US 3051986 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P 1952 E. HOFFMANN 3,051,986
SPINNERETT ASSEMBLY Filed Jan. 9, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. 7
Sept. 4, 1962 E. HOFFMANN 3,051,986
SPINNERETT ASSEMBLY Filed Jan. 9, 1959 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Sept. 4, 1962 E. HOFFMANN SPINNERETT ASSEMBLY 4 Sheets-$heet 3 Filed Jan. 9, 1959 M4 w W E m Na 7 I i I 0 v. mx Q EU iii z x M\ w z m FIG. 4a
Sept. 4, 1962 E. HOFFMANN SPINNERETT ASSEMBLY 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Jan. 9, 1959 7,,41 ATM 3,051,986 SPINNERETT ASSEMBLY Eugen Holimann, Krefeld, Germany, assignor to Phrix Werke Aktiengesellschaft, Hamburg, Germany Filed Jan. 9, 1959, Ser. No. 785,852 Claims priority, application Germany Jan. 11, 1958 3 Claims. (Cl. 18-3) The present invention relates to improvements in apparatus for the production of artificial filaments, and to a novel method of starting the extrusion of filaments in such apparatus. More particularly, the invention relates to a wet spinning apparatus in which the extruded filamentary material is extruded into a deep tank containing the coagulating bath, and is led substantially vertically upwardly to a collecting and advancing station, and thence to various treating and processing stations.
It was already proposed to utilize wet spinning apparatus with the spinnerets installed in the bottom element of a deep tank. A very grave problem is met by the attendants of such devices when the spinning operation is started, i.e. when the extrusion of filamentary material from a great number of spinnerets, all installed in the bottom of a tank, begins. The filaments invariably become tangled and, consequently, their placing onto the collecting roller or godet is a time-wasting operation which is rendered even more difi'icult by the fact that the tank is filled with the coagulative medium. As is known, it is preferred to install very large numbers of spinnerets in a wet spinning tank in order to increase the capacity of spinning apparatus and to take fuller advantage of the space in spinning mills. Of course, such crowding of spinnerets renders the extruding operation, especially the initial stage, even more difficult. When the extrusion is about to begin, it is necessary to determine whether the spinning solution is delivered from the spinning pumps toward and through the extrusion orifices in jets of all spinnerets at a uniform rate. To that end, the spinning pumps are caused to deliver small quantities of the solution into and through the jet of each spinneret to expel the air whereby the extruded material invariably contaminates the area surrounding the extrusion orifices of the jets, especially if the spinnerets are mounted in vertical positon. Since this problem found no satisfactory solution in the art, spinning apparatus for the extrusion of a great number of filaments through the jets of spinnerets installed in the bottom of a deep tank for a coagulative medium found no broad acceptance in the textile industry.
An important object of the present invention is to provide an improved spinning machine of the above described type wherein the spinnerets are so mounted in the bottom of the deep tank for a coagulating bath that they do not become contaminated when the extrusion of spinning solution is started.
Another object of the invention is to provide a wet spinning machine wherein the distance between the godet for the extruded filamentary material and the extrusion orifices in the jets of all spinnerets is of equal magnitude.
A further object of the invention is to provide a wet spinning machine wherein the tangling of extruded filaments in the coagulating bath is prevented.
An additional object of the instant invention is to provide an improved spinneret for use in wet spinning machines.
A still further object of the present invention is to pro vide a wet spinning machine which can accommodate a very large number of spinnerets while its length does not exceed the length of the filament collecting roller and various treating and processing stations in the mill.
A yet further object of my invention is to provide a novel method of starting the extrusion of filamentary 3,051,986 Patented Sept. 4-, 1962 ice material in wet spinning machines, according to which the collection of just extruded filaments and their placing onto the collecting and deflecting rollers can be performed in a time-saving manner and with very little waste in extruded product.
A concomitant object of the invention is to provide a method of starting the extrusion of filaments in wet spinning machines of the type wherein the spinnerets are installed in the bottom of the tank for a coagulating bath, according to which the filaments are automatically lifted to the surface of the coagulative medium.
An additional object of the present invention is to provide a wet spinning machine which is so constructed that each spinneret is readily accessible for inspection as well as for interchange and repair of its component parts.
A still further object of the present invention is to provide a wet spinning machine of the above described characteristics in which the spinnerets are so constructed that the eddying or turbulence of coagulative medium in the tank is avoided.
A yet further object of the invention is to provide a wet spinning machine in which the extruded filaments are guided to the surface of the coagulative medium.
A yet further object of my invention is to provide a novel composite deep tank for coagulative media in wet spinning machines.
A yet further object of the present invention is to provide a novel type of releasable connection between the spinnerets and spinning pumps in a wet spinning machine.
A still further object of the instant invention is to provide an improved spinneret-supporting bottom for the tank of a wet spinning machine which can be utilized in connection with spinning apparatus of known construction.
The above and certain other objects of the invention are attained by the provision of a preferably convex bottom element which supports a very large number of spinerets arranged in a plurality of preferably staggered rows. The bottom element forms part of a composite tank for a coagulative medium and is tiltable about a preferably horizontal axis to support the spinnerets either in a substantially vertical or operative position, or in a substantially horizontal position for inspection, test run, interchange or repair. Each spinneret is connected to: its spinning pump by a preferably flexible conduit, such as a hose made of acid-resistant synthetic plastic material, whereby the bottom element may be tilted without previous disconnection of the conduits. When the bottom element is tilted into substantially vertical position the axes of spinnerets are substantially horizontal; therefore, when the spinnerets are tested before the actual spinning operation begins, the spinning solution can drop off the jets Without contaminating the adjacent spinnerets. When the test delivery of spinning solution is completed, the bottom element is tilted back into horizontal position and is connected with other component parts of the tank which latter is then filled with a coagulative medium. The remaining component parts of the tank comprise substantially vertical walls which may either be placed onto the bottom, when the latter is in horizontal position, with a sealing element therebetween, or the bottom may be moved relative to and be connecta'ble with a stationary wall structure.
In order to equalize the distance between the jets of individual spinnerets and the collecting roller which latter is located above the assembled tank, the bottom element is given an arcuate shape so that the end plates of all jets are perpendicular to the directions in which the extruded filaments are led toward the periphery of the collecting roller. The bottom element resembles a convex segment whose center of curvature coincides with the point above the collecting roller in which the imaginary extensions of filaments intersect each other.
A further feature of my invention is in the provision of novel spinnerets which are so installed in the bottom element as to be readily accessible and replaceable if the aforementioned test run before actual extrusion should prove that they are defective. Each spinneret comprises a series of coaxial tubular members which are preferably surrounded by a cylinder extending close to the surface of coagulative medium to prevent eddying of the latter and also to guide the extruded filamentary material to within easy reach of an attendant. The cylinder is mounted on an elongated tubular shell which is screwed or otherwise releasably secured to the tiltable bottom element, and whose bore coaxially receives a combined thrust-pull sleeve, or an outer pull sleeve and an inner thrust push sleeve. These sleeves facilitate removal and proper insertion of the jets. The lower end of each spinneret extends beyond the underside of the tiltable bottom element and carries a hose coupling for connection to the free end of respective conduit which latter delivers a spinning solution through the single or composite sleeve to the extrusion orifices in the end plate of the jet.
The exposed portion of each jet may be covered by a rubber cap or the like which latter is ejected by the pressure of spinning solution when the machine is in operation and entrains the extruded filamentary material to the surface of the coagulative medium. The cap floats to the surface of the coagulative medium and thus facilitates the task of an attendant who is in charge of placing the filaments onto the collecting roller. As before mentioned, the protecting cylinders which preferably surround the outer tubular casing or shell of each spinneret prevent the turbulence or eddying of coagulative medium which latter is free to enter therein through one or more channels at a point below the respective jet and is caused to flow in upward direction by the continuously extruded filamentary material. The medium is free to overflow into the tank at the open upper end of each cylinder.
The novel features which are considered as characteristic for the invention are set forth in particular in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its construction and its. method of operation, together with additional objects and advantages thereof, will be best understood from the following description of certain specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is schematic side elevations view of a tiltable bottom element for the wet spinning tank with a series of spinnerets supported thereby, there being fin'ther shown a support for the bottom element, a support for the spinning pumps, and conduits for introducing a spinning solution into the spinnerets, a second position of the bottom element being indicated in phantom lines;
FIG. 2 is large-scale side elevational view of a fully assembled tank for a coagulative medium embodying the bottom element of FIG. 1, one corner of the tank being broken away to illustrate the seal between the bottom element and the upright walls of the tank;
FlG. 3 is a vertical section drawn to a smaller scale, through the assembly of FIG. 2, further showing a godet for the extruded filamentary material;
FIG. 4 is greatly enlarged axial section through an improved spinneret and the protecting cylinder therefor, the spinneret being shown installed in the bottom element of the tank for a coagulative medium;
FIG. 4a is a greatly enlarged axial sectional view of the upper end portion of the structure shown in FIG. 4; and
FIG. 5 is side elevational view of a slightly modified spinneret received in a cylinder which latter is shown in axial section.
-Refern'ng now in greater detail to the drawings, and first to FIGS. 1 to 3, the separable bottom 1 of a composite tank 7 for a coagulative medium is of convex shape and carries a great number of closely adjacent d spinnerets 2 which latter are preferably disposed in staggered rows. The longitudinal axes X of spinnerets 2 are arranged substantially radially with respect to the center of curvature of the convex undersurface of bot-torn element 1.
In an operative embodiment of my invention, the distance between the axes X of adjacent spinnerets 2 may be as little as 40 mm. Thus, if the spinnerets are disposed in ten rows, each containing 25 spinnerets, a relatively small bottom 1 may accommodate 250 spinnerets, i.e. the width of a say square bottom may be in the range of 1100 mm. and its length in the range of about 800 mm. The 250 yarns extruded in a tank having a bottom of the just described dimensions may be collected on a godet 16 at a distance of between 3-4 mm. from each other, i.e. the length of member 10 need not exceed 1000 mm. Accordingly, the length of the tank 7 consisting of bottom 1 and side walls 7a, as well as of collecting roller 10, need not exceed 1000 mm. The periphery of roller 10 is preferably corrugated or grooved to provide for better guidance of filaments 10a which are led over member 10 and thence in the direction of arrow A toward various treating and collecting stations, not shown.
As shown in FIG. 1, the bottom 1 is mounted on a support means 4 and is pivotable about one or more horizontal shafts 3 from an operative or horizontal position into a nearly or fully vertical position 1' which is shown in lines. Means (not shown) may be provided for locking the bottom element in horizontal and vertical positions. The lower end of each spinneret 2, extending downwardly beyond the convex underside of bottom 1, is connected to one of flexible conduits 5 which lead to a wall 6 on which the spinning pumps are mounted. The pumps (not shown) are connected to the turned-away side of wall 6, preferably in a series of rows, and are driven by shafts 6a, by gears in a case 6b, and by motor means 60 in a manner as disclosed and claimed in my copending application Serial No. 785,145 which was filed on even date, and is now abandoned.
The preferably releasable connection between the bottom 1 and upstanding side walls 7a of tank 7 for a coagulative medium is shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. The lower ends of walls 7a are formed with external flanges 8 which are connected to the peripheral flange 1a of bottom element t1 by a series of bolts and nuts designated collectively by numeral 8a. A preferably resilient sealing strip or gasket 81: is interposed between flanges 1a and 8 to prevent leakage of tank 7 when the latter is filled with a coagulative medium through an inlet 9 located in the tiltable bottom element 1. Overflow openings or outlets 9a are provided close to the upper edges of walls 7a.
One of the spinnerets 2 is shown in full detail in FIGS. 4 and 4a. It comprises a tubular casing or shell 11 having at its lower end an external collar 12 supporting a sealing ring 13 received in a recess 1!) formed in the bottom element 1. A portion of casing 11 above collar 12 is externally threaded, as at 14, and meshes with the threads in tapped bore dc of bottom element '1. A traction or pull sleeve or tube 15 is received in the coaxial bore 11a of member 11; at its upper end, sleeve 15 is formed with an inwardly oriented flange 16 which extends over the external flange 17a of a cylindrical jet 17. Thus, when the traction means 15 is moved in downward direction in casing or shell 11, it entrains the jet 17 and causes the latters withdrawal from the casing. Adjacent to its lower end, the sleeve 15 is formed with an externally threaded portion 15a receivable in a tapped bore 12a formed in the collar 12 of casing 11.
Pull sleeve '15 receives in its bore 15b a thrust or push sleeve 18 whose outer diameter equals the outer diameter of flange 17a on jet 17. The purpose of inner or thrust sleeve 18 is to push the jet 17 into position in the outer or pull sleeve 15. Sealing rings or packings 19, 20 and 21 are disposed between the upper end of inner sleeve 18 and flange 17a; between flange 17a and flange 16; and between flange 16 and the shoulder in the upper end portion 22 of shell 11. The purpose of the packings 19 to 21 is to properly seal the jet 17 from the interior of members 1 1 and 15, as well as to provide a seat for the flange 17a.
The outer side of terminal portion 22 at the upper end of shell 11 is curved and converges inwardly toward and snugly receives the protruding end of nozzle or jet 17. A portion 23 of shell 11 above the threads 14 is of larger diameter to form a holder or socket whose outer diameter approximates the inner diameter of a protecting cylinder or sheath 24 so that the latter may be supported thereon with a certain amount of friction and be retained in the position best shown in FIG. 3. member 24 may be made of glass or an acid-resistant metallic or synthetic material. Openings or bores 25 are formed in cylinder or sheath 24- at a point distant from and below the jet 17, e.g. close to but above the upper end of holder 23. These bores or channels permit entry and upward flow of a coagulative medium into the interior of cylinder 24. The end plate 17b of jet 17 is covered by a cap 3i) which airtightly seals the jet from atmospheric air and whose purpose is to guide the extruded filamentary material in the cylinder 24 to the surface 31 of coagulative medium in tank 7 (see FIG. 3).
At its lower end which extends beyond the underside of bottom element 1, the spinneret 2 comprises a coupling 2 6 receivable in the free end of one of flexible conduits or hoses 5 shown in FIG. 1. The upper end 26a of coupling 26 is externally threaded and meshes with the threads in a tapped bore formed in the terminal portion 150 of pull sleeve 15. Conduits 5 constitute means through which the spinning solution may be delivered by the spinning pumps on supporting wall or walls 6 into the bores of push sleeves 18 to be extruded through the orifices in end plates 17b of jets 17. The lower end face of each push sleeve 18 and the upper end face of each coupling means 26 define therebetween an annular space for reception of a filter 29 for the spinning solution. The filter is received between a pair of annular sealing members 27, 28.
The spinneret 2 which resembles a cartridge may be made of a suitable plastic material, e.g. ebonite, or of an acid-resistant alloy. A suitable metallic material is one known under the name Hastealloy (trademark).
As before mentioned, and as shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, spinnerets 2 are preferably so installed in tiltable convex bottom element 1 that their longitudinal axes X intersect each other in the center of curvature of the convex underside of member 1. The filaments liia, which are led from each spinneret 2 onto the collecting roller should be perpendicular to the plane of apertured end plate 171) of respective jet 17.
In operation, the aforementioned cap 30 at the exposed upper end of jet 17 shown in FIG. 4 is lifted by the spinning solution and, as it rises to the surface 31 of coagulative medium in tank 7 (see FIG. 3), entrains the extruded filaments 10a in the respective cylinder 24 in upward direction to facilitate the work of an attendant who is in charge of placing the filaments over the godet 10. Cap 30 may be made of rubber or any other suitable material.
Before the spinning operation begins, walls 70 are disconnected from bottom element 1 by releasing the bolt and nut connections 8a. The bottom element is then tilted into the position 1 of FIG. 1, the spinnerets 2 are checked and exchanged or repaired, if necessary, and a spinning solution is introduced into the spinnerets to expel the air therefrom, whereupon the caps 30 are placed over the exposed ends of jets 17. Caps 30 airtightly seal the jets so that the spinning solution cannot harden on the end plates 1717. Due to the flexibility of conduits 5, the bottom element may be tilted into horizontal position, is thereupon locked in such position, and the protective cylinders 24- are placed onto their respective holders 23. The side walls 7a are then fixed to flange 1a of bottom element 1 to complete the assembly of tank 7. After introduction of a coagulative medium through inlet 9, the spinning operation may begin. As soon as the pumps deliver a spinning solution at a certain pressure to jets 17, the remaining air entrapped in caps 30 is compressed and, with the aid of spinning solution, ejects the caps in upward direction to cause the latters ascent to the surface 31 of coagulative medium in tank 7. The caps entrain the blobs of spinning solution accumulating in the space adjacent to the end plates 17b while the caps are still on the respective jets 17, whereby the blobs entrain the extruded filaments 10a to the surface 31 of coagulative medium. The caps with blobs of by now hardened spinning solution and the filaments attached thereto may be collected by an attendant and placed over the godet 10. Due to the provision of cylinders 24 which extend close to the surface 31 of coagulative medium in tank 7, and also due to the provision of means 30 for entraining and lifting the extruded filaments, the collection of filaments is a very simple procedure and any tangling of extruded material in the coagulating bath is impossible. In addition, tubular elements 24 prevent turbulence of coagulative medium which enters therein through openings or channels 25 and is caused to flow in upward direction by the continuously extruded filamentary material.
The modified spinneret 2' of FIG. 5 is also protected by a cylinder 24 which, as is shown in FIG. 3 in connection with member 24, may extend close to the surface 31 of the coagulative medium in tank 7. Cylinder 24' is supported on the socket 23 of a modified sleeve 11. The upper portion 23a of sleeve 11' is of conical contour and tapers toward the jet 17 which latter is installed in a carrier 32' removably fixed to the upper end of a single push-pull sleeve 15'. Adjacent to the end face of flange 12', forming part of sleeve 11', is the terminal portion of double-action sleeve =15 which latter supports the hose coupling 26. Cylinder 24 is formed with two rows of annularly arranged openings or bores 25' for entry of a coagulative medium in the direction of arrows B. As before stated, the medium is caused to flow in upward direction by the continuously extruded filamentary material 10a.
The feature that the length of all filaments 10a between the respective jets 17 or 17' and the godet 10 is of equal magnitude, i.e. that the distance covered by each filament while in contact with the coagulative medium is the same, is important because the novel machine may operate without so-called air gaps which must be provided in spinning assemblies operating with spinnerets arranged in several groups. The length of such portions of filaments-extruded by different groups of spinnerets in prior spinning assemblies-which pass through the coagulative medium is widely different and, as is known, the purpose of aforementioned air gaps is to compensate for the differences in coagulating length of filamentary material. The filaments extruded in such prior types of spinning machines are of widely different qualities. This represents a serious drawback which is fully avoided by my novel machine.
Another important feature of the novel assembly is in its simplicity since the collecting, deflecting and guiding means need not be inclined and, instead of collecting the extruded material in several smaller groups on a series of rollers and thereupon collecting such groups of filaments on a single roller, all filaments may be immediately collected on a single member which latter can simultaneously serve as a filament advancing means. As before mentioned, the length of the tank and the length of the single collecting and advancing roller means need not exceed the length of other treating stations where the extruded material is rinsed, dried and otherwise processed. All parts are readily accessible, and especially the initial stage of a spinning operation is extremely simple. Thus, if the individual rows of closely adjacent spinnerets mounted in the tiltable bottom element are set in operation consecutively, the time necessary for placing the filaments onto the collecting roller is considerably reduced and the waste of extruded material at the outset of spinning operation is negligible. Once the filaments are continuously extruded by all spinnerets of the machine and are properly located on the collecting roller, the spinning operation may he proceeded with on an uninterrupted basis.
Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully reveal the gist of the present invention that others can, by applying current knowledge, readily adapt it for various applications without omitting features that, from the standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essential characteristics of the generic and specific aspects of this invention and, there-fore, such adaptations should and are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalence of the following claims.
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. A spinneret for use in the tank of a wet spinning machine comprising, in combination: an elongated tubular shell having an end; a jet partially received in said shell and having an end plate extending beyond said end; an outer sleeve slidably received in said shell and connected with said jet for moving the latter in a direction away from said end; and an inner sleeve slidably received in said outer sleeve and abutting against said jet, said inner sleeve having a bore communicating with the interior of said jet whereby a spinning solution may be delivered to said jet through said bore.
2. A spinneret for use in the tank of a wet spinning machine comprising, in combination: an elongated tubular shell having a first end, a second end, an externally threaded portion adjacent to said first end, and an inwardly arching portion at said second end; a jet in said shell having an end plate extending beyond said inwardly arched portion and an external flange in said shell; a pull sleeve slidably received in said shell and having an internal flange engaging withsaid external flange whereby the jet is movable with said pull sleeve in a direction away from said second end; a push sleeve slidably re ceived in said pull sleeve and abutting against said first mentioned flange, said second sleeve having a bore communicating with the interior of said jet; and a hose coupling connected to said pull sleeve at the first end of said shell and communicating with the bore of said push sleeve.
3. A spinneret for use in the tank of a wet spinning machine, comprising, in combination, an elongated tubula-r shell open at one end and having at its opposite end an end wall formed with a bore coaxial with said tubular shell; a jet extending through said bore of said end wall and terminating in said shell in an outwardly directed annular flange; a pull sleeve coaxial with said shell and extending into the same in slidable engagement with the inner surface thereof, said pull sleeve having an end adjacent said end wall of said shell provided with an inwardly directed annular flange overlapping said outwardly directed flange of said jet and located between said outwardly directed flange and said end wall of said shell, said pull sleeve having distant from said inwardly directed flange thereof a threaded end portion threadedly connected to and extending beyond said shell so that after unthreading of said pull sleeve from said shell said pull sleeve may be pulled out of said shell to remove said jet; a push sleeve slidable in said pull sleeve and having an inner end position maintaining said jet in an operative position extending through and beyond said bore of said end wall of said shell; and means cooperating with ,said push sleeve and said pull sleeve for releasably maintaining said push sleeve in said inner end position thereof.
References (Iited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,877,002 Melms Sept. 3, 1932 1,922,715 Riley Aug. 15, '1933 1,922,718 Tidmus Aug. 15, 1933 2,057,032 Keen Oct. 13, 1936 2,243,116 Ostermann May 27, 1941 2,411,774 Gundelfinger Nov. 26, 1946 2,416,291 Detwiler Feb. 25, 1947 2,789,315 Pistor Apr. 23, 1957 2,861,319 Breen Nov. 25, 1958 2,872,702 Dunlap Feb. 10, 1959 2,905,968 Walker Sept. 29, 1959 FOREIGN PATENTS 530,590 Germany July 16, 1931 736,791 Great Britain Sept. 14, 1955 87,315 Netherlands Jan. 15, 1958