|Publication number||US3045990 A|
|Publication date||Jul 24, 1962|
|Filing date||Apr 10, 1959|
|Priority date||Apr 10, 1959|
|Publication number||US 3045990 A, US 3045990A, US-A-3045990, US3045990 A, US3045990A|
|Inventors||Jr Thomas J Keenan|
|Original Assignee||Jr Thomas J Keenan|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (15), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
July 24, 1962 T. J. KEENAN, JR 4 DRAFT REGULATOR AND SCRUBBER Filed April 10, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 5| INVENTOR.
Thomas J. Keenan,Jr. BY
July 24, 1962 T. J. KEENAN, JR 3,045,990
DRAFT REGULATOR AND SCRUBBER Filed April 10, 1959 V 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 F lg. 4 7 IP00 M 000:! I 1 |o'9 l09/ r we I I y M I C? '1- 5 70E?- II 1i J Fig. 5.
INVENTOR. Thomas J. Keenamdr.
BY I lW/A-aj/W/ United States Patent Ohhce Bfidfifidh Patented July 24, 1932 3,045,990 DRAFT REGULATGR AND SCRUBBER Thomas J. Keenan, lira, 4350 Park Blvd, (laidand 2, Qalif. Filed Apr. it), 1959, Ser. No. 365,576 3 (El. Zeb-J29) This invention relates to a draft regulator and scrubber.
More particularly this invention relates to new and useful improvements to draft controlling devices and to related controls for the flow of gases and vapors. It is adapted, more especially, for controlling and regulating flue gases and vapors from boilers, furnaces, ovens, retort-s and similar equipment or appurtenances, although it is adaptable as the means for use as a collector and precipitator of suspended particles in gas and vapors. This invention is novel and unusual when compared to other draft regulators and controls in many respects, especially in its damper effect, its accommodation as to various capacities, its reversibility of operation and to its wide range of uses.
A principal object of this invention is to provide a new draft control smog eliminator and spark arrester by the provision of a circular rim of Water adjacent the mouth of the smoke stack and a cap for the smoke stack supported by floats on the water in such a way that the cap can be regulated at controlled spaced distances with respect to the mouth of the stack simply by changing the level of water within the circular rim.
Another object of this device is that it affords the means by such retardation and control of the gases and vapors; to permit and assist in obtaining the proper chemical reaction or the complete combustion of the fuel and thereby greatly reducing the amount of soot or suspended particles in the effluent gases and vapors; to obtain an even distribution of the heat within the confines of the working chamber and; to obtain a resultant higher efficiency with heat interchangers, either in the absorption or extraction of heat operations.
A feature and advantage of this invention is that the cap for the stack is formed with a depending rim which is adapted to extend downwardly beyond the mouth of the stack so that smoke emitted from the stack is forced to pass downwardly between the cap and the outer wall of the stack and is guided to pass directly over the water. Heavy materials tend to drop into the water and much of the solid matter is removed from the smoke by the passage of the smoke closely over the surface of the water.
Another object of this invention is the provision of the depending side wall of the cap being arranged in a fixed and evenly spaced relation relative to the surface of the Water regardless of the spacing of the cap relative to the top of the mouth of the smoke stack. By this means the resistance offered by virtue of the cap relative to the mouth of the stack can be increased or decreased by raising and lowering of the water level while maintaining a constant resistance to smoke flow between the bottom rim of the cap and the surface of the water.
A feature and advantage of this control is that the force or pressure exerted against the stack to force the smoke downwardly over the water can be varied by relatively positioning the cap in either the downward or upward position.
A still further object of this invention is to form the water container and the cap in oppositely facing relation so the rim of the cap extends closer to the wall of the circular water container as the cap is lowered. When the water is reduced to its minimum level within the water containing tank the cap is arranged to abut the top edge of the stack to completely shut off communication between the stack and atmosphere.
A feature and advantage of this invention is that a draft control is provided by controlling the amount of water within the tank.
Another object of this invention is to provide means for minimizing the effect of the cap by mechanical means which hold the cap at predetermined elevated positions with respect to the stack and overcome completely the effect of the floating action of the cap on the water.
Another object of this invention is to provide means to support the cap with respect to a fixed point with sutficient flexibility so as to allow the cap to register in substantially perpendicular alignment relative to the mouth of the smoke stack.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a series of streams or sprays of water from the edge of the mouth of the stack towards the side wall of the cap to scrub the smoke as it is emitted from the stack.
Another object of this invention is to provide an outer wall above the cap of the stack and water bath having a restricted outlet and in which water sprays: are arranged to clean the smoke as it travels from the water bath and out through the restricted opening.
The device acts as a spark arrester. In the bonnet or cap the sparks in their downward travel impinge upon water or liquid in the tank and are deposited or collected in the tank. The sides of the tank are extended above the highest liquid or Water level in the tank to effect this purpose.
The device is also a precipitator and a collector of fly ash, soot and suspended particles in the gases and vapors, due mainly to the direction of travel of the gases and vapors in the bonnet or cap and the velocity control factor. To assist in this performance a circular pipe line with spray holes or atomizing sprays attached thereto is placed at the discharge end of the tank cylinder and also about one foot above the top liquid or water level and in the center of the space between the largest diameter of the bonnet or cap and the side of the tank. A similar and an auxiliary spray line may be placed above the last described spray line if necessary.
Other objects of the present invention will become apparent upon reading the following specification and referring to the accompanying drawings in which similar characters of reference represent corresponding parts in each of the several views.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of the principal embodiment of the invention showing the cap in one position in solid lines and in a substantially more elevated position by dotted lines.
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary top plan cross-section taken at line 22 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view of the swivel joint connecting the cap to the body of the frame of the device.
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional View of a modification of the invention.
FIG. 5 is a top plan view of FIG. 4.
In the embodiment of FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 the draft regulator and scrubber apparatus indicated generally at A is mounted on the upper portion of a smoke stack B.
Apparatus A comprises a. stack extension 15 and a water tank 16 mounted on the bottom portion of the stack extension to form a conical water tank or bath which completely surrounds the upper extension of the stack.
A cap generally indicated at C is mounted directly over the stack extension. Cap C is supported by a float Zil, floating in Water 25 contained within tank 16, so as to position cap C above the mouth of stack extension 15.
The device operates to widen or restrict the effective opening between the stack and cap C by relatively raising and lowering the cap relative to the mouth of the upper edge of the stack. The raising and lowering of cap C is caused by changing the level of water within tank 16.
Cap C is formed of a top plate 28 and an annular side wall or flange 29 which is attached to the rim of the top plate and depends outwardly therefrom. Float 20 is connected to flange wall 29' by spacer members 31. Spacer members 31 are rigidly attached to the top portion of float 2t? and rigidly iaflixed by nuts 36 to brackets mounted on the inside wall of flange or wall 29.
The float is formed of a hollow annular member which completely circumscribes stack extension 15 of stack B. The inner diameter of the float is sufficiently greater than the outer diameter of stack extension 15 so as to allow completely spaced unimpeded vertical reciprocal movement of the float relative to the stack extension.
Spacer members 31 are adjusted to support cap C so that all portions of the bottom edge 40 of wall 29 is a predetermined small equal distance above the surface 41 of water 25. The spacer members also allow cap C to move upwardly and downwardly proportionately to the height of the water in such a Way that at the low or mimimum water level the bottom of top plate 28 will abut the top edge or rim 45 of stack extension 15 so as to cause a complete fluid seal across the top of the smoke stack. When the water rises to a higher level than the minimum, cap C is arranged to raise proportionately with the raise in the water level so as to increase the spacing between stack rim 45 and the bottom of plate 28.
The upper edge of tank 16 is provided with an annular wall 48 which extends upwardly substantially beyond the maximum upward positioning of cap C. An X- shaped brace member 50 is mounted on the upper edge of wall 48. The brace member comprises two intersecting beams 51 and 52 disposed normal to each other and each attached on the upper edge of wall 48 as at 53. The intersection of beams 51 and 52 is arranged in axial alignment with stack B.
A vertical bearing 55 is mounted at the intersection of the two beams in axial alignment with the stack. Bearing 55 is arranged to carry a shaft 59 for vertical reciprocal movement within bearing 55 on an axis axially aligned with stack B. The bottom end of shaft 59 is connected by a ball-and-socket joint 6% to the top of flat plate 28 so as to allow for angular and pivotal movement of cap C relative to the shaft. An electrically actuated brake mechanism 62 is mounted on shaft 59 above bearing 55 which is solenoid actuated by an electrical circuit (not shown) so as to controllably lock shaft 59 relative to bearing 55.
Water is supplied to tank 16 through a pipe 68 which communicates with an annular pipe 69 attached to the outer wall of the extension 15 immediately under rim 45. Pipe 68 is arranged with a plurality of small apertures through which water is emitted in a fine outward and downward jet spray. Water is withdrawn from tank 16 by a drain line 71 and an overflow line 72. The drain line connects to the bottom portion of tank 16 as at 75 and the overflow line connects to an annular gutter 78 located on wall 48.
The top of the apparatus is covered by a conical cover plate 80 having a restricted aperture 81 which is substantially the same diameter as stack B.
In operation water 25 is supplied to tank 16 so that the water level reaches a predetermined level.
The spacer members 31 are affixed via nuts 36 in order to equalize the spacing between bottom edge 40 of wall 29 of cap C and the surface of the water so that the spacing of the cap above the water is equal throughout the entire diameter of the cap wall.
Ball-tandsocket joint is sufliciently yieldable to allow the cap to freely adjust in parallel or horizontal alignment with the water level in the tank. There is thus exactly even openings between the cap and the water on all sides of the cap.
When smoke is emitted from stack B the smoke is normally arranged to pass from upper extension 15 over top edge 45, thence downwardly toward the water, thence out the opening between bottom edge 4% and the surface of the water and thence upwardly out through the restricted mouth 81 of the top of the apparatus. As the smoke passes the surface of the water hot sparks and heavy matter contact the water wherein much of the solid material is withdrawn from the smoke by the water. The accumulation of debris in the water is withdrawn from tank 16 with the withdrawal of the water through drain pipe 71.
Should it be desired to completely close off the stack, or to create a damper action the amount of water within tank 16 can be reduced sufficiently so that the bottom face of flat plate 28 abuts rim 45 of the stack. This completely closes off the top of the stack. An addition of water will raise the cap sufliciently so as to create an opening between rim 45 and top plate 28 which is directly proportionate to the amount of water added to the tank. It is to be noted that in all cases when the cap is supported by floating floats 20 the spacing between bottom edge 49 of side wall 29 remains in equal spaced relation to the surface of the water.
An inverted conical deflector element 85 is mounted to depend downwardly from the bottom surface of plate 28 and acts as a deflector element to direct smoke outwardly toward the outwardly depending walls 29.
Normally bearing 55 allows the cap to raise and lower with the increase or decrease of water within tank 16. However, it may be desired to raise the cap substantially above the top of the stack and to provide a wider space between bottom edge 40 and water surface 41. To do this water level 41 is raised to its upper limit either at or near gutter 78. Thereafter brake 62 is actuated so as to lock shaft 59 in place. Water level 41 is then lowered to a desired minimum. Brake 62 therein holds the cap in an elevated position above the top of the stack completely indpendent of the action of float 29. To again lower the cap so as to cause the cap to react with the Water level, brake 62 is merely released.
Shaft 59 and bearings 55 function to align the cap in precise coaxial alignment relative to the axis of stack B so that the cap is always aligned properly with rim 45.
Gutter 78 is arranged with a drain slightly below the upper level of rim 45 so as to catch any overflow of water which may result from too much water being sup plied within tank 16 thus preventing any Water from flowing into stack B.
The Wfi'tfif spray from pipe 68 is directed toward the inner face of wall 29 so that the smoke passing from stack l3 must pass through the water spray path through the apparatus.
The spray from pipe 63 effectively scrubs or removes the smoke particles which are capable of absorbing moisture and causes the particles to settle out in water 25. Additional sprays of water may be connected to a pipe on the inner wall 43 so as to cause the entire chamber defined by the top wall 80 and side wall 48 with a mist or fine spray of water. Such a spray has the additional advantage of cleaning the smoke which passes through the apparatus.
A circulating system can be arranged so that the spray from pipe 90 and pipe 68 can continually be added to water 25 while an equal amount of water is withdrawn from drain pipe 71. This may be done by an electrically controlled valve which may be actuated by a float mechanism generally indicated at 90.
In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 there is provided a modification of the invention in which a tank is mounted on a stack extension 101 and in which a cap 105 is mounted above the stack extension on floats 106. The structure of tank 1% and the cap and float mechanism is identical to tank 16 and float mechanism 20 shown in the embodiment of FIG. 1.
The upper level of tank 1% stops at a level substantially coincident the top edge 108 of stack extension 101.
Frame members 109 extend upwardly to a position substantially above the top of cap mechanism 105 to form the support members for cross beam and bearing support members 115 which are identical to beams 51 and 52 shown in the embodiment of FIG. 1.
Support members 115 carry the identical mechanism for supporting and braking the aligning shaft.
In this device it is to be noted that there is no cover extending above the top of tank 1% so that smoke passing from under cap 105 is free to pass directly to atmosphere.
The drain line from tank 100 comprises two pipes 120 and 121 operated by valves 123. The pipes are mounted one above the other with respect to the level of water within the tank. By this means an average water level can be obtained at the height of the top water pipe 120 by using this pipe as an overflow pipe and the obttom pipe 121 can be used for further regulation purposes.
It is to be understood that for purposes of claim terminology the smoke stack extension is considered to be equivalent to the upper portion of the stack itself.
The open type system is installed at the end of the pipe line or duct or chimney on the gas and vapor appliance.
The closed type system can be installed similar to the open type system and it also can be installed at any intermediate point or points of the gas and vapor pipe line or duct. It also may be installed singly or it may be installed in series or in multiples.
This device has an unusual feature which is its ability to re-establish pre'installation conditions within itself. To do so, the bonnet or cap is raised to its highest position and set if so desired. This permits the accomplishment of this feature, for in this bonnet position there is no restriction as to area or velocity and there are no flow interferences.
For gas and vapors heavily laden with suspended particles a filter or filtering material is placed in the tank cylinder or inlet pipe for both systems. For the closed tank system a filter or filtering material may also be placed in the output pipe of the tank atop of the conical portion of the tank.
Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity of understanding, it is understood that certain changes and modifications may be practiced within the spirit of the invention as limited only by the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. In a draft regulator for a vertical smoke stack of the type having a tank forming an annular water bath around the mouth of the stack, a cap mounted over the top of the stack and a float buoyantly supporting said cap on the Water within said tank so that a variation in water level will change the effective spacing between the cap and the stack for egress of gases of combustion the improvement comprising, said cap being formed in a closed deep truncated conical configuration forming a fiat top and an outwardly depending side wall overlying a substantial area of water adjacent the stack, said fioat being a buoyant ring of wider diameter than said stack and mounted around said stack within the water of said tank, spacer members connected to said float and extending upwardly to said cap, holding said cap spaced above the stack with the lower edges of the side wall spaced closely above the Water level within said tank, a support member rigidly mounted on said tank above said cap, a vertical bearing mounted on said support member in axial alignment with said stack, and an inflexible shaft vertically slidably supported by said bearing and connected on its bottom extremity to the top portion of said cap, said bearing supporting said shaft for vertical movement in axial alignment with said stack and being connected to the center of said cap to maintain said cap and float in axial alignment relative to said stack.
2. A draft regulator according to claim 1 and wherein locking means are connected to said bearing means to lock said shaft against movement relative to said bearing means.
3. A draft regulator according to claim 1 and wherein an inverted conical deflection bafile is mounted on the underside of the flat top of said cap with its apex in axial alignment with the center of the stack.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 819,074 Monroe May 1, 1906 881,735 Starrett Mar. 10, 1908 1,171,750 Pool et al. Feb. 15, 1916 2,862,354 Barnhart Dec. 2, 1958
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|DE3703803C2 *||Feb 7, 1987||Oct 24, 1991||Wolfgang 6240 Koenigstein De Mauerhoff||Title not available|
|EP0056794A2 *||Jan 11, 1982||Jul 28, 1982||Merimpex Ag||Apparatus for the recuperation of heat from exhaust gases of a heating installation|
|EP0211240A1 *||Jul 3, 1986||Feb 25, 1987||Wolfgang R. Mauerhoff||Apparatus for washing flue gas|
|U.S. Classification||261/120, 261/126|
|International Classification||F23J11/00, F23L17/02, F23J15/04, B01D47/02|
|Cooperative Classification||F23J15/04, B01D47/02, F23L17/02, F23J11/00|
|European Classification||F23L17/02, F23J11/00, F23J15/04, B01D47/02|