US 3046686 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 31, 1962 3,046,686
A. B. FOGLE WORK OF ART IN THREE DIMENSION AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME Filed Sept. 8, 1959 INVENTOR- /4E/V0D B. Faazs ATTURWEY 3,046,686 WORK OF ART 1N THREE DIMENSIUN AND METHQD F MAKTNG SAME Arnold B. Fogle, Shelbyville, Ind. Filed Sept. 8, 1959, Ser. No. 839,tl48 3 Claims. (Cl. 41-22) This invention relates generally to art Works and more particularly to a method of producing reproductions of flat two-dimensional images in such manner that a third-dimension is created, adding realistic viewing to images such as still life, landscapes, etc.
This application is a continuation-in-part of applicants parent application serial number 574,421, filed March 28, 1956, now abandoned.
In conventional works of art there are only two dimensions present and as a result all of the objects therein have a flat appearance. However, real subjects of art work are actually three-dimensional. Aside from the well-known phenomenon of parallax in landscapes and the like there is also present what is commonly termed atmospheric perspective. I I
The artist attempts to create depth by the use of shadows and addition of haze to the background. However, something is lacking from all conventional Works of art, which negates any realistic appearances of these art works.
With these defects of the prior methods in mind, the main object of this invention is to provide a method for producing a work of art which has an amazing realistic appearance and appears to be three-dimensional.
Another object of this invention is to provide a method of producing art Works which incorporate density of atmosphere thereinto, so that to an observer objects in the background of the image will appear less brilliant in color and slightly hazy and foreground objects will appear sharp and brilliant, as would be the case when a person actually is viewing the subject matter.
Still a further object of this invention is to provide a method of the character described wherein a realistic appearance is added to reproductions by producing depth physically in the picture by the separation of foreground and background objects by the insertion of transparent and/or translucent layers of material.
According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, a translucent layer is superimposed over the image, which is only two-dimensional, and over certain areas thereof overlying portions of the image which are closer to the observer, coloring is added corresponding to the image portions underlying these areas. As this process is repeated, with each step coloring only those portions of the image which are perspectively nearer the observer, at work of art is produced wherein those objects appearing in the foreground, that is, perspectively nearer the observer, appear clearer than the other portions of the image. And as the image is viewed from foreground to background, the objects appearing in these portions of the image become hazier, and are actually physically disposed behind the foreground because of the addition of the translucent layers. Thus, when viewed this work of art appears threedimensional because it is not only drawn with the usual parallax but is also drawn with those objects further in the background appearing hazier than those in the foreground to create atmospheric perspective, and in addition the foreground objects are actually disposed closer to an observer than the background objects so that the Work of art appears in relief, and thus a three-dimensional effect is obtained.
Since the effect obtained by this method of the present invention produces a work of art having new characteristics there is naturally no term available to describe the perspective qualities mentioned above. Therefore, the
3,046,686 Patented July 31, 1962 term perspective of atmosphere is used to describe the above characteristics and will be used in this specification and in the following claims to describe said charac-v teristics. 'Thls term is not to be confused with atmospheric perspective. As the artist well knows this latter term is the use of gradations of tone and color of objects to indicate relative distances, the tone and color'being dependent upon the density of the atmosphere.
7 The new term perspective of atmosphere describes an effect whereby the volume of the atmosphere and the viewing of density in volume and degrees of volume density and color constitutes perspective of the atmosphere, apparent by gradations of its own color according to its viewing distance from the observer and by increase and decrease of density appearing locally.
The novel features that are considered characteristic of the invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The inventionitself, however, both as to its organization and its method of operation, together with additional objects and advantages thereof, will best be understood from the following description of a specific embodiment when read in connection with the accompanying drawings, wherein'like reference characters indicate like parts throughout the several figures and in which:
FIG; 1 illustrates a simple landscape to be referred to as an image, and e FIGS. 2-7 represent the consecutive steps in the method.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, FIG. 1 illustrates a simple landscape including a fence in the foreground, a tree spaced therefrom, a house a little farther back, and a hillside in the distance. This simple landscape will be hereinafter referred to as the image which is the fundamental picture upon which the method is performed.
The atmosphere is designated in the conventional manner of atmospheric perspective in this view of FIG. 1 to indicate distance. That is the subject matter thereof is indicated by gradations of color to represent the effects of atmosphere on the color of objects. The hill is represented as a gray color whereas the house is darker than the hillside. The tree is darker on the foreside and the fence is entirely dark and a path leads back up alongside the tree through the gap in the fence. 7
The next step is to apply a layer over the image, the layer being clear and transparent. This is used in the first step of adding perspective of the atmosphere to the image subject matter. This is done by applying either a separate sheet, or painting or pouring over the image a coating of transparent material 14} which may be an acetate or acrylic resin, or other suitable material, the essential feature being that the material be transparent and durable and will be substantially quick drying.
The image as it appears through this coating 10 has very little change in its affect upon the eye. In going from the step of FIG. 2 to that of FIG. 3, the image generally designated by the numeral 9 and having been covered with the coating or layer 10 has a second coating 11 applied thereto over the transparent coating 10. This second coating 11 is that simulating atmospheric density, such as might be represented by one of the resins having mattfinish or a thin extrusion of resin or material of such nature as to resemble atmosphere and giving the.
The next step, illustrated in FIG. 4, involves the first step toward the development of perspective of atmosphere to the entire image subject matter, i.e, causing the atmosphere to appear less in volume and density over that image subject matter nearer the observer from the background to the foreground. This causes each of the objects and its intricate portions to appear in a volume of atmosphere density, appropriate in density to its position perspectively, and this is done by applying coloring material to the outer surface of layer 11, the tree, the house, the foreground and distant hill and the fence being considered as forward objects. Segments of the foremost lights and shadows of these objects are perspectively abstracted and coincidedly reproduced on layer 11 with coloring material, thereby thinning the viewing of density of the atmosphere over these forward objects and bringing these portions nearer to view and allowing the remainder of the image to be viewed through a more dense atmosphere coloring whereby the viewing of that portion of the subject matter in the background appears in a rearward perspective position. Now it will be understood that the color segments of lights and shades as they were applied to layer 11 will cause the forward objects to appear more nearer in focus than the subject matter left in full density of atmosphere coloring causing greater depth viewing to the subject matter than the thickness of the materials would produce in any other known method.
A fifth step is now taken to give the result as viewed in FIG. 5, where a transparent layer 12 is to be applied over the diffusing layer 11. The image viewed through the transparent layer 12 still has the same appearance as that viewed in FIG. 4. Yet there is an added thickness of transparent material added in FIG. 5.
Continuing with the method, a layer of material of atmospheric density 13, is applied, as illustrated in FIG. 6 causing the over-all viewing of the image subject to revert to a state of viewing of greater atmospheric volume and density and appearing in greater volume and density over the rearward subject matter and in less volume and density over the nearer objects of the image, the nearer objects now being of those having segments of their lights and shades represented on layer 11 as in FIG. 4.
It can now be understood that as FIG. 6 is viewed with layer13 applied over the abstractly reproduced shades of lights and darks now in view on layer '11, that the dense atmosphere quality of this layer 11 has been negated wherever color was applied and this presents the image seen in FIG. 6 of a variation of more or less volume of atmosphere viewing perspectively of the overall viewing of the image, resulting in another step toward establishing perspective of atmosphere to the entire image.
Then the final work is done to establish complete perspective of atmosphere to the entire image as illustrated in FIG. 7, where all objects of the image are to be shown in their proper perspective order within an apparent volume of atmosphere, relative to their original desi nation of the objects by atmospheric perspective. This is done by applying coloring material to layer 13, of segments of the over-all image subject matter and this coloring is applied in such segmented masses as to cause a thin ning down appearance of the density of the atmosphere over the objects nearer the observer, which allows rearward objects to appear in greater atmosphere density. The forward objects thus appear more prominent and the rearward objects in the background appear less in focus and farther in distance, as less of their forward segments are reproduced by color on layer 13.
It is to be noted in following these steps that two steps were required to obtain an incorporate perspective of the atmosphere viewing to the image designated in atmospheric perspective and while this image is a simple landscape requiring but two stages a more complex image may require the steps taken repeatedly, to obtain proper perspective of atmosphere viewing to the image.
As has been indicated above the actual appearance of the picture resulting from the method outlined is quite effective in exhibiting, perspective of atmosphere, a result which cannot be pictured by simple pen and ink sketches without the actual added transparent and atmospheric paint layers over the sheet and over the image as has been described.
In the present method translucent layers are used to provide density to the atmosphere. But adding the translucent layers alone would have the effect of providing the element of atmosphere alone without any perspective being provided.
Merely adding atmosphere to an image does not produce any depth to the image when viewed. Therefore, in order to provide the third-dimension to this image, there must be adjustment of the atmosphere. In order to do this it is necessary to separate the foreground and background throughout the various layers so that there is less density of atmospheric color, i.e. translucent sheets, between an observer and the foreground objects. If a translucent sheet is placed over the image it is noted that the atmosphere is the same throughout, and that it has the same density from foreground to background.
To adjust this atmosphere and provide a third dimension the upper layers are temporarily removed and those objects nearer the viewer are lifted to the first translucent layer by copying colors and/or shades from the image which are nearer the observer than those in the background. With this in mind it is noted that the lifted portions will appear more in the foreground than the other portions in the image. To further this effect another translucent layer is added and to this second translucent layer is added only those portions from the first translucent layer which are near the observer. When viewed this picture appears to have even more depth than when viewed with a single translucent layer. Depending upon the effect desired and the accuracy of the picture needed, a larger number of translucent layers may be provided so as to give more depth and perspective of atmosphere to the work of art.
It is to be understood that in various works of art, some of the layers may have to be omitted completely and additional layers employed in order to obtain the proper perspective of atmosphere and dimensional viewing, but in any event a series of transparent and atmospheric colored layers as described will be employed.
It should be realized that some skill is necessary to produce a work of art which displays three-dimensional characteristics according to the present invention. For one thing, good judgment is needed in determining which objects to place on each layer.
Furthermore, if the layers do not overlap properly, the image will not be clear thus destroying the effect which could otherwise be obtained. Although skill is necessary, any person at all with just a little practice can produce works of art which have amazing three-dimensional qualities.
Although a certain specific embodiment of the invention has been shown and described, it is obvious that many modifications thereof are possible insofar as is necessitated by the prior art and by the spirit of the appended claims.
What is claimed as new is:
1. A method of producing a work of art in the form of an image having a realistic appearance when observed as if being viewed through depths of atmosphere corresponding to the relative distance from an observer to various objects in the image, comprising the steps of applying a complete, two dimensional original image having background and foreground objects to a surface, applying to said original image a plurality of perceptibly translucent coverings in sufficient number and density to produce the effect of varying depths of atmosphere at selected distances from an observer of the image, and applying color tones only to foreground objects of the image perspectively nearer an observer on selected ones of said translucent ceveri-ngs before covering with additional layers of said plurality of coverings to provide a number of translucent coverings above each foreground and background object proportional to the real atmospheric depth of said objects pictured in the original image.
2. A pictorial device in the form of an image having a realistic appearance when observed as if being viewed through depths of atmosphere corresponding to the relative distances from an observer to various objects in the image, comprising a surface to which is applied a complete, two dimensional, original image having background and foreground objects, a plurality of consecutive perceptibly translucent coverings on said surface and original image in sufi'icient number and density to produce the eflect of varying depths of atmosphere at selected distances from an observer of the image, and color tones applied only over and registering with foreground objects of the image perspectively nearer an observer on selected ones of said translucent coverings before covering with References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 18,901 Hawkins Dec. 22, 1857 636,319 Camp Nov. 7, 1899 1,512,010 Runcie Oct. 14, 1924 2,149,779 Kroner Mar. 7, 1939 2,727,327 Colby Dec. 20, 1955 2,880,541 Kahn Apr. 7, 1959