US 3046995 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 1962 I A. c. CHRISTY 3,046,995
IGNITING TIP CIGARETTE Filed May 5, 1960 INVENTOR ATTORNEYS nits rate This invention relates to a smoking product such as a cigarette or cigar having a tip portion comprised of a thin layer of a composition which is readily ignited by frictional contact with a complementary striking surface so that the cigarette or cigar may be readily lighted without the use of matches or any of' the other usual lighting devices. More particularly it relates to the ignitible composition, to the form and manner in which it is applied to the smoking product, to the means for applying'it and finally to the resulting product.
The advantages of providing an ignitible composition as a tip attached to cigarettes have long been recognized and many patents disclose efforts which have been made to insure that a smoker will not be deprived of the pleasure of smoking merely because he has none of the usual means for lighting a cigar or cigarette.
One of the objects of the invention is to provide an easily ignitible composition that will not give off toxic fumes when ignited and that will not deleteriously affect the taste or pleasure derived by the smoker.
Another object of the invention is to provide the aforesaid composition in a form which may be easily applied to the tip portion of the cigar or cigarette and which does not penetrate to any appreciable depth into the already formed smoking product.
Still another object of the invention is to define a method of formulating the igniting composition which will permit local application of same in a relatively simple manner.
These and other objects of the invention will appear in the description which follows taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 shows more or less diagrammatically a cigarette or cigar formed according to the invention;
FIGURE 2 shows schematically an apparatus for producing the cigarette of FIGURE 1; and
FIGURE 3 is a perspective view of a package of cigarettes, with a portion of the top broken away, showing the tips of each of several cigarettes produced according to the invention, and showing one such cigarette having its tip end in striking engagement with a suitable surface on one side of the package.
Referring to the drawing, the numeral designates a cigarette package having a portion of the top broken away to expose several of the cigarettes 12 contained therein. Each of the cigarettes 12 has at its tip end, a thin layer 14 of an igniting composition, the preparation and application of which constitute two of the aspects of this invention. On the exterior of one side of the package 10 there is a scratching surface 16 of a suitable composition adapted to ignite the composition in layer 14, preferably by drawing the tip end of a cigarette 18 withdrawn from the package 10 across the striking surface 16, with which it is maintained in frictional engagement.
The igniting composition of which the thin layer 14 extending across the tip of one end of the cigarette 12. is composed is of the type which upon frictional contact with a phosphorus-containing scratching surface ignites the tobacco filling and the portion of the wrapper adjoining layer 14. One face of the layer 14 abuts the tobacco filling on the tip end of the cigarette 12 and is bound to the portion of the wrapper adjacent such tip end. The other or opposite face of layer 14 is also subassess Patented July 31, 1962 stantially flat. After a portion of the layer 14 has been rubbed against the striking surface 16 to cause ignition, the layer begins to burn without a flame and this burning continues to progress evenly and smoothly until the layer has been completely burned and the tobacco filling adjacent to layer 14 has been ignited. At this point the smoker is ready to smoke the lighted cigarette.
The igniting composition of which layer 14 is composed consists essentially of sodium chlorate which is ignited upon contact with a phosphorus containing scratching surface, precipitated calcium carbonate in an amount sufficient to reduce the rate of burning accompanying such ignition, fluffy tannic acid and gum arabic. In order to obtain the benefits of the invention it is necessary that the specific ingredients hereinafater described are formulated into the desired composition in a specific manner whereby the efiicacy of each is enhanced in the final product. It has been further found that departure from the proportions given by way of example, and the substitution of seemingly equivalent materials in any formulation each produce a substantial loss in the benefits of this invention.
Sodium chlorate has been found to be suitable as the oxidizing agent in this composition. Neither potassium chlorate nor sodium perchlorate should be used in place of the sodium chlorate because they form larger sized crystals when recrystallized from super saturated solutions and as a result, they produce flare-ups when igniting the cigarette. The binder in the formulation is gum arabic which is considered to act as an emulsifier by virtue of its ability to form a colloidal hydrated compound. The flame deterrent substance in the formulation is precipitated calcium carbonate. In addition thereto, the composition contains a small amount of dry, flulfy tannic acid which serves as an antihydrogroscopic agent and which provides ample acidity to the oxidizing agent in the aqueous solution, while later contributing to an even combustion while it decomposes.
A specific example of this igniting composition which has proven satisfactory is as follows:
Prior art compositions resembling that described above are generally formulated by merely mixing the several ingredients and then dipping the cigarette tip into the resulting mixture, but such a procedure is not entirely satisfactory for a number of reasons. First of all the amounts appplied are variable and are of widely varying activity. Furthermore, the method is not suitable to high speed manufacturing methods typical of present day cigarette machinery. Therefore in order to produce reproducible products which have superior ignition characteristics, it has been found necessary to bring the ingredients together in a specific fashion and to apply the resulting composition to the cigarette tip in the definite manner, described below.
One preferred method of formulating the preferred igniting composition is as follows: The eight (8) parts by weight of water is heated to about 200 F. Two parts of gum arabic (C H O is added to the heated water wherein it is dissolved readily. The solution is reheated, if necessary, to maintain it at a temperature slightly below the boiling point. Suflicient sodium chlorate is added to the hot solution to form a supersaturated solution, about eight parts by weight being preferred. It
should be noted that it is essential that a supersaturated solution of the oxidizing agent be formed in the gum arabic-water solution at this point.
In a separate vessel six parts by weight of precipitated calcium carbonate is blended with two parts by weight of emulsified, fiuify tannic acid.
The resulting blend of precipitated calcium carbonate and fluffy tannic acid is then poured slowly into the heated supersaturated chlorate solution, with mixing during the addition and thereafter to insure uniform distribution of the several ingredients. On cooling, the sodium chlorate recrystallizes and is held in crystalloidal suspension in the emulsion which forms and in which the sodium chlorate has been precipitated from its supersaturated solution. This composition is highly viscous at room temperature (20 C.) and is easily applied to the tip end of the cigarette about 0.052 gram of solution to each cigarette having been found most effective.
While I do not wish to be bound by any specific theory it would appear that the very finely divided form in which the chlorate is distributed through the mixture causes it to decompose more readily and to evolve oxygen more freely. This makes the mixture much more sensitive to ignition. The decomposition of the mixture isfurther controlled by the presence of the finely divided (precipitated) calcium carbonate, uniformly distributed throughout the mixture.
After the emulsion is applied to cigarette ends, the resulting products have been tested and have been found to exhibit uniform burning properties.
One suitable apparatus for applying the composition is shown schematically in FIGURE 2. The viscous, pasty emulsion is stored in a suitable tank 100 equipped with a motor driven agitator 102. Tank 100 discharges into a conduit 104 which is traversed by a piston pump 106. Piston pump 106 is driven by a motor drive (not shown) through an adjustable linkage 110 interconnecting the stem 112 of a piston 114 with a drive shaft 116. By adjusting the linkage the pump capacity may be varied. Conduit 104 terminates in a tapered tip portion 108 which also assists in delivering the exact amount desired with each stroke of the piston.
A tipping device 120 consisting of a paddle 122 one end of which is free and which serves as an applicator and the other end of which is operatively connected to means for swinging the applicator end 124 into and out of a position in which it may engage the tip end of a cigarette 12, delivered by a conventional high speed cigarette making machine (not shown). The cigarettes may be filter-tipped or not without affecting the invention.
It will be seen that by periodically refilling tank 100, and by suitably adjusting pump 106, means are available to continuously supply metered amounts of the composition tothe tip end only of cigarettes or cigars.
1. In a process of making smoking product consisting of an elongated, tobacco-filled body portion and a selfigniting tip portion aflixed to one end thereof, the improvement which comprises: formulating a composition suitable for said tip portion by first forming a supersaturated aqueous solution of a sodium chlorate, adding thereto gum arabic in an amount suflicient to emulsify the composition and a mixture consisting of precipitated calcium carbonate in an amount sufiicient to reduce and control burning of the sodium chlorate upon ignition to flameless combustion mixed with fluffy tannic acid in an amount sufficient to acidify the composition to assure ignition of the chlorate; cooling the resultant emulsion to about 20 C. and thereafter applying a metered amount of said emulsion to one end of the body portion of the smoking product.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the product is a cigarette.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the metered amount of emulsion is about 0.052 gram per cigarette.
4. In a process of making a smoking product consisting of an elongated, tobacco-filled body portion and a self-igniting tip portion afiixed to one end thereof, the improvement which comprises: formulating a composition suitable for said tip portion by first forming a supersaturated aqueous solution of a sodium chlorate, adding thereto gum arabic in an amount sufficient to emulsify the composition and a mixture consisting of precipitated calcium carbonate in an amount sufi'icient to reduce and control burning of the sodium chlorate upon ignition to fiameless combustion mixed with fluffy tannic acid in an amount sufficient to acidify the composition to assure ignition of the chlorate; cooling the resultant emulsion to a temperature suflicient to crystallize said sodium chlorate and thereafter applying a metered amount of said emulsion to one end of the body portion of the smoking product.
5. In a process of making a smoking product consisting of an elongated, tobacco-filled body portion and a self-igniting tip portion aflixed to one end thereof, the improvement which comprises: formulating a composition suitable for said tip portion by first forming a supersaturated aqueous solution of a sodium chlorate comprising approximately 8 parts by weight water to 8 parts by weight of sodium chlorate, adding thereto approximately 2 parts by weight gum arabic and a mixture consisting of approximately 6 parts by weight precipitated calcium carbonate mixed with approximately 2 parts by weight fluffy tannic acid; cooling the resultant emulsion to a temperature sufficient to crystallize said sodium chlorate and thereafter applying a metered amount of said emulsion to one end of the body portion of the smoking product.
6. The process of claim 5, wherein the supersaturated solution is cooled to room temperature.
7. A composition consisting by weight of sodium chlorate approximately 8 parts, precipitated calcium carbonate approximately 6 parts, fluffy tannic acid approximately 2 parts, gum arabic approximately 2 parts, and water.
' 8. A composition consisting essentiallyvof a viscous emulsion of water and sodium chlorate, gum arabic in an amount sufiicient to emulsify the composition, precipitated calcium carbonate in an amount suflicient to reduce and control burning of the sodium chlorate upon ignition to flameless combustion, fiuify tannic acid in an amount sufficient to acidify the composition to assure ignition of the chlorate, said sodium chlorate being sus pended uniformly in finely divided crystalline form throughout the emulsion.
9. The composition of claim 8 wherein the sodium chlorate is present as crystalline material separated on cooling a heated supersaturated solution.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 134,713 Turner Ian. 7, 1873 189,182 Broseker Apr. 3, 1877 FOREIGN PATENTS 314,145 Great Britain June 27, 1929 417,539 Great Britain Oct. 8, 1934 226,154 Switzerland July 16, 1943 417,326 Italy Jan. 14, 1947