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Publication numberUS3049965 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 21, 1962
Filing dateJan 8, 1959
Priority dateJan 8, 1959
Publication numberUS 3049965 A, US 3049965A, US-A-3049965, US3049965 A, US3049965A
InventorsGunst Dennis
Original AssigneeInstant Synchronization Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of modifying a recorded sound track and apparatus for producing a modified sound track
US 3049965 A
Abstract  available in
Images(7)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 21, 1962 D. GUNST 3,049,965

METHOD OF MODIFYING A RECORDED SOUND TRACK AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING A MODIFIED SOUND TRACK 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 8, 1959 ORIGINAL SOUND ON FILM E SYNC MEANS 7 I7 f v SOUND K. PLAYBACK READER AMPLIFIER 22 9 LABORATORY o O R d TAPE fi MARKER PUNCH I I6 MARKER PICKUP i FAsT BRAKE a SOUND OPER'D RECORD FORWARD '2 DRIvE DRIVE CONTROL T DEvIcE AMPLIFIER DRIVE 5 I j I L8 I 24 5 23 20 I v t FIG. I

I8 @DDDIJDDUDUDUDIJIJEIUIJU ORIGINAL SOUND ON FILM [I n I: II II III III. [I III: II [I II [I I] II [I III v I 5 4 I OPTICAL TO MAGNETIC I TRANSDUCER SYNC I I I I I I I LABORATORY TAPE INVENTOR. FIG 2 DENNIS GUNST ATTORNEYS Aug. 21, 1962 Filed Jan. 8, 1959 GUNST ARATUS '7 Sheets-Sheet 2 SOUND /7 READER GUIDE TRACK 4 4 [I U D D U [I U U E CI [1 LABORATORY TAPE FIG. 3

FIG. 5

FIG 4 l7 AMPL 22 322 H LABORpAgORY PLAYBACK HEAD O sums TRACK I 3 ERASE L 9 HEAD 0 g RECORD 0 I K I: u n D I: I: A u I: E El D D n u I:

I k I gg 24 I L CBRAKE @8 Q FAST FWD RECORD K YS l6 SLIP DRIVE AM I I P. B. .L I 20 I R B SOUND OPER'D RELAY R R RH l9 I I I8 'Q IN V EN TOR.

DENNIS GUNST ATTORNEYS Aug. 21, 1962 GUNST 3,049,965

METHOD OF MODIFYING A RECORDED SOUND TRACK AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING A MODIFIED SOUND TRACK Filed Jan. 8, 1959 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 NEW SOUND ON FILM hi-51.1 3:- 3I",-';'- 1;: v @nnunnnnununununnn I 26 27 I MAGNETIC I To OPTICAL TRANSDUCER DRIVE 3 I I LABORATORY I TAPE unuuuuunnnnufluu sourw OPERD AMPL RELAY I7 AMPL RECORD TRACK CONTROL TRACK GUIDE TRACK FOLLOWER GROOVE INVENTOR. 7 DENNIS GUNST BY Haw ATTORNEYS Aug. 21, 1962 Filed Jan. 8, 1959 GUNST 3,049,965

D. METHOD OF MODIFYING A RECORDED SOUND TRACK AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING A MODIFIED SOUND TRACK 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 AMPL 36 AM PL L I I9 SPINDLE TURNTABLE SOUND READER INVENTOR.

DENNIS GUNST WWW ATTORNEYS Aug. 21, 1962 D. GUNST 3,049,965 METHOD OF MODIFYING A RECORDED SOUND TRACK AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING A MODIFIED SOUND TRACK Filed Jan. 8, 1959 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 AMPL /|7 ERASE /22 osc.

GlzllDE TRACK ERASE HEAD\ I 1 2 RECORD TRACK RECORD HEAD 1 BRAKE RECORD AMPL FWD l su 8 DRIVE I I I I I I I I I A I-V I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I I l I 75 DIJ D EIUEIDUDCIDU/;,UDDUUEIUBUEDUUEIDDUUEIUUIJEIUEI U In I I V O O H 52 l 1 I I I [ID EIEI 'DEI DUEIUUEI DEIHUIEIIJIJEIUUDUEIDUDEIUDID souu o RR' RH OPERD RELAY INVENTOR.

DENNIS GUNST BY HM ATTQBNEYS Aug. 21, 1962 D. GUNST 3,049,965

METHOD OF MODIFYING A RECORDED SOUND TRACK AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING A MODIFIED SOUND TRACK Filed Jan. 8, 1959 '7 Sheets-Sheet 6 I A V A V A I I o 0 7 A- ORIGINAL GUIDE TRACK (SAME AS FINAL) MARKER V AV W A I o o O I 8- WITH SPACES REMOVED I VA V A I A I I o O O I 0- WITH EQUAL SPACING I VA V A V M I I o O O A D WITH CONTINUOUSLY MOVING TRACK FIG. I?)

9 3 eo o e{ ow I V A E v /A A V A I ss a &

65 I /68 \C) I|||S} EL Q. AM

67 I K 70 T K A 3 o o H/ O L I V A I I I3 63 INVENTOR. FIG. I4 DENNIS GUNST ATTORNEYS V Aug. 21', 1962 D. GUNST 3,049,965

METHOD OF MODIFYING A RECORDED SOUND TRACK AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING A MODIFIED SOUND TRACK Filed Jan. 8, 1959 '7 Sheets-Sheet '7 i 92 W V A V A l 0 O x O S A- TRACK mm c I 97 I00 94 96 1' i FIG. l5 H 5} i l TRACK U 99 99 AMPL FIG. I6

SOUND OPER'D 2 i 2 RELAY TSRAKE CONTROL INVENTOR.

DENNIS GUNST ATTORNEYS United States Patent M 3,049,965 METHOD OF MODIFYING A RECORDED SDUND TRACK AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING A MODIFIED SOUND TRACK Dennis Gunst, New York, N.Y., assignor to Instant Synchromzation Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Filed Jan. 8, 1959, Ser. No. 785,625 15 Claims. (Cl. 8816.2)

The present invention relates to a method of producing a modified or revised sound track from a sound track on film, tape, a disc or any other carrier suitable for the purpose, and to apparatus for carrying out the method of the invention and associated operations.

One of the most advantageous fields of application of the invention is concerned with the re-recording of an original sound track such as a sound track recorded under field conditions in the form of a cleaned-up or otherwise modified track. The need for modifying the original sound track is well understood. There may be intermixed various extraneous sounds, such as the noise of an airplane in the sound track for a period motion picture film, passages of the Voices may be unsatisfactory, scenes may be repetitive, etc., and it is also often desirable to add special sound effects to the originally recorded sound. The invention is also useful for substituting selected sequences in the original sound track, or recording the new track in a different language but with substantially the same timing.

Various methods of, and apparatus for, re-recording the original or field sound track are known. However, all the methods and apparatus as heretofore known make great demands on the artists and if the track is to be used in a motion picture film, there is often a noticeable lack of synchronization between the sound when reproduced from the re-recorded track and the lip movements of the artists, or other sound producing action shown on the picture frames of the film.

The methods and apparatus as heretofore known basically involve the transfer of the sound recorded on the original track to a guide track on which certain guide points are marked. The artist then repeats his own words as 'best he can or substitutes words and these repeats or substitutions are recorded on a new sound track which may finally be re-transferred in lieu of the original sound track and constitutes the final or finished sound track. As is evident, it is virtually impossible to repeat a spoken passage longer than a few words with the same timing and spacing of the words so that a certain lag or advance between the sound on the two tracks is bound to occur and any such errors in timing tend to become aggravated by being cumulative.

One of the objects of the present invention is to provide a novel and improved method of modifying a sound track of the general kind above referred to, which method resides basically in breaking up continuous and lengthy passages in phrases of any desired short length which can be repeated :by the artist as often as necessary to attain the desired degree of perfection. As is evident, the accurate repetition of a short phrase is much easier and less tiresome than that of a lengthy phrase. Similarly, a substituted short phrase can be conveniently fitted in the time interval used for the original phrase. Furthermore, any errors in timing are not cumulative since the next phrase is always started at the correct mo ment relative to the guide track and hence the original track.

Another object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved method of re-recording the original track which permits a continuous re-checking by the artist himself of the repeated or substituted phrases against the original phrases while the artist is uttering a phrase to 3,049,965 Patented Aug. 21, 1962 be re-recorded. Such continuous re-checking is made possible by reproducing the sound recording on the guide track in ear phones worn by the artist or by means of a loud speaker during the recording of the new track.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved method of producing a modified sound track from the original track on a motion picture sound film by successively projecting preselected sequences on the film and simultaneously recording on a new track sound corresponding to the pictorial representation when and while the sequences are projected.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved method of re-recording the original track which comprises repeating the sound to be re-recorded in the form of short passages or phrases and which places the actual beginning of the repetition of each successive phrase under the control of the artist in a very convenient and if desired automatically operating manner.

A further object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved method of re-recording the original track which permits the artist to return at any time and as far as he desires in his new recordings and to repeat the same if not fully satisfied, or to advance rapidly over parts of the original track.

A still further object of the invention is to provide a novel and improved apparatus for carrying out the above indicated steps of the method according to the invention and other operations preparatory thereto and assoc1ated therewith.

While reference has been genrally made to the recording of words, obviously, other sounds can be re-recorded in a similar manner and the term artist as herein used is only intended to designate the person or instrumentality reproducing or substituting the originally recorded sound.

Other and further objects, features and advantages of the invention will be pointed out hereinafter and set forth in the appended claims forming part of the application.

In the accompanying drawings, several preferred embodiments of the invention are shown by way of illustration and not by way of limitation.

In the drawings:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing the steps involved in the inventive method of re-recording a sound track for purposes of modifying the same, and the preparatory steps associated therewith.

FIG. 2 shows diagrammatically the step of conventing an optical sound track into a magnetic sound track by means of a transducer.

FIG. 3 shows diagrammatically the step of locatmg the beginning of each phrase or passage to be lIldlVldllally repeated and marking the beginning of such passage or phrase on a guide track.

FIG. 4 is a section taken on line 4-4 of FIG. 3 and shows schematically a suitable marking means.

FIG. 5 shows partly in detail and partly diagrammatically the components employed in the re-recordmg operation proper and indicated in FIG. 1 1n block for-m.

FIG. 6 shows a reversal of the arrangement of FIG. 2 in that the magnetic sound track re-recorded on the guide track is transferred to the new and final sound track and converted during such transfer from a magnet1c track to an optical track by means of a transducer.

FIG. 7 shows diagrammatically an arrangement in which the original sound track is recorded on a disc and is re-recorded on a disc, the starting of the recording of each successive sequence being automatically controlled.

FIG. 8 is a fragmentary view of a modification of the arrangement of FIG. 7 in that the starting of each recording of a sequence is manually controlled.

epsaees FIG. 9 is a diagrammatic view of means for marking the beginning of each sequence to be recorded.

FIG. is a section taken on lines 10-10 of FIG. 9 and showing the marking means in a more complete form and on an enlarged scale.

FIG. 11 is an optical system of monitoring the synchronization of sound with the action of the film by observation of pictures rather than by sound.

FIG. 12 is a system for producing the modified new track by selectively monitoring either the original sound track or the pictorial presentation associated with the original track or both, the sound track and the pictorial presentation.

FIG. 13 shows several patterns of grouping of the sequences to be recorded on the guide track or another intermediate track.

FIG. 14 is an arrangement for transferring sequences recorded in certain of the patterns shown in FIG. 13 from one sound track to another in a selected spatial relationship to each other.

FIG. shows diagrammatically a modified arrangement for transferring from one sound track to another in a selected spatial relationship to each other, certain other patterns shown in FIG. 13, and

FIG. 16 is a circuit diagram for automatically controlling the stopping of the guide track at the beginning of a sequence.

Referring first to FIGS. 1 through 6 in detail, the block diagram of FIG. 1 indicates a film 1 moving from a supply reel to a take-up reel, and bearing the original sound track recorded under field conditions and to be modified. The modified sound track may be re-recorded on a film 2. Basically, both the original sound track and the modified sound track may be recorded in any suitable form. For the purpose of this description, it is assumed that the original sound track is recorded as an optical track, and that the modified track is to be rerecorded as an optical track also.

To effect the modification of the original sound track in accordance with the method and by means of the apparatus according to the invention, the original sound track is first transferred to an intermediate carrier designated as laboratory tape 3 by any means known and suitable for the purpose. The transfer from film 1 to the laboratory tape is synchronized by a block 4 labelled synchronizing means. These synchronizing means and the synchronizing means hereinafter referred to may be any one of several kinds known and suitable for the purpose. They may be mechanical coupling means such as sprockets or they may be electric means such as follow-up systems or selsyn systems. The sound track on the laboratory tape is hereinafter referred to as the guide track. It may be an optical track, but a magnetic sound track is shown by way of example. The transfer of the track from film 1 to the guide track on the laboratory tape and the conversion thereof into a magnetic sound track is effected in a well understood manner by a transducer 5. The guide track is designated in FIG. 2 by numeral 6.

As previously explained, the method of the invention involves the selection of short sequences such as sentences, or parts thereof to be individually repeated by the artist for re-recording on the guide track. Accordingly the first preparatory step for carrying out the method of the invention is the marking of the beginning of each sequence to be individually repeated. To this end, the operator plays back the recording on the guide track by any suitable means indicated by a block 7 and labelled sound reader. For the purpose of the playback, the laboratory tape is driven by a forward drive 8. The

forward drive is preferably of the kind which permits.

stoppage of the laboratory tape for a purpose which will be more fully explained hereinafter, without arresting the forward drive proper. Slip clutch drives are suitable for the purpose.

Whenever the person listening to the sound reader reaches the beginning of a sequence such as a sentence which he selects to be individually repeated, he produces a marking on the laboratory tape. These markings may be of any of the different kinds known for identifying selected points on a sound track, that is, the markings may be of the kind producing magnetic or pulse signals by coaction with appropriate instrumentalities, or they may be purely physical markings such as notches or holes. For sake of simplicity of illustration holes 9 are shown. Such holes may be produced by means of the simple punch shown in FIG. 4. According to this figure the laboratory tape 3 passes between two guide plates 10 and 11. A spring actuated punch 12 extends through aligned centric bores through these guide plates. As is apparent, a manual depression of the punch will produce the desired hole in the tape. Obviously FIG. 4 illustrates the punch in a schematic form only and many different and more refined designs of a punch may be utilized.

When the laboratory tape which moves in a direction indicated by the arrow reaches a position in which a hole 9 associated with the guide track as previously described reaches a station 13 labelled marker pickup, the laboratory tape is stopped. This is shown by way of example as being effected by two contact fingers 14, one on each side of the laboratory tape. The two fingers are normally separated by the laboratory tape, but can engage each other through the holes 9. The tape is shown in the position in which the two fingers are engaged through a hole. Activation of the marker pickup energizes a brake and drive control 15 in a manner more fully explained hereinafter. As a result, a brake 16 is applied to the laboratory tape to stop the same. Stoppage of the laboratory tape signifies the beginning of a selected sequence to be repeated.

A playback amplifier 17 of conventional design is correlated, for instance by transverse alignment, with the point at which the laboratory tape is stopped by the arrival of any one of the holes 9. The playback amplifier is shown as being connected to earphones 18 to be worn by the artist. While earphones are generally found to be most convenient, as they facilitate concentration of the artist, other audible reproduction may also be employed such as a low volume loud speaker.

The installation further comprises a microphone 19 by means of which sound may be recorded through a record amplifier 20 on a record track 21 which is the modified track. This track may be on the laboratory tape or on a separate tape and may be referred to as record track.

The installation is also shown as comprising an erase means 22. The recording head of amplifier 20 and the erase head of the erase means 22 are disposed substantially opposite to each other.

The installation of FIG. 1 also comprises a sound operated device 23 and a block 24 labelled as fast drive. This drive may either be a fast forward drive or a fast reverse drive as will be more fully explained hereinafter. The sound operated device may be of any of the many 0 designs known for the purpose, such as a suitable relay.

It is shown as being connected to the microphone 19 so that it is activated by sound applied to the microphone and it operates upon the brake and drive control 15 which in turn controls as already mentioned brake 16 and fast drive 24. The sound operated relay which initiates automatically the activation of the brake and drive control 15 in response to sound applied to the microphone may be replaced by a manually operated device such as a push button switch.

The installation as hereinbefore described, operates as follows:

Let it be assumed that the guide track has been marked as previously described and that the laboratory tape and with it the guide track are stopped by the engagement of fingers 14 through the respective hole in registry therewith. Let it further be assumed that the artist has applied the earphones to his ears and is ready to speak or sing into the microphone 19. As soon as the artist utters the first sound, the relay 23 is activated and effects release of brake 16. As a result, the guide track resumes its forward movement and the artist begins or rather continues the repetition or modification of the sequences, the beginning of which is signified by the location of the hole at which the guide track was stopped. While thus repeating the sequence in question or its substitution, he hears simultaneously through the earphones the sequence as originally recorded on film 1 and re-recorded on the guide track. This permits the artist a very close imitation of the timing and of the spacing of words and syllables in the original recording.

When the sequence comes to an end and the beginning of a new sequence is reached, the guide track is again stopped as previously described, and the same cycle begins again. As is apparent, any small error which may have occurred in the timing of the re-recorded sequence or substitution thereof cannot become cumulative as the new sequence must begin at the exact moment demanded by the beginning of the sequence on the original sound track.

The record track 21 thus step by step produced on the laboratory tape or a separate tape may then be transferred to the final track on film 2. This film is driven in synchronization with the laboratory tape by synchronizing means 25 of suitable design. As is shown in FIG. 6 the magnetic sound track 21 on the laboratory tape may be converted into an optical track 26 on film 2 by means of a transducer 27.

In the event that the artist wants to check the rerecording of one or several sequences, he operates the fast drive 24assuming that the same is arranged as a fast reverse drive-which rapidly returns the laboratory tape to the desired position. He can then erase the sequence in question by activating erase means 22 if he is not satisfied with the quality of the re-recorded sequences.

Turning now to FIG. 5, this figure shows more in detail some of the components, the functions of which have been previously described in general terms, and more particularly the components of a fast reverse drive. In the figure designates P.B.Reverse push button R-Reverse solenoid B-Brake solenoid i RH-Reverse hold relay RR--Reverse release relay.

In the position of the sound track as shown, fingers 14 are in engagement through respective marker hole 9 and the sound operated relay 23 is de-energized thereby closing its contacts. As a result brake solenoid B and the reverse release relay RR are energized so that the brake 16 is applied and the fast reverse drive is inactive. If the artist now wants to return to the next preceding marker hole of his choice, he depresses push button PB. The push button is preferably of the snap action spring return type to prevent the forward slip drive 8 moving the tape after the brake is released and before the reverse drive can become engaged. Depression of the push button breaks the energizing circuits of the brake solenoid B and the reverse release relay RR. Consequently, the brake is released and relay RR closes its contacts. The engagement of the push button with its lower pair of contacts closes energizing circuits for reverse solenoid R and reverse hold relay RH. Relay RH closes a holding circuit for itself and solenoid R so that the push button PB need to be depressed only momentarily. When the guide track has been returned to the next preceding marker hole in relation to contact fingers 14, these fingers which were separated during the reverse movement of the guide track thus interrupting the circuit of brake solenoid B become engaged again. The brake solenoid B and the reverse release relay R are again energized and reverse solenoid R and reverse hold relay RH will be tie-energized, that is, all the components occupy the positions in which they are shown except that the guide track has been moved one hole back.

If the artist should desire to return across several preceding markings, he merely has to keep the push button PB depressed until the desired hole is reached, or more specifically, until the tape has passed over the hole next ahead of the selected hole as seen in the direction of the reverse movement.

As is evident, the control circuit system described in FIG. 5 as fast reverse drive control can also be used as fast forward drive control. The only required change is a reversal of the rotational direction of the roller of drive 24 which can be readily accomplished by providing a reversal gear train of conventional design. Fingers 14 and holes 9 may be utilized, but special fingers and holes may also be provided. The fast forward drive may be used to skip unwanted portions of the original recording, or shorten time intervals between recorded sequences.

In the previously described exemplifications of the invention, the guide track has been shown to be in the form of a continuous straight line on tape or film. FIG. 7 illustrates that the invention can be applied equally well to a sound track recorded on a revolving disc. FIG. 7 shows a disc 30 which is driven from a motor 31 through a slip clutch 3-2. There is indicated on the disc a follower groove which serves to guide the pickup arm 33 radially inwardly. The guide track corresponds to guide track 6 previously described, and the record track to track 21 which has also been previously described. The control track corresponds in function to the marker holes 9, that is, the control track includes signals which correspond in location .to the beginning of each sequence on the guide track selected for individual re-recording. The markings in the control track may be variations in the groove of the track, or they may he means producing magnetic signals or pulse signals such as small pieces of metal. The stopping of the disc when one of the markings in the control track is reached and the automatic restarting of the disc are in principle the same as previously described. The signal markings in the control track are monitored by a thyratron tube 34, the control track being probed by a probe connected through an amplifier 35 to the grid of the thyratron. The thyratron tube itself is connected in the energizing circuit of brake solenoid B. This energizing circuit further includes a control relay CR, the circuit of which is controlled by the sound operated device 23.

The general operation of the installation according to FIG. 7 is evident as far as the function of the artist is concerned. The positions of the components in FIG. 7 are shown in analogy with the corresponding components in the previous figures, that is, it is assumed that a signal marker coacts with the probe for the control track. In that event the bias of the grid of the tube becomes such that the tube is fired thereby closing the energizing circuit for the brake solenoid B so that the brake is applied. It now the artist utters the first sound, the sound operated relay 23 is activated and closes an energizing circuit for relay CR. Consequently the brake is released and cannot be reset until a new signal marker on the control track reaches the probe for this track.

FIG. 8 shows a simplified arrangement in which the automatic restarting of the disc when the artist utters the first sound by the action of the sound operated relay 23, is replaced by a manual operation by means of a push button 36. As is evident closing of this push button energizes control relay CR.

FIGS. 9 and 10 illustrate a simple and convenient arrangement for applying the required markers to the control track. A slide 40 is mounted radially slidable on two rails 41 and 42 which are on one hand suitably fixed to a support 43 and on the other hand rotatably seated on a spindle 44 for the turntable supporting disc 30. Slide 40 is guided by the follower track, and it is assumed that the guide track has been recorded on the disc. It is further assumed that a track in the form of a groove has been provided. The operator listens to the sound track and depresses punch 45 whenever he reaches the beginning of a selected sequence. As is evident, the punch of FIG. 10 corresponds to the punch shown in FIG. 4. After completion of the marking of the track groove, the marking assembly is removed and replaced by the pickup arm 33 of FIG. 7. The track groove becomes thus a control track. To achieve a sufficiently accurate location of the markings, the disc may be revolved at a low rate of speed, or it may be slightly juggled back and forth until the required location of a marking is found.

In the previous exemplifications of the invention, the markings associated with the guide track have been located by monitoring a playback from the guide track. However, it is also possible to locate the beginning of sequences to be re-recorded by observing a picture reproduction from the film with which the original sound track to be edited is associated. FIG. 11 shows an optical system suitable for the purpose. The marking means and the guide track itself are not shown. They should be visualized as being similar to those previously described. According to the figure, the film having thereon the original sound track is driven by a sprocket which is drivingly coupled through an intermediate sprocket to a rotary obturator 52 such as an octagonal prism. By providing a source of light 53 and suitable lenses 54 and 55 standing images are projected upon a screen 56. By observing these images, the operator can conveniently mark the guide track at the appropriate points. The arrangement according to FIG. 11 is particularly suitable when it is not merely intended to re-record a modified or otherwise improved version of the original sound track, but to add for instance sound effects to the sound track. Such sound effects can best be located by listening not only to the original sound, but also by observing the action of the film. For instance, it may be desirable to add the sound of gun shots which are shown on the film but not recorded as sound on the original track.

The optical system just described in connection with the marking of the guide track may also be used in substitution of or in addition to the playback-amplifier system of FIG. 1, that is, the artist, instead of being guided by the reproduction of the recorded sound will be guided by the visual observation of the film, or by both sound and visual observation.

FIG. 12 shows an arrangement for producing a modified or clean sound track by either sound monitoring the original sound track or an intermediate sound track which may or may not be modified, or visually monitoring the pictorial representation associated with the original sound track, or by using both sound and visual monitoring. Visual monitoring according to the invention employs the same principle as sound monitoring in that the artist while producing the new sound track, sequence by sequence, observes the corresponding picture sequence on the film so that he is guided by such observation in his reproduction or modification of the original sound track.

The arrangement of FIG. 12 is in effect a combination of the arrangements shown in FIGS. 5 and 11 and described in connection therewith. Accordingly, the same reference characters are used to designate corresponding components.

The upper part of FiG. 12 duplicates the drive control system of FIG. 5. The drive itself may again be visualized as being either a fast reverse drive or a fast forward drive. The lower part of FIG. 12 shows a sec tion of a motion picture sound film 75. Film 75 is prepunched with holes 9', the spacing of which is correlated with the spacing of holes 9 in tape 3. The laboratory tape 3 and film 75 are driven in synchronism or nearsynchronism and are coupled for this purpose by suitable coupling means which may be mechanical or electric as previously described. The coupling is indicated by way of example only as slip drives 8 and 8'. A fast forward or fast reverse drive similar to that for tape 3 is provided for film 75 also. Corresponding components are designated by the same reference characters though primed. The two control systems are coupled by a suitable linkage 76 between push buttons PB and PB so that actuation of either push button will operate both control systems.

Film 75 is further associated with a visual monitoring system of the kind shown in FIG. 11.

As is apparent from the previous description and an examination of FIG. 12, tape 3 will be stopped in accordance with the sequences marked by holes 9 and film 75 will be stopped in accordance with the spacing of holes 9'. While the film is driven, the artist or other operator may observe on screen 56 the sequence of the projected standing images associated with the corresponding sequence of sound recorded on tape 3. Such visual observation of the action gives the artist a wide latitude in modifying his recording of sound and adapting it to the depicted action on the film.

FIG. 12 further shows earphonm 18 which the artist may use in addition to or instead of the visual observation of screen 56.

The spacing of the selected sequences may be the same on the guide track as on the original track, but it is also possible and within the scope of the invention to vary the spacing between the sequences by preparing an additional guide and record track. A variation of the spacing may be desirable for reasons of economy of space in which event all the sequences may be pushed together, thus eliminating film wasted on sometimes lengthy silent intervals, or to save time by eliminating useless intervals between recordings and to provide more freedom as to the fluency of the presentation.

FIG. 13 shows several possible but by no means exhaustive patterns. Sound track A shows a guide track as re-recorded from the original sound track so that the spacings are the same as on the original track. Track B shows a guide track, the associated markers of which are so located that the three sequences on track A are pushed closely together. The noticeable saving of tape material and time and the greater freedom are evident. Track C shows markings which are equally spaced. On such track, the beginning of each sequence is moved into coincidence with premarked holes in the tape. The spacings while being equal are selected at random. Finally, track D shows random spacing of the sequences. Here, each marking is moved into coincidence with the beginning of a sequence.

As is evident from FIG. 13 any location of the markings or sequences can be selected on an intermediate guide track. It is only essentially that the beginning of each sequence coincides with a marking, or more broadly, is spatially correlated.

FIG. 14 shows an arrangement for converting patterns B to A; A to C; C to A; D to A. The upper sound track of FIG. 14 may represent sound track A, B, C or D of FIG. 13 and the lower sound track may represent sound track A or C of FIG. 13. According to the arrangement of FIG. 13, contact fingers 60 coact with marker holes 9 in the upper track which constitutes the guide track in the manner previously described, that is, the fingers are separated by the material of tape 3, but can engage each other through the holes 9, each of which signifies the beginning of a sequence. Similarly fingers 61 coact with holes 9' in lower tape 3'. A playback sound head 62 is disposed in a predetermined spatial relationship, for instance in transverse alignment, with fingers 60, that is, at the point at which the sequence to be re-recorded begins and similarly a recording sound head 63 is provided in suitable spatial relationship with fingers 61. The two sound heads are connected by appropriate equipment indicated by a block 64 labelled amplifier for recording sound on the guide track on tape 3 upon a second guide track on tape 3'. Either the first track or the second track may also be a final track. Each of the pairs of fingers 60 and 61 control the energizing circuit of a solenoid 65 and 66 respectively through a common push button switch 67. The also common source of current is shown as a battery 68. Solenoid 65 controls a brake 69 which is applied when the solenoid is energized and solenoid 66 controls a similar brake 70. The two tapes 3 and 3 should be visualized as being driven in the direction of the arrows in synchronization or approximately by means of slip clutch drives.

The operation of the arrangement is as follows:

It is first assumed that the sequence pattern of guide track C is to be produced from the pattern of track A. Pattern C calls for equally spaced holes 9, and such holes are prepunched in the lower tape 3' of FIG. 13. The upper tape 3 is shown in a position in which fingers 66 have made contact, that is, brake 69 is applied, thereby stopping tape 3 and the sequence shown to the left is ready for recording. The lower tape 3- continues to be driven until the next hole 9' reaches registry with fingers 61 whereby solenoid 66 becomes also energized and brake 70 is applied to stop tape 3. In order to start the transfer of the respective sequence from the guide track of tape 3 to the guide track of tape 3, push button 67 is depressed. As a result, both brakes are released and the sequence is recorded as previously described. The driving of both tapes is resumed until stopped again by a re-engagement of the respective fingers. In the exemplification as shown, the lower tape will be stopped first as the longitudinal spacing of its holes 9 is closer than that of the next hole 9 of tape 3. That is, the lower tape will wait for the upper tape, but as is evident, the order of the stoppage may be reversed, depending upon the spacing of the holes. The aforedescribed cycle repeats itself for each sequence to be individually re-recorded as marked on the upper tape.

As has been explained, the arrangement described in connection with FIG. 14 permits conversion of all the track patterns of FIG. 13 except the conversion into the B pattern. FIG. shows an arrangement for converting any of the tracks of FIG. 13, say an A track, into a B track. In FIG. 15, the A track is on tape 3 and the B track is to be recorded on a tape 90. The two tapes are driven in synchronism or near-synchronism by a suitable drive means 91 which again may comprise a mechanical coupling or an electric coupling such as a selsyn system.

A reproducing sound head 92 and a recording sound head 93 connected by appropriate equipment indicated by a block 94 labelled amplifier, serve to record the sequences on tape 3 on tape 90. Fingers 95 functioning as previously described, complete the energizing circuit of a solenoid 96 of brake 97 when engaging each other through the respective holes 9, thus stopping tape 3. A loud speaker 160 audibly reproducing the recordings on tape 3 indicates to the operator when the end of a sequence is reached on tape 3. In order to push together on tape 90 the spaced sequences reproduced from tape 3, it is evident that tape 90 should be marked at the moment such end of a sequence is reached. For this purpose, a punch 98 is associated with tape 90. The operation of the punch produces a hole 99 in tape 90' and also stops the tape by engagement with the same. Punch 98 is linked to a push button 101 in the circuit of brake solenoid 96 by a linkage such that as shown the operation of the punch has no effect upon the push button whereas the operation of the push button causes withdrawal of the punch from the hole just punched. After tape 90 has been stopped, tape 3 continues to be driven until stopped by the next hole 9 signifying the beginning of a new sequence on tape 3. Then both tapes are freed by operation of the push button de-energizing solenoid 96 and withdrawing punch 98 from hole 99. At the end of the new sequence on tape 3, punch 98 is again operated and the cycle just described is repeated.

As is apparent, the arrangement just described permits the recording of the sequences close to each other. There may be a narrow spacing between sequences due to the human reaction time involved in the operation of the punch but this is unimportant in practice as the principal purpose of pattern B is to eliminate the sometimes quite substantial periods of silence between two sequences to be re-recorded, which causes a corresponding waste of sound track and recording time and also restricts the freedom of arranging the new recording on the record track.

In the previously described exemplifications of the invention, the functions of the apparatus are controlled by direct contact of contact fingers through a marker hole. The apparatus can of course also be controlled by various other instrumentalities well known as such for the purpose. FIG. 16 shows one of the several possible variations.

According to FIG. 16, the holes are replaced by a small metal piece or strip 85. This metal piece causes electric or magentic signals when passing a suitably responsive receiver 86. This receiver is connected through an amplifier 87 to the grid of a thyratron 88. The plate circuit of the thyratron is connected to the brake control 15, 16 as previously described. As is evident, thyratron 88 is fired and hence the brake is applied when a signal piece is in coacting relationship with receiver 86 and the brake is released when relay 23 is operated by the beginning of a sequence. While the invention has been described in detail with respect to certain now preferred embodiments and examples of the invention, it will be understood by those skilled in the art, after understanding the invention, that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, and it is intended, therefore, to cover all such changes and modifications in the appended claims.

What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:

1. The method of revising an artists rendition of a sound track to produce a second and revised sound track on which revised and re-rendered sound-producing information is substantially synchronously related to the sound-producing information on the first sound track, which comprises the steps of (a) providing a first sound track carrier with marker signals at predetermined spaced points corresponding to the periodic commencement on said first sound track of distinctive sound-producing information,

(b) advancing said first sound track carrier and stopping such advance in accordance with and under the control of a marker signal,

(0) thereafter and under the control of the artist resuming advancement of said first track carrier and simultaneously and synchronously advancing a second sound track carrier through a predetermined sound-producing sequence of said first sound track,

(d) continuing the simultaneously and synchronous advance of said first and second sound track carriers following said sound-producing sequence, and stopping said advance in accordance with and under the control of the next successive marker signal on said first sound track carrier,

(e) audibly reproducing the sound-producing information of said first sound track during said sequence,

(1) audibly re-rendering the sound sequence substantially simultaneously with said audible reproduction, and

(g) recording the re-rendition of said sequence on said second sound track carrier to provide revised soundproducing information on said second sound track.

2. The method of revising an artists rendition of a sound track to produce a second and revised sound track on which revised sound-producing information is substantially synchronously related to the sound-producing information on the first sound track, which comprises the steps of '(a) providing a first sound track carrier with marker signals at predetermined spaced points corresponding to the periodic commencement on said first sound track of distinctive sound-producing information,

(b) advancing said first sound track carrier and stopping such advance in accordance with and under the control of a marker signal,

() thereafter and under the control of the artist resuming advancement of said first track carrier and simultaneously and synchronously advancing a second sound track carrier through a predetermined sound-producing sequence of said first sound track,

(d) continuing the simultaneously and synchronous advance of said first and second sound track carriers following said sound-producing sequence, and stopping said advance in accordance with and under the control of the next successive marker signal on said first sound track,

(e) audibly reproducing the sound-producing information of said first sound track during said sequence,

(f) commencing the audible rendering of a sound sequence, corresponding to the audible reproduction, substantially simultaneously with the commencement of said audible reproduction, and

(g) recording said audible rendering on said second sound track carrier to provide rivsed sound-producing information on said second sound track.

3. The method of claim 2, further characterized by the step of resuming advancement of the first track carrier being effected in response to audible utterances of the artist.

4. The method of claim 2, further characterized by said first and second sound track carriers comprising portions of a single carrier means.

5-. Apparatus for revising an artists rendition of a sound track to produce a sound and revised sound track on which revised sound-producing information is substantially synchronously related to the sound producing information on the first sound track, which comprises (a) means for controllably advancing a first sound track carrier,

(b) means for successively stopping advancement of said first sound track carrier in accordance with and in response to successive marker signals associated with the commencement of distinctive sound-producing sequences on the first sound track,

(0) means for controllably advancing a second sound track carrier in predetermined synchronism with said first sound track carrier,

(d) control means for resuming the controllable advancement of said first and second sound track carriers, under the control of the artist after successive stopping of said sound track carriers,

(e) means for audibly reproducing the sound on said first sound track during advancing movements of said first sound track carrier, and

(f) means for recording on said second sound track carrier during advancing movements thereof, sounds corresponding to the audibly reproduced sounds.

6. The apparatus of claim 5, further characterized by said first and second sound track carriers comprising portions of a single carrier means.

7. The apparatus of claim 5, further characterized by said control means for resuming the controllable ad vancement of said sound track carriers comprising (a) a microphone, and

(b) a control relay responsive to activation of said microphone.

8. The method of producing a sound track on which sotmd-producing information is substantially synchronously related to information on a first carrier, which comprises the steps of (a) providing the first carrier with marker signals at predetermined spaced points corresponding to the periodic commencement on said first carrier of distinctive information,

(b) advancing said first carrier, and stopping such advance in accordance with and under the control of a marker signal,

(c) thereafter and under the control of the artist resuming advancement of said first carrier, and simultaneously and synchronously advancing a second carrier, for said sound track, through a predetermined information-producing sequence of said first carrier,

(d) continuing the simultaneous and synchronous advance of said first and second carriers following said information-producing sequence, and stopping said advance in accordance with and under the control of the next successive marker signal on said first carrier,

(e) sensibly producing the information on said first carrier during said information-producing sequence,

(f) commencing the audible rendering of a sound sequence corresponding to the sensibly produced information, substantially simultaneously with the commencement of sensible production of the information, and

(g) recording said audible rendering on said second carrier to provide predetermined, synchronized, sound-producing information on said carrier.

9. The method of claim 8, further characterized by (a) said first carrier comprising a film strip,

(b) the information on said film strip comprising a series of picture sequences, and

(c) the step of sensibly producing the information on said first carrier comprising the projection of said picture sequences before the actor.

10. The method of claim 8, further characterized by (a) said first carrier comprising a sound track carrier,

(b) the information on said sound track carrier comprising a series of recorded sound sequences, and

(c) the step of sensibly producing the information on said first carrier comprising the audible re-production of said sound sequence.

11. The method of claim 8, further characterized by said first and second carriers comprising portions of a single carrier means.

12. Apparatus for producing a sound track on which sound-producing information is substantially synchronously related to information on a first carrier, which comprises (a) means for controllably advancing said first carrier,

(b) means for successively stopping advancement of said first carrier in accordance with and in response to marker signals associated with the periodic commencement on said first carrier of distinctive information,

(0) means for controllably advancing a second carrier, for said sound track, in predetermined synchronism- With said first carrier,

(d) control means for resuming the controllable advancement of said first and second carriers under the control of the artist after successive stopping of said carriers,

(e) means for sensibly producing the information on said first carrier during advancing movements thereof, and

(f) means for recording sound on said second carrier, during advancing movements thereof, to provide a sound track substantially synchronously related to the information on said first carrier.

13. The apparatus of claim 12, further characterized (a) said first carrier comprising a film strip,

(b) the information on said film strip comprising a series of picture sequences, and

(c) said means for sensibly producing the information on said first carrier comprising means for projecting said picture sequences before the actor.

14. The apparatus of claim 12, further characterized y 13 (a) said first carrier comprising a sound track carrier, (b) the information on said sound track carrier comprising a series of recorded sound sequences, and (c) said means for sensibly producing the information on said first carrier comprising means for audibly reproducing the sound on said first carrier. 15. The apparatus of claim 12, further characterized by said first and second carriers comprising portions of a single carrier means.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 14 Regan Sept. 14, 1937 Adair et a1. Oct. 19, 1937 Watson Aug. 6, 1946 Waller July 5, 1949 Rossmann et a1 Aug. 23, 1949 Rath Aug. 30, 1949 Isbenjian June 12, 1951 Kappeler July 3, 195 1 Roderick Feb. 15, 1955 Dostert Jan. 15, 1957 Soubrier Sept. 10, 1957 Miller Sept. 22, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS Great Britain Mar. 22, 1952 Germany May 7, 1953 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,049,965 August 21, 1962 Dennis Gunst It is hereb; certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below Column 2, lines 49 and 50, for "conventing" read converting column 8, line 18, for "souud" read sound line 52, for essentially read essential column 10, line 56, and column ll, line 13, ionfi'simultaneously" read simultaneous same column ll, line 26, for "rivsed" read revised line 36, for "sound", second occurrence, read second Signed and sealed this 15th day of January 1963.

(SEAL) Atteat:

DAVID L. LADD Attesting Officer

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3584940 *Oct 31, 1968Jun 15, 1971Bell & Howell CoApparatus for reproducing sound from motion picture film
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Classifications
U.S. Classification352/5, 369/84, 369/4, 369/83, 369/17
International ClassificationG03B31/02, G11B5/86, G11B7/28, B65D85/34
Cooperative ClassificationB65D85/34, G03B31/02, G11B7/28, G11B5/86
European ClassificationG11B5/86, G11B7/28, G03B31/02, B65D85/34