US 3048899 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 14, 1962 D. E. VINCENT DOUBLE ACTION PIVOTING DOOR Filed Nov. 28, 1960 INVENTOR fwd/ United States Patent Ofiice 3,M8,899 Patented Aug. 14, 1962 3,048,899 DOUBLE ACTEGN PIVOTHNG DOOR Donald E. Vincent, Canadian Research and Development Foundation, 1434 Queen St. W., Toronto, fintario, Canada Filed Nov. 23, 1960, Ser. No. 71,948 2 Qlairns. (Cl. 20-16) This invention relates to improvements in door hinge mechanisms and more particularly to improvements in mechanisms enabling doors to be selectively opened from either side, the side opposite to that being opened automatically providing pivoting means.
It is conventional practise to utilize double swung doors which are hinged on one side only, having the disadvantage that their full usefulness is limited to areas where there is little traffic, their use in high trafiic areas, such as, for instance, restaurants and large busy ofiices calling for detailed study and planning for maximum usefulness. It is well known that in such instances, especially in restaurants and hotels, it is often difficult to open a door due to the fact that crowds sometimes gather at the side of the door containing the handle.
It is an object of this invention to provide a double acting pivoting door, in the following called a door, that may be readily opened from either side or either edge, a positive, pivot-type hinge taking immediate effect at the edge opposite to that which is pulled or pushed.
It is another object of this invention to provide a door that incorporates a safety means whereby the door may be opened from one edge only at any one time, thereby preventing the inadvertent release of the door from its frame.
It is still another object of this invention to provide a door that will have the pivot pins on either edge disengaged at all times, thus preventing inadvertent locking.
It is another object to provide a door that, by utilizing such materials as nylon in the manufacture of its mechanism, will be silent in operation and will not require lubrication.
These and other objects and features of this invention will become apparent when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a plan view of a door embodying this invention, illustrating the layout of the operating mechanism.
FIG. 2 is a fractional, sectional, side elevation of the push-pull handle assembly shown in the neutral position.
FIG. 3 is a fractional, sectional, side elevation of the pushpull handle assembly shown in the position assumed upon the handle being pushed or pulled.
FIG. 4 is a fractional, sectional, side elevation of a hinge mechanism embodied in this invention, in its ex tended, pivoting position.
FIG. 5 is a fractional, sectional side elevation of the hinge mechanism embodied in this invention in the op posite, complementary position to that illustrated in FIG. 4, in which the hinge mechanism is retracted into the door, enabling the door to swing open from that particular edge.
FIG. 6 is a plan view of a hinge-pivot bushing embodied in this invention, illustrating the means by which correct alignment of the door is ensured prior to opening.
Referring to FIG. 1, a door indicated generally by arrow 11, of conventional size and shape, is illustrated as having the front panel removed to reveal the mechanism. A handle 12 is located substantially mid-way in height and adjacent to one vertical side 13 of door 11.. Two diametrically opposite vertical shafts 14 and 15 extend upwardly and downwardly respectively from handle 12. being held vertically slideable bv a plurality of guide blocks 16. A hemispherical notch 17 is formed in the inner face of shaft 14 adjacent the end remote from handle 12, a similar notch 18 is similarly located in shaft 15. Notches 1.7 and 18 rotatably receive two balls 19 and 26 respectively.
A similar arrangement exists at the opposite side 21 to vertical side 13 where a handle 22 is located in horizontal alignment with handle 12 and two vertical shafts 23 and 24 extend upwardly and downwardly respectively, their ends carrying hemispherical notches 25 and 26 respectively, adapted to rotatably engage with two balls 27 and 28 respectively. In this diagram, notches 25 and 26 are shown out of engagement with balls 27 and 28. Guide blocks 29, similar to blocks 16, slideably locate vertical shafts 23 and 24.
An upper, horizontal beam 30, extends substantially the distance between the upper ends of vertical shafts 14 and 23, and is supported horizontally and permitted to move transversely by a plurality of rollers 31, located at the upper and lower edges of beam 36. One end 3 2 of beam 30 is hemispherically notched to permanently retain ball 27, the opposite end 33, being similarly notched to permanently receive ball 19. A quadrantal recess 34 is formed between end 3-2 and the upper edge of beam 30 and a spherical indentation 3-5 is formed in the upper edge of beam 30, immediately adjacent recess 34. Recess 34 and indentation 35 are adapted to selectively receive a spring-loaded pivot assembly indicated by arrow 36. A similar recess 37 and indentation 38 are formed in the upper edge of beam 311 at end 33, adapted to selectively receive a pivot assembly indicated by arrow 39'.
A lower horizontal beam 40, similar in all respects to upper beam 30, is transversely located and slideably retained by a plurality of rollers 41. One end 42, is hemispherically notched to receive ball 28 in permanent, rotatable engagement. The opposite end 43 i similarly adapted to receive ball 20. A quadrantal recess 44 is formed between end 42 and the lower edge of beam and a spherical indentation 45 is formed in the lower edge of beam 4% immediately adjacent to recess 44. Recess 44 and indentation 45 are adapted to selectively receive a spring-loaded pivot assembly indicated by arrow 46. A similar recess 47 and indentation 48 are formed at the opposite end 43 of beam 40 and are adapted to selectively receive a spring-loaded pivot assembly indicated by arrow 49.
Lower vertical shafts 15 and 24 are lightly spring loaded upwardly by two coil springs 50 and 51, respectively, located beneath the lower ends of shafts 15 and 24.
Referring to FIGS. 2 and 3, the operation of handle 12 and its associated vertical shafts 14 and 15, is described, but it is to be understood that the operation of handle 22 and vertical shafts 23 and 24 is identical but of an opposite hand.
In FIG. 2, door 11, as illustrated in FIG. 1, having two sides and 61 in parallel, spaced apart relationship, slideably supports a shaft 62 therethrough. Two disciform push buttons 63 and 64 are axially attached, one at each end, to shaft 62, the distance between the inner faces of push buttons 63 and 64 and their adjacent sides 60 and 61 of door 11 being substantially equal.
Shaft 62 and push buttons 63 and 64 constitute handle 12. The diameter of shaft 62 is reduced at the midway position, forming a V-groove 65.
A hemispherical notch 66 is formed substantially centrally in the lower end of upper vertical shaft 14, to rotatably receive a ball 67. The lower surface of ball 67 rests in the crotch of groove 65. A notch 68 is similarly formed in the upper end of lower vertical shaft 15 and rotatably supports a ball 69. The: upper surface of ball 69 is also in contact with the crotch of groove 65. Shafts 14 and 15 are slideably retained between walls 60 and 61 of door 11.
Referring to FIG. 3, a push button 64 has been pushed towards door 11, causing an axial movement of shaft 62. Balls 67 and 69 have been pushed outwardly by the tapered walls of groove 65, thereby translating horizontal movement of shaft 62 into vertical movement of shafts 14 and 15. Upon release of pressure from push button 64, the weight of horizontal shaft 14 acting downwardly combined with the pressure from spring 58, as illustrated in FIG. 1, acting upwardly on shaft 15, causes pressure on balls 67 and 69 respectively to reverse the action and centralize shaft 62.
Referring to FIGS. 4 and 5, the action of pivot assembly 36 in conjunction with upper vertical shaft 23 and end 32 of upper horizontal beam 38 as illustrated in FIG. 1, is described, but it is to be understood that pivot assemblies 39, 46 and 49 and their associated mechanisms are identical, with the exception of the automatic return devices which are peculiar to the upper pivot assemblies 36 and 39 only.
In FIG. 4, upper vertical shaft 23 is located in its lowest position, the lower end being in an identical position to that illustrated in FIG. 2, the upper end having notch in spaced apart alignment with notched end 32 of beam 30, ball 27 being contained therebetween.
Pivot assembly 36 comprises a cylindrical pin 75, having an upper end 76 and a lower end 77. Two diametrically opposed lugs 78, extend radially outwardly from the upper end 76 of pin 75. Lower end 77 of pin 75 terminates in a substantially rectangular block 79, a shoulder 80 being formed between lower end 77 of pin 75 and the upper surface of block 79.
A spherical recess 81 is formed substantially centrally in the under surface of block 79, to act as an upper retaining seat for a ball 82. Indentation in the upper horizontal beam 30 forms the lower seat for ball 82.
A coil spring 83, located on pin and acting downwardly on shoulder of block 79, ensures that ball 82 is pressurally retained between recess 81 in block 79, and indentation 335 in beam 30.
A guide plate 84, having a hole 85 with two diametrically opposed slots 86 and 87 extending radially therefrom to allow passage of pin 75 and lugs 78 therethrough, is located on the underside of the upper edge of door 11, and acts as the upper limiting stop for spring 83.
Two oppositely located lugs 88 and "89 project downwardly from the perimeter of guide plate 84 and are in close, slideable contact with two opposite faces 90 and 91 respectively of rectangular block 79, thus allowing free vertical movement but preventing free rotation of block 79 and pin 75.
A hole 92, similarly shaped and axially aligned with hole 85 and slots 86 and 87 in guide plate 84,, is formed in the upper edge of door 11, allowing free passage of pin 75 therethrough.
A door lintel 93, in close, parallel, spaced-apart relationship with the upper edge of door 11, is bored vertically to form a hole 94 coaxial with pin 75 of pivot assembly 36. A flanged bushing is a tight fit within hole 94 and is permanently secured to lintel 93 by screws or the like. Bushing 95 is bored centrally to form a hole 96, with two diametrically opposed keyways 97 and 98 extending outwardly therefrom. Hole 94 and keyways 97 and 98 allow upper end 76 and lugs 77 and 78 of pin 75 to pass therethrough in a medium fit.
Upon full engagement of pin 75 in bushing 95 lugs 78 project upwardly beyond keyways 97 and 98 respectively. With reference to FIG. 4 and FIG. 6 the upper surface of bushing 95 comprises two substantially semi circular portions 99 and 1849, their limits being defined by slots 97 and 98. Semi circular portion 99 slopes upwardly from the edges adjacent slots 97 and 98 to a summit 181 located substantially midway between slots 97 and 98, forming two inclined planes 192 and 103. Semi circular portion 100 is substantially the same configuration as semi circular portion 99, having a summit 104 and inclined planes 185 and 106.
Upon full vertical engagement of pin 75 in bushing 95, further rotation of pin 75 in hole 96 of bushing 95 causes lugs 78 to ride up the diametrically opposed incline planes 192 and 186, or 183 and of semi circular portions 99' and 198' respectively, depending on the direction of rotation of pin 75.
It may be seen that door 11 and pin 75, as illustrated in FIG. 4, rotate to the same degree inasmuch as guide plate 84 is integral with door 11 and controls the movement of lugs 88 and 89 which in turn control the rotation of pin 75 through sides 98 and 91 of blocks 79. Rotation of door 11 therefore, causes pin 75 to rotate and, depending upon the direction of rotation, lugs 78 move upwards on, for instance inclined planes 182 and 106.
This action causes pin 75 and block 79 to move upwardly, com ressing spring 83, until, at a substantially 90 opening of door 11, lugs 78 of pin 75 are at the summits 101 and 18d of bushing 95, and spring 83 is full compressed. Upon door 11 being released, spring 83 exerts a pressure on shoulder 89 of block 79, causing pin 75 to move downwardly. Lugs 78 acting on inclined planes 182 and 186 impart a rotary movement to pin 75 which, through block 79 and lugs 88 and 89 of guide plate 84, is transmitted to door 11, causing door 11 to return to its fully closed position.
An alternative method is to utilize the weight of door 11 to effect its return action, in which case the gap between the upper edge of door 11 and the lower edge of lintel 93 is increased to a distance corresponding to the height of summits 191 and 184 above the upper ends of keyways 97 and 98 in bushing 95. The initial movement of door 11 causes spring 83 to become coilbound, further movement transfers the weight of door 11 through guide plate 84, spring 83 and shoulder 80 of block 79 to pin 75, and ultimately to lugs 78 on inclined planes, say, 182 and 186. The movement of lugs 78 up incline planes 182 and 186 therefore results in door 11 being lifted vertically while being moved arcuately.
Upon being released, the weight of door 11 on lugs 78 causes them to move downwardly, and, under the influence of inclined planes 182 and 186, also to turn, causing door 11 to return to its closed position as previously described.
Referring to FIG. 5, the releasing action of pivot assembly 36 is shown. Upon the side of door 11 to which pivot assembly 36 is fitted being selected to open, vertical shaft 23 is moved vertically upwardly by the action of handle 22 in a similar action to that illustrated in FIG. 3. Notch 25 in the upper end of shaft 23 is forced out of engagement with bore 27, which then rides on the inner edge of shaft 23.
Shaft 23 is maintained vertically undeflected by guide blocks 29 as shown in FIG. 1, and the movement of ball 27 out of notch 25 is transmitted through notched end 32 to horizontal beam 38, causing beam 30 to move transversely across door 11 towards oppositely located vertical shaft 14, as shown in FIG. 1.
Movement of beam 39 causes indentation 35 to move from under ball 82 of pivot assembly 36, and the larger recess 34 becomes vertically aligned with ball 82. Spring 83 acting on shoulder 89 of block 79 causes ball 82 to move downwardly into recess 34 and, simultaneously, pin 75 to move downwardly, its upper end 76 and lugs 78 slideably passing through hole 96 and keyways 97 and 98 respectively of bushing 95, thence through hole 92 in the upper edge of door 11 to pass into hole 85 and slots 86 and 87 respectively in guide plate 84. In this position upper end 76 of pin 75 is flush with, or slightly below, the upper edge of door 11.
Simultaneously, oppositely located pivot assembly 39 as illustrated in FIG. 1, has been forced to assume the position as illustrated in FIG. 4, to become the hinge portion for bore 11.
It may be noted that, as previously stated, lower pivot assemblies 46 and 49 are not fitted with the automatic return device, which, in the case of pivot assembly 36 as illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 5, comprises lugs 78 of pin 75, and inclined planes IlllZ and 163 of semi circular portion 99, and incline planes 1G5 and 1% of semi circular portion 1% of bushing $5.
Referring to FIGS. 4- and 5 a leaf spring 137 having one end 138 secured to door it and the opposite end 139 freely engaged with the bottom edge of horizontal beam Ell, is located adjacent to the bottom edge of beam 39.
A recess, illt is formed in the underside of beam 33, adapted to pressurally receive end of spring upon beam 3d being moved away from vertical shaft 23.
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 5, upon door 11 being opened, and pressure released from handle 22, vertical shaft 23 reverts to its lowest position, beam 3% is remote from shaft 23 and there is a large clearance between ball 27 and notch 25. Inadvertent operation of handle 12, which might cause beam 3% to move transversely and force pivot assembly 36 to protrude from door 11, is prevented by the engagement of spring lid? in recess lid, which, in combination with the spring loaded action of ball 22 in recess 34 loads beam 39 in a direction away from vertical shaft 23.
It may also be seen that the indexing movement of horizontal beams 39 and 4d, as illustrated in FIG. 1, is positive, the interchange between operating pair of pivot assemblies 36/46 and 39/49 being a spring-loaded, snap action, thereby ensuring that at all times, one pair of pivot assemblies are extended and the opposite pair housed within door 11.
It should also be noted that the designs of the upper pivot assemblies 36 and 39 precludes the possibility of the operating pivots becoming inadvertently housed, by operations of handle 12 or 22, upon door if being held ajar. As illustrated in FIG. 4, pin 75 is retained within bushing 95 through lugs '7 5, and is only able to withdraw from bushing 95 upon lugs '78 becoming aligned with keyways 9'7 and 98, and, as previously explained, this is possible only with door 11 in its fully closed position.
The general design of the individual parts of this invention as explained above may be varied according to requirements in regards to manufacture and production thereby, while still remaining within the spirit and principle of this invention, without prejudicing the novelty thereof.
The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are as follows:
1. A double action pivoting door comprising a door member having contained therein two handle assemblies each comprising a cylindrical connecting member, said connecting member having located at the extreme ends thereof two handle members, said connecting members having at substantially the midpoints thereof a V-shaped groove formed circumferentially, two upper vertical mem bers one left and one right, two lower vertical members one left and one right, said upper vertical members having located in the lower ends thereof hemispherical indentations, said lower vertical members having located in the upper ends thereof hemispherical indentations, four spherical balls partially located within said indentations, said spherical balls also partially locatable within said circumferential V-shaped grooves, said upper vertical members having located in one side substantially toward the upper ends thereof indented portions and raised portions, spherical balls alternatively locatable on said raised portions, or on said indented portions of said upper vertical members, an upper transverse member located between said upper vertical members and adapted to slide horizontally within suitable guides, said upper transverse member being provided at each end with a hemispherical indentation for retaining said spherical ball, said transverse member having located on the upper edge substantially towards the ends thereof a raised portion and an indented portion, two hinge pins located substantially above said upper vertical members and movable vertically within guide means, said hinge pins having located at the lower ends thereof a hemispherical indentation, spherical balls located within said spherical indentations on the bottom of said hinge pins, said spherical balls also being alternatively loctatable on said raised portions and Within said indented portions located at said ends of said upper transverse member, said lower vertical members having located on one side substantially toward the lower ends thereof a raised portion and an indented portion, a spherical ball alternatively locatable on said raised portion and within said indented portion, a lower transverse member located substantially between said lower vertical members and having guide means to allow horizontal movement, said lower transverse member having located at the ends adjacent to said lower vertical members a hemispherical indentation, spherical balls located within said indentation in the ends of said lower horizontal member, said spherical ball being alternatively loctatable within said indentations and on said raised portions of said lower vertical members, said horizontal member having located at the ends on the lower surface thereof a raised portion and an indented'portion, two lower hinge pins located substantially below said lower vertical members and movable vertically by guide means, said hinge pins having located at the upper ends thereof a hemispherical indentation, spherical balls located within said hemispherical indentations in said lower hinge pins, said spherical balls also being alternatively locatable within said indented portion and said raised portion or" said lower transverse member, and spring means adapted to support vertically said lower vertical members.
2. A double hung door as claimed in claim 1 wherein said upper transverse bar and said lower transverse bar are adapted to be held in one or two respective positions by spring means.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,550,205 Cemazar Aug. 10, 1925