedule could be carried out without addition of too much vextra weight to the building before it is raised into position.
Further improvements and modifications of this type building system are possible for different types of building applications. All such modifications as come within the scope of the hereunto appended claims are deemed to be a part of this invention.
What is claimed is:
l. The method of constructing a concrete support structure for buildings which comprises excavating earth `away from the intended location of foundation elements of the building, erecting forms for a floor slab Iat an operational level positioned above said foundation excavation, providing forms for upright floor slab support members beneath the slab forms and extending downwardly toward the foundation excavation, monolithically pouring in said forms a oor slab and the upright support members for holding said slab in elevated position, raising the resultant monolithic structure to the desired elevation, and subsequently completing the foundation of said building under said upright support members in their raised position for holding said Astructure in desired position.
2. The method of constructing a concrete -support structure for buildings which comprises excavating foundation footings for the building, pouring concrete in said excavations in such manner =as to provide footing elements having openings extending downwardly therethrough, establishing an operational level Aabove the top of the footing elements, setting forms for a oor slab at said operational level, setting forms for upright support members as necessary to support said floor slab beneath said floor slab forms and extending downwardly toward said footing elements, placing reinforcing materialsthat extend through said upright member forms and downwardly through the openings in said footing elements, monolithically pouring the formed oor slab and the upright support members necessary for holding said slab in elevated position, raising the resultant monolithic structure to the desired elevation whereby the reinforcing materials will be raised outwardly from the openings in said footing elements, and subsequently completing the foundation of `said building under said support members in their raised location for holding said structure in desired position.
3. The method of constructing a concrete support structure for buildings that is useful `as a plenum ch-amber for the heating system of the building which comprises excavating a trench in the earth of a size and placement to provide for the foundation footings of the building, placing insulation materials along the inside upright wall of the footings trench, erecting forms in the trench disposed away from said inside upright wall of the trench `and the insulation therealong, said forms extending above the enclosed earths surface within the perimeter of the footings trench, pouring concrete in the Vforms to provide a monolithic structure inclusive of a slab disposed above the enclosed earth and upright slab support foundation walls disposed between the forms and the insulation on the upright inside wall of the trench, unitarily raising said monolithic structure and the insulation to a desired elevation where the slab is out of contact with the enclosed learth to provide an open space between said slab and the earth, subsequently pouring a foundation footing for the building in the trench and under said slab support foundation walls to hold said monolithic structure in raised position and to close off said open space, and forming openings through the slab portion of said structure for the selective ingress and egress of the circulating air of the heating system into `and out of said open space beneath the slab.
4. The method of constructing a concrete support structure for buildings which comprises excavating foundation footings for the building, pouring concrete in said excavations in such manner as to provide footing elements, establishing an operational level above the top of the footing elements, setting forms for a floor slab at said operational level, set-ting forms for upright support members as necessary to support said floor slab beneath said floor slab forms and extending downwardly toward said footing elements, monolithically pouring the formed iioor slab and the upright support members necessary for holding said slab in elevated position, raising the resultant monolithic structure to the desired elevation, and subsequently completing the foundation of said building under said support members in their raised location and above said footings for holding said structure in desired position.
5. The method of constructing a concrete support structure for buildings which comprises establishing building footing elements for the foundation of the building, setting forms -for a floor slab :at an operational level above the top of the footing elements, setting forms for upright support members as necessary to support saidI floor slab beneath said floor slab forms and extending downwardly toward said footing elements, monolithically pouring the formed floor slab and the upright support members necessary for holding said slab in elevated position to complete a building level, raising the resultant monolithic structure to an elevation such that the bottom extremity of said upright supports is positioned adjacent the floor slab fonns, pouring at least one more complete building level inclusive of a floor slab and upright support members therefor in said forms and below the previously poured and raised building levels, and subsequently completing the foundation of saidbuilding under the lowermost of said raised levels of the building for holding said building structure in desired position.
6. The method of constructing a concrete support structure for buildings which comprises excavating a trench in the earth of a size to provide for foundation elements of a building, erecting forms in the trench disposed away from the inside upright Wall of the trench and extending above the enclosed earth within the perimeter of the trench, pouring concrete within the forms to provide a monolithic structure inclusive 'of a slab disposed above the enclosed earth and upright slab support foundation walls disposed between the forms and the upright inside Wall of the trench, unitarily raising said monolithic structure a distance less than the depth of said trench whereby the slab is moved out of contact with the enclosed earth and the said support foundation walls remain partially disposed in said trench to provide an air space between said slab, foundation walls and earth, and subsequently completing the foundation for the building under said raised foundation walls, said air space being useful to isolate the floor slab of the structure from the environmental conditions associated with the supporting earth.
7. The method of constructing a concrete support structure for buildings which comprises establishing buildf ing footing elements for -the foundation of the building, setting forms for a floor slab at an operational level above the top of the foo-ting elements, setting forms for upright support members as necessary to support said 'Z floor slab beneath said floor slab forms and extending downwardly toward said footing elements, monolithically pouring the formed iloor slab and the upright support members necessary for holding said slab in elevated position to complete a building level, raising the resultant 8. The method of constructing a concrete support' structure for buildings which comprises establishing footing elements for the foundation of the building, erecting forms for a floor slab in position above said footing elements, setting forms for upright support members as necessary to support said floor slab beneath said floor slab forms, monolithically pouring in said form a floor slab and the upright support'members for holding said slab in upright position, raising the resultant monolithic structure to the desired elevation, and subsequently completing the foundation of said building between said footing elements and said upright support members in their raised position for holding said structure indesired position.
9. The method of constructing a concrete floor and support structure for a building that is useful as a plenum chamber for the heating and air conditioning system of the building which comprises establishing building footing elements for the building, erecting forms for a floor slab and a downwardly depending skirt wall positioned at the periphery of said slab, monolithically pouring said floor slab and said skirt wall in said forms, unitarily raising said monolithic floor slab and skirt wall structure upwardlyand away from said forms a distance less than the combined height of said floor slab and skirt Wall forms to provide an open space plenum chamber beneath said floor slab, completinga structural support element between said monolithic floor slab and skirt wall structure `and said footing elements, and forming y openings in said slab andy skirt Wall structure for the selective ingress and egress of circulating air into and out of the open space plenum chamber beneath the slab.
References Cited in the iile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,066,436 Peltzer July l, 1913 2,624,931 Billner Jan. 13, 1953 2,720,017 Youtz Oct. 22, 1955 2,722,040 Ludowici Nov. 1, 1955 2,749,592 Vartia June 12, 1956 2,780,935 Rumble Feb. 12, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 684,089 France Mar. 11, 1930 613,403 Great Britain Nov. 25, 1948 275,259 Italy Jan. 16, 1930