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Publication numberUS3040523 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 26, 1962
Filing dateOct 23, 1958
Priority dateOct 23, 1958
Publication numberUS 3040523 A, US 3040523A, US-A-3040523, US3040523 A, US3040523A
InventorsPrice Nathan C
Original AssigneePrice Nathan C
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Variable area propulsive nozzle
US 3040523 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 26, 1962 N. c. PRICE 3,040,523

VARIABLE AREA PROPULSIVE NOZZLE Filed Oct. 25, 1958 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 lla f.\` 6 0 INVEN R.

2 di; ict-Q Z BY NATHAN C. P

`lune 26, 1962 N. c. PRICE 3,040,523

VARIABLE AREA PROPULSIVE NOZZLE Filed Oct. 23, 1958 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Y Y Y i Vix" f: 4 ,l 3 'lill/lll 1 l IIIIIILYIIIIIIIIIIIII Il fig-2:

NATHAN c. P

Agent June Z6, 1962 N. c. PRICE VARIABLE AREA PRoPULsIvE NozzLE 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Oct. 25, 1958 United States Patent O v 3,040,523 VARIABLE AREA PROPULSIVE NOZZLE Nathan C. Price, 6 Rue Adhemar Fabri, ,y l Geneva, Switzerland 'Filed Oct. 23, 1958, Ser. No. 769,184 17 Claims. (Cl. (S0-35.6)

This inventionrelates to jet propulsive nozzles of the variable area type, land more particularly concerns jet propulsive nozzles having automatic control means for variably adjusting or controlling the eiective throat and/ orexilt area of rthe nozzle responsive to the air and/ or gas ow conditions through the nozzle.

The lamount of jet propulsive power or thrust from a propulsion nozzle is partially dependent on the effective throat area for the propuls-ive iai-r and/ or gas flows passing through the nozzle, as well as the veloci-ty and static pressure of the exhausting air yand/ or gases therethrough land the .accomplishment of complete expansion thereof at the nozzle exit; or in other words, that the exhausting gases are not over-expanded or under-expanded at the nozzle exit. In denition, the term over expansion indicates the condition where the exhaust gases have expanded s'uiciently -to reduce the static pressure to ambient pressure before the gases have passed the nozzle exit, Whereas the term under expansion indicate the condition whereby the exhaust gases have not expanded sutliciently to reduce fthe static pressure to ambient pressure before the gases have passed the nozzle exit.

Notwithstanding that variable area jet nozzles are` known in the prior art, such can .be divided into two indicative types of control, namely those having tine positional adjustments and control, and those having approximate positional 'adjustments and controls. Those variable area nozzles having fine positional adjustments and control are usually an integral part of the overall power-plant control systemgand represent Ia complicated control mechanism attached .to an already complicated engine control system whereby the effective tarea of the nozzle is dictated and controlled by a plunali-tyof engine parameter sign-als from various locations in the powerplant yas sensed by the engine control system. Although this results inA very precise nozzle control 'for elfecting efficient nozzle operation, there is great complexity concerned. Such complexity is dispensed within those types 'of variable nozzles having approximate positional con-` trols whereby the nozzle is positioned by such means as the setting of the pilots quadrant throttle control, the amount of turbine' lback pressure, or being positioned'in response yto a powerplant temperature parameten'etc.

' `It is realized that la `simple and eilicient powerplant installation is achieved by an eicient land exacting control over the expansion of the propulsive gases throughl the nozzle, provided Athe cfcient expansion control does not add undue or unnecessary complexity to an already complicated engine control system.v Y

Accordingly, it is an object of this invention yto prov-ide a variable `area nozzle having a convergent-divergent passage wher-ein the effective throat area is ,automaticallyy established by control means responsive to `air or gas ilow conditions through the nozzle throat y .and upstream thereof,

It is a further object of .this invention topr-ovide a variable area propulsive nozzle whereinthe diverging portion of the nozzle is automatically controlled to accomplish complete expansion of the air or gas ow therethrough at the nozzle exit. n I It is still another object of this invention to provide ya multipassaged variable area propulsive nozzle having simplified individual control means for automatic positioning of` a nozzleconning member in each of the nozzle passages should a condition of over-expansion or ICC under-expansion of the fluid How occur .at the nozzle exit, such positioning control means being actuated and controlled by the iluid flow conditions through the nozzle. A still further object of this invention is to provi-de a variable 'area propulsive nozzle having .a plurality of pivotal vane members whereby one of the vane members is of variable size to control the effective nozzle throat area.

=It is a still further object of `this invention to provide a variable areal propulsive nozzle having a plurality of pivot-al vane members whereby positioning of one of the vane members establishes the effective nozzle throat area and direction of exhaust efllux, while yadjacent nozzle vanes are positionally pivotally adjustable for electing changes in the divergent nozzle passages to Iaccomplish complete expansion of air or gas flow at the nozzle exit should a condition of under-expansion or over-expansion of the iluid flow through `the nozzle occur.

Another object of this invention is to provide a variable area nozzle meeting all the above objectives and having separately controllable vane yset-s in kside by side relation whereby the individu-al vane sets can be operated jointly or d-iiierentially for effecting aircraft maneuvering iand/ or trim or pitch control of the aircraft. v

Ovt-her objects and Iadvantages will become apparent from :the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIGURE l is a vertical cross-sectional view of one embodiment of a nozzle of this invention showing the control means for adjusting the effective nozzle areas -by expansion ,or contraction of the central vane and pivotal positioning of the upper and lower vanes; `FIGURE 2 is ya partial cross-section plan view of the nozzle of FIGURE l taken along line 2--2 of FIGURE 3, with a portion broken away to more celarly show further details of the nozzle;

FIGURE 3 is Ia View of the nozzle of FIGURE l taken along line 3-3 of FIGURE 2; Y

FIGURE 4 is a diagrammatic view of the lnozzle of FIGURE 1 showing 'the lpositions of lthe movable elements of the nozzle of FIGURE 1 for effecting a downward directed thrust for trimming eifect of the aircraft; and

FIGURE 5 is a diagrammatic view showing the relative positions ofl the movable members of the nozzle shown in FIGURE 1 at an aircraft velocity of Mach l, with and without thrust `augmentation operation.

Generally stated, the invention comprises a propulsive nozzle having right and left sides, each side consisting of a central vane land top and bot-tom vanes, all of which can be rotated about theirindividual axes. The central vane is split so that it can be expanded or contracted to vary or adjust the effective nozzle throat area, while the top and bottom vanes of each nozzle side are independently adjustable rotationally to vary or adjust the nozzle exit areas. lThe right and left sides of the nozzle can be controlled for movement independently, concurrently, or differentially to accomplish roll, pitch, and turn trim of the aircraft. Thecentral vane in cach nozzle side is pivotally mounted about its axis to control direction of the propulsive jet stream and is split to permit expansion and contraction for control of the size of the throat opening,

the size of the throat opening being regulated to the correct value by expansion or contraction of eachv of the central vanes under control of a pneumatic servo relay valve. The airplane may be caused to Vturn by biasing the right 'and left side pneumatic servo relay valves oppositely, causing -an unbalance of throat areas laterally whereby the mass ilow will become greater on one side, and less on the other.

The top and bottom vanes assume correct positions in accordance with the position of the central varies auto- Patented June 26, 1962v r rmatically as the margin of the efux stream departs from the line of contour of the `top and bottom vane surfaces at the trailing edge if the nozzle is overor under-expanding. The departure affects outlet pressure taps on the top and bottom vanes so that the relay valve restores the position of the vane to one of correctness. For example, if the automatic pilot moves the central vane 10 down, the core of the jet stream will change direction about 10, and the body of the stream will be deected somewhat less than 10, say 7. The 7 movement of the stream margins, beyond the top and bottom vanes trailing edges will, as above mentioned, cause the top and bottom vanes to move about 7.

Although the nozzle of this invention may be utilized in various installations, the details of the embodiment shown and depicted are those corresponding to the aircraft shown and described in my copending application Serial Number 677,877, tiled August 13, 1957, and entitled Wingless Supersonic Aircraft. Referring to the drawings, and in particular to FIGURES 1, V2 and 3, a main propulsive gas duct 1 is contained within outer wall or surface structure 2. The main propulsive gas duct 1 is formed by vertical side walls 3 and 4, upper wall shaping member 5 and lower wall shaping member 6, the walls 3, 4, 5 and 6 forming a rectangular shaped duct. The rectangular main propulsive gas duct 1 is divided or split into two substantially equal sized, juxtaposed nozzle portions 7 and 8 by an intermediate vertical wallmember 9; nozzle portion 7 being formed by vertical side wall 3, upper and lower wall shaping members 5 and 6, and intermediate vertical wall 9; while nozzle portion 8 is formed by vertical side wall 4, upper and lower wall shaping members 5 and 6, and intermediate vertical wall9.

Inasmuch as nozzle portions 7 and 8 are identical in structure and operation, specic details of nozzle portion 7 will be discussed only, it being understood that such specific details are also applicable to nozzle portion 8. Nozzle portion 7 has a central vane `assembly 10, upper vane assembly 11 and lower vane assembly 12, all of which are pivotally mounted in horizontal spaced relationship in nozzle portion 7, the spacings between central vane and upper vane 11 and lower vane 12 forming the propulsive fluid nozzle passages 13 `and 14. The propulsive uids or gases owing through the propulsive uid nozzle passages 13 and 14 are indicated by 4arrows 15 in FIGURE 1, such propulsive gases being combustion products generated by ramjet burners 16a and 16h, as can best be seen in FIGURES 1 and 2, or any other appropriate air or gas flow generating means. Details of the burners 16a and 1Gb do not form a part of this invention andare merely indicative of any of a variety of a specific` type of burner known in the prior art.

Central vane assembly 10i comprises a main support member 117 having a tapering longitudinal cross-sectional area, ,andV having Aa `pair of antipodal members 18 Aand. 1,9, which are the upper and lower exhaust nozzle area forming members of `central vane assembly 10, interconnected .therewith by a piano type hinge means 20 at the trailing edges of members 17, 18 and 19. A Watt type linkage 21 interconnects the forward or upstream ends of members 17, 18 and 1.9, the watt type linkage -21 being arranged to assure equal rotation of members 18 andv19 around piano hinge 20 relative topmain support member 17. Upper exhaust nozzle area forming member 18 of central vane assembly 10 has a convex surface at the leading portion thereof which transforms into a yconcave surface at the trailing portion thereof, ,such surface, when coacting in conjunction with the confronting surface of upper vane assembly 11, providing a convergent-divergent nozzle passage area 1,3. As stated v-above, lower exhaust nozzle area forming mem- .ber 19 is anwantipode of member 18, and coacts in con- ,junction with the surface of lower vane assembly 12 to form propulsive nozzle uid passage 14.

The effective cross sectional areas of propulsive nozzle fluid passages 13 and 14 are controlled by the overall size or height of the central vane assembly 10, which is adjustable by expansion or contraction thereof. Such expansion or contraction is effected in the embodiment depicted by inilation or deflation of the central vane assembly 10 accomplished by passage of combustion gas flow in the propulsive gas duct 1 entering the central vane assembly 10 through an orice or opening 22 in the main support member 17 of central vane assembly 10. This combustion gas ow through oritice 22, as indicated by arrows 23 in FIGURE l, enters chambers Z4 and 25, chamber 24 being formed between the upper surface of main support member 17 and the surfaces of upper exhaust nozzle area forming member 18, with a flexible strip seal member 26 comprising the aft or rearward enclosing surface of chamber 24. Chamber 25 is similarly formed between the lower surface of main support member 17 of central vane assembly 10 and the surfaces of the lower exhaust nozzle yarea forming member 19, the aft or rearward enclosing member of chamber 25 being a exible strip seal member 27. Communication between chambers 24 and 25 is accomplished by passage 28 in main support member 17 of central vane assembly 1t). Circular rubbing seals 17a and lineal rubbing seals 17b, which may be of carbon, ceramic, or any other appropriate rubbing seal material, are included in the central vane assembly 10 to reduce any pressure leakage from chambers 24 and 2S.

Pressure of the combustion gases in chambers 24 and 25, and thus the degree or amount of inflation or dellation of central vane assembly 10, is controlled by the rate of bleed or exhaust of pressure from chambers 24 and 25 by venting the pressure through a pneumatic servo relay valve 29 to the atmosphere; such pressure from chambers 24 and 25 being vented through passage 30, annular groove 31l in main support member 17, passage 32 from annular groove 31 to the hollow interior 33 of axle 34 of the central vane assembly 10, and conduit 35 to pneumatic servo relay valve 29 for release to the Iatmosphere through conduit 36. Piston 37 of servo valve Z9 controls the bleed or passage of pressure from chambers 24 and 25 of central vane assembly 1G to exhaust conduit 36 by the axial movement of the piston 37 on rod or shaft 38, one of whose ends is connected to aneroid or bellows 39 and the other end connected to aneroid or bellows 40. Bellows 39 is subjected to the air or combustion gas pressure in the duct 1 upstream of the nozzle by a conduit 41 connected to a pressure tap in the duct upstream of the nozzle (not shown). Bellows 40 is responsive to the air or combustion gas pressure at the throat area of the nozzle by pressure taps 42 connected to piezometer devices 43 and 44, piezometer device 43 combining the pressures from pressure taps 42 in nozzle uid passage 13 into one pressure signal being supplied to piezometer device 45 through conduit 46, while piezometer device 44 cornbines the pressure signals from pressure taps 42 in nozzle fluid passage 14 to piezometer device 45 through conduit 47. Piezometer device 45 combines the pressures received from piezometer devices 43 and 44 into one signal pressure which is supplied to pneumatic relay valve 29 through conduit 48 for subjecting bellows 40 to a unitary nozzle throat area pressure.

Bellows 39 and 4t? possess areas in the approximate ratio of .53, corresponding to the value of the critical pressure ratio for Mach 1 which is the velocity of the air or combustion gases in the throat of the supersonic nozzle. Accordingly, with this type of control for inflation or detlation of central vane assembly 10, the throat area will be proportioned in accordance with the supplied fluid or combustion gas flow to the nozzle.

The hereinbefore explanation of the control system for central vane assembly 10 is indicated as pertaining to the central vane control in nozzle portion 7, and it is to be understood that a duplicate control system (not shown) is incorporated for control of the central vane assembly of nozzle portion 8.

Directional control of central vane assembly is accomplished by rotation of the main support member 17 around stationary axle 34, supported by members 49 and S0, support member 49 being secured to outer wall structure 2 and is located between vertical side wall 3 and outer wall structure 2, while support member 50 is secured to outer wall structure 2 and is located between vertical side wall 4 and outer wall structure 2. The main support member 17 of central vane assembly 10 is rotationally mounted around axleV 34 and supported in bearing or bushing 51, held by vertical side wall 3. Mounted on main support member 17 between outer wall or surface struc- -ture 2 and vertical side wall 3 is a bell crank device 52. Connected to bell crank deviceV 52 .are a pair of cables 53 which form a part of a closed cable system for rotating central vane assembly 10 around its transverse axis to give directional control to the combustion gases passingthrough the propulsive nozzle. ICables 53 may be movably controlled by an automatic pilot, or the pilots control column, or any other appropriate contro-1 means in the aircraft.

For upward deflection of the exhaust elliux, the centr-al vane assembly 10 will be rotated to position 10u, as indicated by the phantom lines in FIGURE l, while when the central vane assembly 10 is positioned as indicated by phantom lines 10b of FIGURE l, Ithe exhaust gases will be deilected downwardly. The central vane assembly of nozzleportion 8 is likewise controlled for rotation around a transverse axis `by a bell crank device 52 and a closed cable system as the control means shown and described for central vane assembly 10 of nozzle portion 7. I

Once the central vane assembly 10 is positioned for directional control of the exhaust eiux and expanded to the proper nozzle passage crossA sectional areas in response to the Huid flow conditions, the upper and lower vane assemblies, 11 and 12 respectively, `are then automatically positioned to accomplish complete expansion of the uid low at the nozzle exit. While the control means for upper and lower vane assemblies 11 and 12 are identical, the following description pertains to the lower vane assembly 12 only, it being understood that the system for upper vane assembly 11 is the same.

Lower Vane assembly 12 comprises a main member 54, therupper surface` of which is convex shaped at its tforward or upstream portion transforming into .a concave shape at the aft or downstream portion, and is yin confrontation with the lower exhaust nozzle area forming member 19 of central vane assembly 10 -to form nozzle uid passage 14. Main member 54 is pivotally mounted about a transverse axis by a shaft end extension 55 mounted in .bearing or bushing 56 located in vertical side wall 3. The other end of main member 54 is interconnected with the main member of the lower vane assembly of nozzle portion 8 so as to permit relative rotation between the two members, the interconnection being by anappropriate cylinder-piston combination or any other well known means.

Located within main member 54 is a cylinder 57 having a pneumatic relay valve piston 58 therein. Valve shank 59 connected to valve piston 58, controls the air bleed from a servo air cavity 60 through passage 61 and vent passage 62 open to the atmosphere. A metered ilow of high pressure combustion gases is supplied to servo air cavity 60 4through a metering orice 63 upstream of the nozzle. Rubbing seals 54a vand 54b are provided to reduce pressure leakage from servoair cavity 60.

The amount of pressure bleed from the metered ow in servo air cavity 6) is controlled by the position of valve valve piston 58, one face of which ,is vented to the ambient static air p-ressure through ori-tice 64 which is open to ambient pressure, and the other face is subjected to the margin pressure of the efflux stream at the trailing edge of the lower vane assembly 12 by a plurality of outlet pressure taps 65 located along the downstream tip of main member 54.

If the position of lower vane assembly 12, with respect to central vane assembly 10, is such that the propulsive eliiux through nozzle fluid passage 14 is under-expanding or over-expanding, the pressure transmitted to the side of valve piston 58 by outlet pressure taps 65 will be n affected with a resultant out of balance with the ambient static air pressure on the other side of valve piston S8 through oritce 64. If the nozzle passage 14 is such to allow the propulsive efux to over-expand therein, or in lother words the efflux pressure is lowered to ambient pressure to achieve complete expansion in the nozzle diverging area before passage of the efflux at the nozzle exift, the resulting pressure signals through pressure taps will rbe reduced permitting the relay valve piston 58 and valve shank 59 to move in a rearward direction thereby communicating passage 61 and vent passage 62 for venting the high pressure ailr in servo air cavity 60 t0 the atmosphere. This in turn will permit the lower vane assembly 12 to rotate in a clockwise direction as seen in FIGURE l thereby reducing the eifective exit area of propulsive nozzle fluid passage 14.

On the other hand should the exit of propulsive nozzle uid passage 14 be too small so as to permit the propulsive efflux to pass through the nozzle exit at a static pressure t level above ambient pressure, the outlet pressure taps 65 will sense a pressure increase from the efflux spilling over the trailing edge of lower vane assembly 12 causing pneumatic relay valve piston 58 and valve shank 59 to move in a forward direct-ion to close communication between passage 61 and vent 62. This builds up the pressure in servo air cavity 60, causing the main member 54 of lower vane assembly y12 to rotate in a counterclockwise direction, as viewed in FIGURE 1, for opening the propulsive nozzle uid passage y14 to a position to give an elective nozzle exit area increase over the throat to allow complete expansion of the efflux at the nozzle exit. Thus, idepending upon the expansion ow conditions in the nozzle passages, the upper and lower vane assemblies 11 and 12 respectively will automatically position themselves for complete propulsive efux expansion at the nozzle exit,

such positioning being independent of any control sys-'f tems or linkages of central vane assembly 10.

It is to be understood .that the upper vane assembly 11 has an identical system incorporated therein as described for lower vane assembly 12 which operates in fthe same manner.

By the interaction of the upper and lower vane assem-V blies 11 and 12 becoming automatically positioned with respect to central vane assembly 10 and the nozzle ilow conditions', when central vane assembly 10 is positioned as indicaited by phantom lines 10a of FIGURE 1, upper vane assembly 111 will adjust to the position indicated by phantom lines 11a while lower vane assembly 12 will adjust to the position indicated by phantom lines 12a. Likewise, when lcentral vane assembly 10 is positioned as indicated by phantom lines 10b, the upper vane assembly i11 will adjust to the position indicated by phantom lines 11b, and the lower vane assembly 12 will adjust to the position indicated by phantom lines 12b. y

1 FIGURE 4 depicts the relative positional relationships between central vane assembly l10 and upper andlower vane assemblies 11 and 12 when the nozzle is directing piston 58 and valve shank 59, such position affected by the the propulsive efux in a downward direction as compared to a straight aft or rearward discharge when the assemblies would be in positions as indicated by phantom lines 10c, 11C and 12e` respectively.

FIGURE 5 depicts schematically the positional relationships between centralvane assembly 10 andupper and lower vane assemblies 11 and '12 when the aircraft is operating on thrust augmentation having a high velocity, large mass efilux as indicated by arrows 66, and when the aircraft is on normal powerplant operation without thrust augmentation having a relatively low velocity, small mass efflux as compared to thrust augmentation operation and indicated by arrows 67, whereupon the nozzle vane members are located in the phantomed positions indicated by 10d, 11d and 12d respectively. Thus, for the low velocity, small mass efliux resulting in relatively lower thrust, the central vane assembly -19 is expanded to phantom position 10d to reduce the throatareas, while upper and lower vane assemblies 11 and 12 are rotationally adjusted to phantom positions 11d and 12d respectively for reduction of the nozzle exit areas. For high velocity, high mass efux resulting in high thrust output, the central vane assembly 10 is deflated or contracted for increase of throat areas and upper vane assembly 11 is repositioned in a clockwise direction and lower vane assembly 12 is repositioned in a counterclockwise direction for increase of nozzle exit areas whereupon the vane assemblies are readjusted to the positions indicated by solid lines lil, 11 and 12.

In operation with'a fluid flow from duct 1 through the nozzle, the direction of efflux from the nozzle is controlled by the rotation of central vane assembly 1i) aroundaxle 34 by cables 53 and bell crank 52. Variable throat area sizes are accomplished by expansion and contraction of chambers 24 and 25 in central vane assembly 10. Such expansion and contraction is controlled by bleed of pneumatic pressure supplied to chambers 24 and 25 by passage of the fluid pressure in duct .1 into chambers 24 and 25 through metering orifice 22; such pressure bleed accomplished by pneumatic servo relay valve 29 controlled by the ratio of the static pressures in the nozzle throats and duct 1 upstream of the throats.

Concurrently with the control of effective throat areas responsive to the fluid fiow conditions, control is effected of the degree of efiiux expansion at the nozzle exit by control of the nozzle exit areas. This control is accomplished by the degree of pressure bleed from a servo air cavity in each of the upper and lower vane assemblies 11 and 12, the bleed from servo air cavity in lower vane assembly 12 controlled by the balance or unbalance of pressures on opposite faces of pneumatic relay valve piston S; the pressure on one face being the ambient pressure through orifice or passage 64, and the pressure on the other face indicating a nozzle efflux margin displacement relative to pressure taps 65. lf the nozzle exit areas are such that the efflux expansion at the nozzle exit is other than complete expansion thereat whereby the efflux static pressure is equal to the ambient pressure, the appropriate vane assembly adjacent the central vane assembly will thus automatically increase or decrease the nozzle exit area to the point where complete elux expansion is accomplished at the nozzle exit. Wi-th separate controls for each of the nozzle exit areas (one exit area being defined by central vane assembly l0 and upper vane assembly 11, while the other exit area being defined by central vane assembly 10 and lower vane assembly 12), each exit area is controlled independently of and concurrently with the other.

Thus, it can be seen that I provide a propulsive nozzle having right and left sides which can be moved, adjusted or controlled independently or differentially, similar to elevons, for roll, pitch and turn trim control of the airlcraft. The throat and exit areas of the nozzle are independently adjustable in accordance with altitude, airflow and pressure ratio conditions in the nozzle, the control and direction of the propulsive jet stream and the size of the throat areas being regulated by the expansion or contraction of the split central vane. The top and bottom vanes of each nozzle portion automatically adjust to the correct positions by independent pneumatic control systems in accordance with the position of the central varie of each nozzle portion and the fluid flow conditions through the nozzle exits, the margin of the efflux stream departing from the line of contour of the vane surfaces at the nozzle exit if the nozzle is overor under-expanding. When such overor under-expansion occurs, the departure of the efliux stream from the contour of the upper or lower vane surfaces affects the pressure at the outlet pressure taps so that the pneumatic relay system restores the position of the vane to one of correctness automatically.

It is, of course, intended to cover by the appended claims all such modications and equivalents as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.

What is claimed is:

l. A converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle passage vcombination comprising a first and a second vane members in parallel confrontation forming opposing portions of the nozzle passage `defining structure, the confronting surfaces of said first and second vane members both shaped to present convex surfaces at their yupstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, the first vane member being pivotable about its trailing edge with respect to the other vane member for varying the effective throat area of the nozzle passage, the second vane member being pivotable about the axis of its convex portion with respect to the first vane member `for varying the effective exit area of the nozzle passage.

2. A converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle passage combination comprising a first and second vane members in parallel confrontation `forming opposing portions of the nozzle passage defining structure, the confronting surfaces of said first and second vane members both shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, the first vane member being pivotable about its trailing edge with respect to the other vane member for varying the effective throat area of the nozzle passage, the second vane member being pivotable about the axis of its convex portion lfor Varying the effective exit area of the nozzle passage, and means responsive to fluid flow pressure conditions through the nozzle controlling the position of the first vane member.

3. A convergingdiverging variable area propulsive nozzle passage combination comprising a first and second vane members in parallel confrontation yforming opposing portions of the nozzle passage defining structure, the confronting surfaces of said first and second vane members both shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, the first vane member being pivotable about its trailing edge with respect to the other vane member for varying the effective throat area of the nozzle passage, the second vane member being pivotable about the axis of its convex portion for varying the effective exit area of the nozzle passage, and means responsive to the propulsive eiliux pressure at the nozzle exit controlling the position of the second vane member.

4. A converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle passage combination comprising a first and second vane members in parallel confrontation Aforming opposing portions of the nozzle passage defining structure, the confronting surfaces of said first and second members both shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, the first vane member being pivotable about its trailing edge with respect to the other vane member for varying the effective throat area of the nozzle passage, the second vane member being pivotable about the axis of its convex portion for varying `the effective exit area of the nozzle passage, a first means responsive to fluid flow conditions through the nozzle controlling the position of the rst vane member, and second means Iresponsive to the propulsive efliux presing-portions of thenozzle passage defining structure, vthe confronting surfaces of said first and second vane members both shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, the first vane member being pivotable about its trailing edge with respect to the other vane lmember for varying the effective `throat area of Athe nozzle passage, the second vane memlber being pivotable about the axis of its convex portion -for varying the effective exit area of the nozzle passage, a first means responsive to Huid flow conditions through the nozzle controlling the position of the first vane member, a second means for controlling the position of the second vane member comprising saidsecond vane member combining with the nozzle defining structure to form an air cavity of variable volume as the second vane member pivotally -readjusts relative to the nozzle defining structure, a first passage means conducting a portionv of the pressurized nozzle fluid flow from upstream of the nozzle passage to said cavity, a second passage means venting the fluid from said cavity to the atmosphere, and a valve means lresponsive to the propulsive efflux pressure at the nozzle exit controlling the venting fluid flow in the second passage means for positioning said second vane member to a position for a maximum thrust exit area.

6. rA converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle combination comprising a central vane of at least two parts extending horizontally across the nozzle opening, second and third vanes disposed parallel to and one on each side of said central vane, said central vane having an upper surface member in confrontation to the lower surface of the second vane mem-ber and a lower surface member in confrontationto the upper surface of the third vane member, all of said confronting-surfaces shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions,

each of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane being pivotable about their trailing edges relative to their individual confronting second and third vane members for varying the effective throat areas of the nozzle passages, said second and third vane members being each individually pivotable about the axis of its convex portion for varying the effective exit areas of the nozzle passages independently without changing the nozzle throat areas, and means for effecting concurrent pivotable movement of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members, the directions of both concurrent pivotal movements of .the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members -being the same whereby variations in the effective nozzle throat areas occur simultaneously.

7. A converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle combination comprising structure defining a nozzle duct and opening, a central vane assembly extending hon'- zontally across the nozzle opening, said central vane asl semblyfcompr-ising a main member, a first nozzle passage forming member adjacent the upper surface of said main member in confrontation with a portion of the nozzle defining structure forming .both a first nozzle pass-age area with its confronting portion of thenozzle defining structure and a chamber between it and the main member, a second nozzle passage forming member adjacent the lower surface of said main member in confrontation with a portion of the nozzle defining structure forming both a second nozzle passage area with its confronting portion of the nozzle defining structure and a chamber between it and the main member, said first and second nozzle passage forming members being pivotally interconnected with the main member at the downstream portions thereof allowing the volume of said chambers to vary 'by rotation of the first and second nozzle forming members relative to said main member and each other, a first passage means conducting a portion of the pressurized nozzle fluid flow from upstream of the central vane member to the chambers, a pneumatic servo relayvalve, -a second passage means conducting fiuid from the chambers to said pneumatic servo relay valve, said pneumatic servo relay valve responsive to the ratio of the nozzle fluid flow pressures upstream of the central vane and within the nozzle passage areas whereby the effective throat areas of the nozzle passage areas are varied by inflation or defiation of the central vane assembly through bleed of Ifluid fromsaid chambers controlled by the pneumatic servo relay valve Vresponsive to fluid flow conditions through the nozzle.

8, A converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle combination comprising a central vane of at least two parts extending horizontally across the nozzle opening, second and third vanes disposed parallel to and one on each side of said central vane, said central vane having an upper surface member in confrontation to the lower surface of the second vane member and a lower surface member in confrontation to Ythe upper surface of the third vanemem'ber, all of said confronting surfaces shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, each of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane being pivotable about their trailing edges relative to their individual confronting second and third vane members for lvarying, the effective throat areas of the nozzle passages, said second and third vane members being each individually pivotable about the axis of its convex portion for varying the effective ex-it areas of the nozzle passages independently without changing the nozzle throat areas, means for effecting concurrent pivotable movement of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members, the directions of both concurrent pivotal movements of the upper and lower lsurface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third -vane mem-bers being the same whereby variations in the effective nozzle throat areas occur simultaneously, and means responsive to the ratio of pressures of the fluid flow upstream of the nozzle passage areas and in the nozzle passage areas controlling said means for effecting the con' current pivotal movements of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members.

9. A converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle combination comprising a central vane assembly extending horizontally across the nozzle opening, second and third vanes disposed parallel to and one on each side of said central vane assembly, said central vane assembly having a main member, an upper surface member adjacent the upper surface of said main member in confrontation to the lower surface of the second vane member, said upper-surface member forming a chamber between said upper surface member and main member, a lower surface member adjacent the lower surface of said m-ain member vin confrontation to theupper surface of the third vane member, said lower surface member forming a chamber between the lower surface member and main member, all of lsaid confronting surfaces shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, each ofthe upper v l l l and each other varying the volumes of said chambers, a first passage means in the main member conducting a por-tion of the pressurized nozzle fluid flow from upstream of the central vane assembly to the chambers, a pneumatic servo relay valve, a second passage means conducting fluid from the chambers to said pneumatic servo relay valve, said pneumatic servo relay valve responsive to the ratio of pressures of the nozzle fluid flow upstream of the centrai vane assembly and in nozzle passage throats whereby the effective throat areas of the nozzle passages are varied by inflation or deflation of the central vane assembly through bleed of fluid from said chambers controlled by the pneumatic servo relay valve responsive to fluid flow conditions through the nozzle, said second and third vane members being each individually pivotable about the axis of its convex portion for varying the effective exit areas of the nozzle passages independently without changing the nozzle throat areas, and means for effecting concurrent pivotal movement of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane assembly relative to the confronting second and third vane members, the directions of both concurrent pivotal movements of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane assembly relative to the ,confronting second and third vane members being theV same whereby variations in 4the eective nozzle throat areas occur simultaneously.

l0. A converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle combination comprising structure defining a nozzle duct and opening, a central vane of at least two parts extending horizontally across the nozzle opening, second and third vanes disposed parallel to and one on each side of said central vane, said central vane having an upper surface member in confrontation to the lower surface of the second vane member and a lower surface member in confrontation to the upper surface of the third vane mem-` ber, all of said confronting surfaces shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, each of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane being pivotable about their trailing edges relative to their individual confronting second and third vane members for varying the effective throat areas of the nozzle passages, means for effecting concurrent pivotable movement of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members, the directions of both concurrent pivotal movements ,of the. upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members being the same whereby variations in the effective nozzle throat areas occur simultaneously, each of said second and third vanes being individually pivotable about the axis of its convex portion and cornbining with their respective adjacent nozzle defining structure to form an air cavity of variable volume as the second and third vanes rotatively readjust relative to the nozzle defining structure, a first passage means in each of said second and third vanes conducting a portion of pressurized nozzle fluid lflow from upstream of the nozzle passages to said cavities,l a second passage means venting the fluids from said cavities to the atmosphere, and a valve means in each of the second passage means controlling the venting of fluid flow from both said second passage means for positioning said second and third vane members independently without changing nozzle throat areas to positions for maximum thrust exit areas.

l1. A convergingdiverging variable area propulsive nozzle combination comprising structure defining a nozzle duct and opening, a central vane of at least two parts extending horizontally across the nozzle opening, second and third vanes disposed parallel to and one on each side of said central vane, said central vane having an upper surface member in confrontation to the lower surface of the second vane member and a lower surface member in confrontation to the upper surface of the third vane member, all of said confronting surfaces shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, each of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane being pivotable about their trailing edges relative to their individual confronting second and third vane members for varying the effective throat arcas of the nozzle passages, means for effecting concurrent pivotable movement of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members, the directions of both concurrent pivotal movements of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members being the same whereby variations in the effective nozzle throat areas occur simultaneously, each of said second and third vanes being individually pivotable about the axis of its convex portion and combining with their respective adjacent nozzle defining structure to form an air cavity of variable volume as the second and third vanes rotatively readjust relative to the nozzle defining structure, a first passage means in each of said second and third vanes conducting a portion of pressurized nozzle fluid flow from upstream of the nozzle passages to said cavities, a second passage means venting the fluids from said cavities to the atmosphere, and a servo relay valve responsive to the ratio of pressures between the margins of the nozzle efflux at the nozzle exits and the atmosphere controlling the venting fluid flows in both second passage means for positioning said second and third vane members independently without changing nozzle throat arcas to positions for maximum thrust exit areas.

l2. A converging--diverging variable area propulsive nozzle combination comprising structure defining a nozzle duct and opening, a central vane of at least two parts extending horizontally across the nozzle opening, second and third vanes disposed parallel to and one on each side of said central vane, said central vane having an upper surface member in confrontation to the lower surface of the second vane member and a lower surface member in confrontation to the upper surface of the third vane member, all of said confronting surfaces shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, each of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane being pivotable about their trailing edges relative to their individual confronting second and third vane members for varying the effective throat areas of the nozzle passages, means for effecting concurrent pivotable movement of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members, the directions of both concurrent pivotal movements of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members being the same whereby variations in the eective nozzle throat areas occur simultaneously, means responsive to the ratio of pressures of the fluid flow upstream of the nozzle passage areas and in the nozzle passage areas controlling said means for effecting the concurrent pivotal movements of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members, each of said second and third vanes being individually pivotable about the axis of its convex portion combining with their respective adjacent nozzle defining structure to form an air cavity of variable volume as the second and third vanes rotatively readjust relative to the nozzle defining structure, a first passage means in each of said second and third vanes conducting a portion of pressurized nozzle fluid flow from upstream of the nozzle passages to said cavities, a second passage means venting the fluids from said cavities to the atmosphere, and a valve means in each of the second passage means controlling the venting of fluid flow from both said second passage means for positioning said second and third vane members to positions for maximum thrust exit areas.

13. A converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle combination comprising structure defining a nozzle duct and opening, a central' vanefof at least two parts extending horizontally across the nozzle opening, second and third vanes disposed parallel to and one on each `side of said central vane, said central vane having an upper surface member in confrontation to the lower surface of the second vane membersand a lower surface member in confrontation to the upper surface of the third vane member, all of said confronting surfaces shaped to present convexsurfaces at Atheir upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, each of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane being pivotable about their trailing edges relative to `their individual confronting second and third vane' members for varying the effective throat areas of the nozzle passages, means for effecting concurrent pivotable movement of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members, the directions of both concurrent pivotal movements of the upper and lowersurface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members' being the same whereby variations in the effective nozzle throat areas occur simultaneously, means responsive to the ratio of pressures of the fluid flow upstream of the nozzle passage areas and in the nozzle passage areas controlling said means for efecting pivotable movements of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane relative to the confronting second and third vane members, each of said second and third vanes being individually pivotable about the axis of its convex portion and combining with. their respective adjacent nozzle defining structure to form an air cavity ofk variable volume as the second and third vanes rotatively readjust relative to the nozzle defining structure, a first passage means in each ofY said second and third `vanes conducting a portion of pressurized nozzle fluid flow'from upstream of the nozzle passages to saidcavities, a second passage means venting the fluids from said cavities to the atmosphere, and a servo relay valve responsive to the ratio of pressures between the margins of the nozzle efflux at the nozzle exits and the atmosphere controlling the venting fluid flows in both second passage means for positioning said second and third vane members independently without changing nozzle throat areas to positions for maximum thrust exit areas.

14. A converging-diverging variable area propulsive fiozzle combination comprising structure defining a nozzle duct and opening, a central vane assembly extending horizontally across the nozzle opening, second and third vanes disposed parallel to and one on each side of said central vane assembly, said central vane assembly having a main member, an upper surface member adjacent the upper surface of said main member in confrontation to the lower surface of the second vane member, said upper surface member forming a chamber between said upper surface member and main member, a lower surface member adjacent the lower surface of said main member in confrontation to the upper surface of the third vane member, said lower surface member forming a chamber between the lower surface member and main member, all of said confronting surfaces shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, each of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane assembly being pivotally interconnected with the main member at the trailing edges thereof, said pivotal interconnection allowing said upper and lower surface members to rotationally adjust about their trailing edges relative to their individual confronting second and third vane members and the main member thereby varying the effective throat areas of the nozzle'passages, such rotation of the upper and lower surface members relative to said main member and each other varying the volumes of said chambers, a first passage means in the main member conducting a portion of of pressures of the nozzle fluid flow upstream of the central vane assembly and in the nozzle passage throats whereby the effective throat'areas of the nozzle passages are varied by inflation or deflation of the central vane assembly through bleed of fluid from said chamber controlled by the pneumatic servo relay valve responsive to fluid flow conditions through thenozzle, means for ef- -fecting concurrent pivotal movement of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane assembly relative to the confronting second and third vane members, the directions of both concurrent pivotal movements of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane assembly relative'to the confronting second and third vane members being the same whereby variations in the effective nozzle throat areas occur simultaneously, said second and third vane members being each individually pivotable about the axis of its convex portion for varying the effective exit areas of the nozzle passages independently without changing the nozzle throat areas and each combining with a portion of the nozzle defining structure to form an air cavity of variable volume as said second and third vane members rotatively readjustrelative to its portion of the nozzle defining structure, a third passage means in each of said second and third vane members conducting a portion of pressurized nozzle fluid flow from upstream of the nozzle passages to said air cavities, a fourth passage means in each of the second and third vane members venting the fluid from said cavities to the atmosphere, and a valve means in each of said fourth passage means controlling the venting fluid flow in each of said fourth passage means for positioning said second and third vane members to positions for maximum thrust exit areas.

15. A converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle combination comprising structure defining a nozzle duct and opening, a central vane assembly extending horizontally across the nozzle opening, second and third vanes disposed parallel to and one on each side of said central vane assembly, said central vane assembly having a main member, .an upper surface member adjacent the upper surface of said main member in confrontation to the lower surface of the second vane member, said upper surface member forming a chamber between said upt per surface member and main member, a lower surface member adjacent the lower surface of said main member in confrontation to the upper surface of the third vane member, said lower surface member forming a chamber of said confronting surfaces shaped to present convex surfaces at their upstream portions transforming to concave surfaces at their downstream portions, each of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane assembly being pivotally interconnected with the main member at the trailing edges thereof, said pivotal interconnection allowing said upper and lower surface members to rotationally adjust about their trailing edges relative to their individual confronting second and third vane members and the main member thereby varying the effective throat areas of the nozzle passages, such rotation of the upper and lower surface members relative to said main member and each other varying the volumes of said chambers, a rst passage means in the main member conducting a portion of the pressurized nozzle fluid flow from upstream of the central vane assembly to the chambers, a pneumatic servo relay valve, a second passage means conducting fluid from the chambers to said pneumatic servo relay valve, said pneumatic servo relay Valve responsive to the ratio of pressure of the nozzle fluid flow upstream of the central vane assembly and in the nozzle passage throats whereby the effective throat areas of the nozzle passages are varied by inflation or deflation of the central vane assembly through bleed of uid from said chambers controlled by the pneumatic servo relay valve responsive to uid ow conditions through the nozzle, means for effecting concurrent pivotal movement of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane assembly relative to the confronting second and third vane members, the directions of both concurrent pivotal movements of the upper and lower surface members of the central vane assembly relative to the confronting second and third vane members being the same whereby variations in the effective nozzle throat areas occur simultaneously, said second and third vane members being each individually pivotable about the axis of its convex portion for varying the effective exit areas of the nozzle passage independently without changing the nozzle throat areas and each combining with a portion of the nozzle defining structure to form an air cavity of variable volume as said second and third vane members rotatively readjust relative to its portion of the nozzle defining structure, a third passage means in each ofsaid second and third vane members conducting a portion of pressurized nozzle fluid ow from upstream of the nozzle passages to said air cavities, a fourth passage means in each ofthe second and third vane members venting the uid from said cavities to the atmosphere, and a servo relay valve in each of said fourth passage means responsive to the ratio of pressures of the nozzle efflux from the nozzle passages at the margins ofthe nozzle passage areas at the nozzle exit and the atmosphere, said servo relay Valve controlling the venting fluid flows in said fourth passage means for positioning said second and third vane members to positions for maximum thrust exit areas.

16. A converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle combination as claimed in claim 15 and having means rotatively positioning the central vane main member controlling the direction of nozzle efflux discharge, said second and third vane members repositioning automatically in response tottheir individual controls to any new effluxdischarge direction established by the central vane main member whereby they thereafter maintain the proper nozzle exit areas for the new efflux discharge direction.

17. A converging-diverging variable area propulsive nozzle combination comprising a first and second nozzle combinations as claimed in claim 16 in side-by-side relation, and said rotatively positioning means of the central vane main members controllable independently whereby roll control can be effected by the nozzle through differential operation of said rotatively positioning means of the central vane main members.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,540,595 Price Feb. 6, 1951 2,570,629 Anxionnaz et al. Oct. 9, 1951 2,649,077 Mehm Aug. 18, 1953 2,763,426 Erwin Sept. 18, 1956 2,788,635 Ford Apr. 16, 1957 2,799,989 Kappus July 23, 1957 2,831,321 Laucher Apr. 22, 1958 2,841,956 Gunson July 8, 1958 2,846,843 Clark et al. Aug. 12, 1958 2,858,668 Kelley et al. Nov. 4, 1958 2,926,489 Halford Mar. 1, 1960 2,982,089 Egbert May 2, 1961 FOREIGN PATENTS 580,995 Great Britain Sept. 26, 1946 677,973 Great Britain Aug. 27, 1952 774,592 Great Britain May 15, 1957 (Corresponding U.S. 2,926,489 Mar. 1, 1960)

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Classifications
U.S. Classification239/265.25, 239/265.35, 239/533.1, 239/592, 239/452, 239/601, 239/455
International ClassificationF02K1/06, F02K1/15, F02K1/00
Cooperative ClassificationF02K1/06, F02K1/15, F02K1/006
European ClassificationF02K1/00B4, F02K1/15, F02K1/06