US 3044203 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 17, 1962 G. WILHELM ETAL I FIREARM WITH RECIPROCABLE BOLT HAVING TRANSVERSE MOVEMENT Filed Aug. 6, 1958 July 17, 1962 G. WILHELM ETAL FIREARM WITH RECIPROCABLE BOLT HAVING TRANSVERSE MOVEMENT Filed Aug. 6, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 .HN SLR Y OHH TLC Nrs Ew o V v. I NvaR T 1MM A GH July 17, 1962 G. WILHELM ETAL FIREARM WITH RECIPROCABLE BOLT HAVING TRANSVERSE MOVEMENT Filed Aug. 6, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTORS. GARY WLHELM H IVRY SGHON BM TTR 5 Yww July 17, 1962 G. WILHELM ET AL 3,044,203
FTREARM wTTH RECTPROCABLE BOLT HAVING TRANsvERsE MOVEMENT Filed Aug. 6, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 /IOO IN VENTORS. GARY WILHELM HENRY SOHO/WV ATTORN Y.
aligning the tiring pin with thev cartridge primer.
The present invention relates to rearms, and particularlyfto a new and improved firearm having a breech bolt action that will prevent'detonation of` the cartridge during loading; a Ytrigger action that cannot accidentally be `operated regardless of the treatment to which the-rifle is` subjected;y and-an automatically operating Ainterlocking'mechani'sm between the trigger and hammer releasing mechanism. n Y 'An object of this invention is toprovide arifle-in which a cartridge inthe firing chamber cannot be detonated during the action ;of the .bolt and until fthe bolt is completely in battery.
`Another object of this invention is to provide a rie `in which a compound motion trigger to eiect its operation. 'Anotherobject of this invention is toprovidefa rie must beapplied to `the in which the sear plate is automatically interlocked with the trigger so that it cannot be displaced by inertia-1in the v event the rie is dropped or subjected to sudden impact.
-One aspect of the invention may beto provide a recipro- V y"cable bolt that is displaced transversely of the barrel at the beginning of'the cartridge'unloading operation, and
which `bolt remains so-displaced throughout` its' recipro- When, and OnlY'When, the bolt returns to battery, it may be transversely returnedto a position This bolt-displacing action maybe accomplished by providing a'reciprocable sled or action'slide having cam surfaces that cooperatey with mating cam surfaces lon the bolt.
. The cooperation between these cam surfaces may initially displacethe/bolt transversely of the cartridge chamber at the beginning `of the cartridge unloading operation, withdraw the bolt from battery to its open condition, return" the bolt to battery from its open condition, and iinally return the bolt to Vaposition Wherel its firing pin a lis in alignment with theprimer ofthe cartridge that has been loaded Iinto the ring chamber by the boltaction.
Another aspect of the invention may be to provide a trigger mechanism'requiring a compound motion t0 operate it. This' may be accomplished byemploying an` interference member inline with the trigger or any part movable with it, in' the latter of which may be provided an interference relieving means that is normally misaligned with the interference member.- An'arrangernent of 'balanced springs may be employed between the trigger and itsV guiding means that will: require the -application of a compound movement to theV trigger along angularly related paths in order to align the relieving means with the interference member before the action of the trigger can be made elfective. Still'lanother aspect of the invention may be to attach an interference member to the movable, trigger mechanism that prevents movement of the sear plate until the trigger has been subjected" to the compound movement required to'render it effective.
The above, other objects and novel features of the invention will become apparent vfrom the following speciv-fication and accompanying `drawings which are 'merely v tion of a'rille to which the principles of the invention conventional manner to the stock of-a riile.
Patented July 1 7, 1962 have been applied, and showing the bolt at the rear of reciprocative stroke inopen condition;
. FIG.' 2`is a view similar to FIG. 1 but with the bolt in battery ready for tiring; v
FIG. 3 is a View similar to FIG. 1 but showing the hammer in tiring position;
t FIG.A 4 is a perspective view of the sled forming a portion of the bolt action; i
FIG. 5 is a bottom plan viewiof the bolt laction as viewed along'line 5 5 of FIG. l, with the trigger mechanism'removed for clarity;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of the bolt, looking at the bottom thereof and asseen in IFIG. 5; FIG. 7 is a perspective view of the sled of FIG. 4in
reversed position and as seen in FIG. 5;
FIG.` 8 is a sectional elevational viewfvof a modied form of the receiver; 1
FIG. 9 is a perspective view of a modified form of bolt to which the principles ofthe invention have been l applied; and
Referring to the drawings, and *particularly to fFIGS. 1,
2 and 3, a receiver or housing V1t)V of generally inverted channel shape may be bolted or otherwise fastened in any The forward end of the 'receiver V10 may include a bored and threaded portion 11 for receiving` the rear end of a barrel 12.
' `The inner side walls 13, 14 of the yreceiver or housing 10' may provide bearing surfaces ffor a reciprocable bolt v15. The bolt 15 may comprise a protuber-ance 16 having an upper surface that engages land -slides :along the inner upperA surface 17 -of the receiver 10. Bolt -15 may also include `a conventional tiring pin 18 that is normally urged rearwardly by a spring 11S withinthe bolt 15 in the usual manner. The bottom of the bolt 15 may include parallel, inclined recesses 19 and 2.0` (FIGS. 2 and 6) having vcam surfaces 21, 22, 23 and 24 formed thereby.
The bolt :15 may be supported by a sled or action slide 25 (FIGS, 2, 4 land 7). The sled or action yslide 25 may include openings 26 Vand 27 therein forming cross members 28 and 29, which latter include cam surfaces 30, 31,*32 and 33 which cooperate with cam surfaces 21, 2 2, 23 and 24 of the bolt 15. `The sled or action slide 25 also may include bearing surfaces 34 `and 35 that rest on, and slide along ythe top edge 36 of each of two spaced plates 37 (only one being shown), Iwhich plates receive between them the cartridge clip Iand trigger mechanism,v all to be more fully described later. The plates 37 may be held together by pins 3S 'and 39, and the asysembly may be received within the receiver "10.
Y Elongated `slots 4t) are provided in the side walls 13 .and 14 of the receiver 10 (FIG. 3) for accommodating fingers 41, 42, 43 and 44 of a carriage mechanism 45 (FIG. 5) including plate members 45' and 46 that ride along the outer surfaces ofthe side walls of the receiver 1t). The vngers 411, 42, 43 and 44l include surfaces forming a dovetail connection with ears 47 and 48on the sled or ractonslide 25. The carriage 45 is adapted .to be reciprocated by any means, depending upon Whether the riile is a semi-automatic oran automatic rifle. A tinger 49 maybe attached to the carriage 45 for manual reciprocation thereof.
Since the carriage 45 may be reciprocated by any means, yand such means 'per ise forms no p-art ofthe present invention, no specific means for reciprocating carriage 45 has been disclosed, except the linger 49 for manually moving the carriage 45 lto its rearward position against the action of -spring means which moves the carriage 45 forwardly upon release of -the finger 49. Upon the firing of a cartridge, a portion of the expanding gas may be employed to act upon pistonmeans -for forcing the carriage 45 rearwardly against the lactionof spring means, which latter returns the carriage forwardly upon the expenditure of the force incident to the expanding. gas.
'Ihe constuction and `arrangement of the carriage 45, sled or action slide 25 and bolt 15 are such that rearward movement of the carriage 45 causes sled or action slide 25 to move rearwardly from the position shown in FIG. 2 until cam surface 31 and 33 thereof engage cam surfaces 22 and 24 on the bolt 15, whereupon the bolt is displaced transversely of the cartridge chamber until protuberance 16 is withdrawn from an opening 50 within the receiver and its top surface is at the same elevation as surface 17 thereof. Continued rearward movemen-t of the carriage 45 movesl the bolt 15 and sled or action slide 25 in nested condition .to its rearmost position as shown in FIG. l.
A cartridge clip 51 may be releasably held between plates 37 by a pivoted member 52 urged into engagement with the clip 51 lby a spring 53. When the bolt 15 is at its rearmost position, a cartridge is engaged by the forward end 54 of .the bolt in the usual manner, and as thecarriage moves forwardly, the bullet nose 55 is directed into the rear end 56 of the barrel 12. Continued forward movement of the carriage 45, sled or action slide 25 and bolt 15 causes the cartridge to be axially aligned with the barrel 12 and to be located in the position shown in dot and dash lines in FIG. 1. In this position, the primer 57 of the cartridge is misaligned with the firing pin 18 so that should the latter inadvertently Ibe forced forwardly during the reciprocation of the bolt 15, it Wou-1d strike the cartridge rim and not the primer.
As the bolt and sled or action slide 25 continue to move leftwardly (FIG. 1), the end 54 abuts against the righthand end of the barrel 12, preventing the further forward movement of the bolt. However, continued leftward movement of sled or action slide 25 may occur, which causes the cam surfaces on it and bolt 15 to force the bolt transversely of the barrel 12 so that its protuberance 16 passes `into opening 50, thereby effecting the alignment of the firing pin 18 in bolt 15 with the primer of the cartridge within the barrel 12 as shown in FIG. 2.
The hammer may comprise a member 58 that may be fixed to a pin 59 oscillatably mounted in parallel side walls of a hammer housing 60 that is tixedly mounted between plates 37. Also fixed to pin 59 may be a crank arm 61 that has pinned to it two arms 62 (only one being shown). The arms 62 may be -slidingly r'eceived for reciprooation within slots in a pin 63 pivotally mounted between plates 37, and a spring 64 may be located between pin 63 and a shoulder 65 on the arms 62. The hammer member 58 may include 'a notch l66 which, when the member 58 is moved from its position shown in'FIG. 3 to its position shown in FIG. l, engages the top portion 67 of a sear plate 68, holding the member 58 slightly below its dead center position. A wire spring 69 extends from member 58 to pin 63 for providing the initial force to move hammer member 58 across its dead center posi-tion in a counterclockwise direction, after which spring 64 and crank 61 snap the hammer member 58 upwardly into engagement with the tiring pin 18.
The sear plate 68 may be mounted for reciprocation within the housing 60 or within parallel slots within side plates 37. Lt may include a passage 70 therethrough (FIG. 2) for the reception of the forward end 71 (FIG. 3) of a trigger mechanism 72. The sear plate 58 may be urged upwardly byva spring 73 so that its top portion 67 will always be in a position to cooperate with the notch 66 on the hammer member 58. The spring 73 is held in proper position by a portion 74 of the spring clip 53 that holds the cartridge clip 51 -in place.
The trigger mechanism 72 may include a reciprocable body member 75 that may be guided by elongated slots 76 (FIG. 2) in plates 37 and through I'which trunnion means 77 may extend that is rigidly fixed to theV body member 75. Another pair of aligned openings 78 (only one being shown) is also arranged in plates 37 and receive other trunnion means 79 fixed to the body member 75. The openings 78, however, have provision for preventing the rearward motion of the body member 75 by the engagement between pin 79 and surfaces 80 therein. A spring 80 mounted on pin 77 normally urges the trunnion means downwardly into cooperation with the surface 80 in a balanced manner so that normal squeezing of the trigger 81 will cause the trunnion 79 to move up over surface 80, yet any other force inadvertently applied to the trigger 81l will prevent rearward movement of the body member 75. The body member 75 to which the trigger 81 is fixed includes a notch 82 therein which is normally misaligned with the lower end of a safety abutment 83 (FIG. 3) that is pivoted on a pin 84 and which abutment is urged in a counterclockwise direction by a spring 83 to cause the upper end 85 to abut the pin 39. Should the body member 75 be moved rearlwardly by any action other than the action involved in squeezing a trigger, the trunnion means' 79 engages the surface 80`and`slot 82 is misaligned with abutment 83 (FIG. 3),. However, when the trigger 81 is squeezed during firing of the rifle, surfaces 80 of openings 78 force trunnion means 79 upwardly to the'position shown in FIG. 3 so that .slot 82 aligns with abutment 83 and permits rearward movement of the 4trigger body 75. In order to additionally prevent accidental movement of the trigger 81 upwardly, the lower end of abutment member 83 may be provided -With an inclined cam surface 83" that is aligned with a mating cam surface 83"' on the trigger 81 just above the notch 82. This arrangement urges the notch 82 farther out of alignment with the bottom end of the abutment 83 when the trigger 81 is moved rearwardly by any force other than the normal ysqueezing force applied by a user when on range.
The forward end 71 of the body 75 may be bifurcated, forming two legs, and an oscillatable cam 86 may be mounted on a pin 87 extending between the two legs of the bifurcated end. The cam 86 lmay include a portion 88 (FIG. 3) for cooperation with a cam surface 89 on the lower wall of the opening 70 that passes through the Sear plate 68. The construction may be such that a pin 90 extending across the legs of the bifurcated end 71 prevents movement of cam 86 in a clockwise direction when the trigger body 75 is moved rearwardly so that the portion 88 of cam 86 acts on cam 89 to force sear plate 68 downwardly to thereby release the hammer 58. The cam 86 is permited to turn in a counterclockwise direction against a spring 91 mounted between the legs of the bifurcated end 71. y
In order to prevent the sear plate 68 from being jarred downwardly accidentally, which would cause release of the hammer 58, an additional interlock is provided. It may include a plate 92 (FIG. 2) mounted on the trunnion means 77 'and having an extension 93 that slidingly engages a mating groove 94 within the side of the sear plate 68. Accordingly, this extension 93 prevents sear plate 68 from being moved downwardly until the extension 93 has been `withdrawn from the groove 94, at which time the portion 88 on cam 86 acts on cam 89 to force the sear plate downwardly, thereby. releasing the hammer 58.
When the hammer 58 actuates the firing pin 18, it detonates the primer of a cartridge in the barrel 12. The force generated by the exploding shell, or any other force such as a manual force, may be employed in a known 4manner to force carriage 45 rearwardly, and with it sled Y,to receive a barrel similar to the barrel V12.
E 25, which action may `store up energy in spring means or the like for returning the carriage 45 and bolt 15 to battery after it has ejected theexplodedcartridge case, all as is well known in the art. The rearward movement of sled or action slide 25, as previously explained, initially acts to cause cam surfaces 31 and 33 (FIG. 2) to .engage cam'surfaces 22 and 24, thereby moving bolt 15 transversely relatively -to the barrel V12 so that protuberance 16 is withdrawn from opening 50. Continued rightward movement of the sled or action slide 25 and bolt 15 in nested condition forces the hammer 58 in a clockwise direction until its notch 66 is engaged by the top portion of the sear plate 68, cooking 4the hammer. i It is to be noted that an additional safety feature is provided in the formation of the righthand end of the sled or action slide 2.5 which includes an upturned portion 95 that prevents the hammer 58 from striking the firing pin during the entire reciprocative stroke of the bolt and'whi'le the bolt 15 and sled'or action slide are in nested condition.
' When the bolt is in battery, however, the portion 95 exinvention are shown as applied to a modiiied structure including a receiver 100 -having a threaded portion 10'1 The receiver 100 is adapted to receive a sled or action slide 102 between its side wallsiwhch are made up of opposed wall or side plates 103 (only one being shown). The walls 103 may include cam paths 104 and 105 which receive cams 106 and 107 on each sideof a bolt 108. The bolt 108 may include protuberances y109 and 110 that are adapted to be received Within recesses 111 and `112 in receiver 100 when the bolt 108 is in battery.
The sled or action slide 102 and bolt 109 are adapted to llie within the chamber 110 for-med within the receiver 100, and the plate .members 45 and 46 (FIG. 5) are adapted to engage the ends of wall-s 103 in a similar way to the way these members engage ears 47 and 48 ot' sled 25. Reciprocation of the carriage 45 lwil-l, therefore, causereciprocation of sled or action slide 102, and the cooperation of the cams 104, 105 with the cams 106 and 107 will effect transverse `movement of the bolt 108 into and out of battery in a manner to prevent alignment of the tiring pin 111 with the primer of a cartridge Iwithin the barrel except when the bolt is locked in battery.
The side walls 103 may be provided with aligned holes 112 and 1.13' -that receive discs 114 `and 115. These discs may have slots in them for receiving ears 116 and 117 of a base member 11S that extends between the walls 103. In assembled relation, 'the base 118 rests on top of the top cartridge within the clip 51 and prevents the bolt 108 from striking the top cartridge with an impact each time the bolt is moved transversely from battery during a reciprocative stroke thereof.
Although the various `features of the new and proved iirearm have been described in detail to fully disclose two embodiments of the invention, it will be evident thatchanges may be made in such details and certain features may be used Without others without departing from the principles of the invention.
What is claimed is: y
1. In a gun, a receiver; a barrel iixed to said receiver; a reciprocable unitary bolt within said receiver and having a firing pin axially disposed therein; an action slide for supporting said bolt; a reciprocable carriage connected to said slide; and cam -means between said slide and bolt for moving said bolt and tiring -pin transversely of said barrel while maintaining them in parallel-relation thereto during each reciprocation of said bolt. 2. In a gun, a receiver; a barrel fixed to said receiver; aereciprocable unitary bolt within said receiver and having a'iiring pin axially disposedtherein; an action slide Vfor supporting said bolt; arreciprocable carriage connected to said slide; and .cam means between said slide and bolt for moving said bolt and 1tiring pin both axially and transversely of said barrel while maintaining them in parallel relation thereto during each reciprocation of said bolt. ,l
3. In a gun, a receiver; a barrel fixed to said receiver;
* a reciprocable unitary bolt within said receiver and havtive strokeV of said bolt. l
4. In a gun, a receiver; a barrel -xed to said receiver; a unitary bolt; aiiring pin axially disposed within said bolt; means for supporting said bolt and mounted within said receiver, 'said means comprising a pair of side plates joined by a -bottom member; cam means on said side plates; cam means on the sides of said bolt for cooperation with the cam means on said side plates to ef- Ifeet the movement of said bolt and tiring pin axially and transversely relatively to said barrel when vsaid bolt supporting/ means .is reciprocated; and means for reciprocating said bolt supporting means.
5. yIn a gun, a receiver; a barrel xed to said receiver; a unitary bolt; a ring pin axially disposed within said bolt; means for supporting said bolt and mounted within said receiver, said means comprising a pair of side platesg'aligned opposed means in each -plate adapted adjustably to receive means on another plate forming a bottom yfor said bolt supporting means; cam means on the sides of said side plates; cam means on the sides of said bolt for cooperation with the cam means onsaid' side plates to effect the movement of said bolt and firing pin axially and transversely relatively to said barrel when said bolt supporting means is reciprocated; and means for reciprocating. said -bolt supporting means.
6. In a gun, a'receiver having a chamber therein; a
barrel fixed to said receiver; a bolt-supporting action .slide withinVV said chamber and including a generally Y channel-shaped mem-ber having cam means on opposed side walls thereof; means for reciprocating said action slide; and a unitary bolt having a iiring pin axially disposed -therein supported by said action slide and including cam means on opposed sides thereof for cooperation with the cam means on said action slide side walls, said cam means, during lthe initial and tnal movements of said slide action, causing movement of said bolt and iiring pin transversely of said barrel while maintaining said bolt parallel to said barrel at all times,V and the inytermediate movement of said slide action causing unitary movement of said action slide and bolt.
7. In a gun, a receiver; a barrel fixed to said receiver; a bolt mountedwithin said receiver; an action slide within said receiver; a reciprocable carriage connected to said action slide; spaced, identical cam means yalong said bolt; spaced, mating cam means Valong said action slide; and means for reciprocating saidaction slide to cause all of -said cam means to mutually cooperate toA move said bolt axially and transversely of said barrel while remaining in parallel relation thereto at all times.
8. In a gun, a receiver; a barrel fixed to said receiver; a unitary bolt mounted Within said receiver; a tiring pin axially disposed within saidunitary bolt; a reciprocable carriage; an action slide connected to said carriage and locatedwithin said receiver; and means for causing said bolt and said tiring pin to be moved axially and transversely of said barrel while remaining in parallel relation to said barrel at all times, said means comprising mating cam means between said bolt and action slide that nests during a portion of the reciprocation of said carriage and acts to apply equal transverse motion to al1 points along said bolt during other portions of the reciprocation of said carriage.
9. In a gun, a receiver; a barrel xed to said receiver; a bolt mounted Within said receiver; an action slide within said receiver; a reciprocable carriage connected to said action slide; spaced, identical cam means along the bottom of said bolt; spaced, mating cam means along the top of said action slide; and means for reciprocatingrsaid action slide to cause all of said cam means to mutually c0- operate to move said bolt axially and transversely of said barrel while remaining in parallel relation thereto at all times.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,323,025
Darne Nov. 25, 1919 v 8 Swebilius Dec. 27, 1921 Westervelt et al Apr. 16, 1929 End Aug. 25, 1936 Williams Jan. 24, 1939 Reising Apr. 27, 1943 Reising Aug. 22, 1944 Gaidos Apr. 24, 1951 Harvey Oct. 16, 1951 Belleri Dec. 23, 1952 Maerk Ian. 11, 1955 Harvey Dec. 18, 1956 Simmons May 14, 1957 Allyn Jan. 26, 1960