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Publication numberUS3053322 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 11, 1962
Filing dateJan 28, 1960
Priority dateJan 28, 1960
Publication numberUS 3053322 A, US 3053322A, US-A-3053322, US3053322 A, US3053322A
InventorsKline Albert K
Original AssigneeKline Albert K
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Oil well cementing shoe
US 3053322 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 1l, 1962 A. K. KLINE OIL WELL CEMENTING SHOE 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 28, 1960 INVENTOR. ALBERT K. KLNE BY ya zz@ ATTORNEY Sept. 11, 1962 A. K. KLINE oIL WELL CEMENTING SHOE:

Filed Jan. 28., 1960 United States Patent O 3,053,322 H., WELL CEMENTWG SHOE Albert K. Kline, 5741 S. 70th E. Ave., Tulsa 4S, Okla. Filed Jan. 28, 1960, Ser. No. 5,260 7 Claims. (Cl. 166-l84) The present invention relates to structure for sealing a cementing shoe to the side of an oil well bore. More speciiically, the invention relates to a novel packer for a cementing shoe and structure for operating the packer.

It is common to mount a shoe of deformable, resilient, material, usually rubber, on the tubular body of a cementing shoe and deform this sleeve of material until it engages the sides of the well bore. After the annulus between the body and bore is positively sealed in this manner, an opening in the side of the shoe body is uncovered and cementing material pumped down the tubing which carries the shoe on the tube end and into the annulus above the deformed packer on the shoe.

These packing sleeves have been set by iluid pressure acting on a piston sliding within, or on the outside of, the tubular body. The piston has been linked with the sleeve, through a more or less complex apparatus. Also, the packer sleeve has been held in its deformed position by locking wedges of Various forms which have added to the complications of manufacture and operation of the shoe.

It is a principal object of the present invention to set a cementing shoe packer by direct application of iiuid pressure to the packer.

Another object is to set a cylindrical packing element Without material alteration of the wall thickness of its cylindrical form.

Another object is to lock the packing element in its set position by maintaining the fluid pressure in direct application to the element.

Another object is to initially seal the packer from direct contact with fluid pressure within the shoe body and then positively provide access to the packer for the fluid pressure.

Another object is to initially seal uid pressure, within the shoe body, which fluid pressure is used directly to set the packer and then positively provide access to the annulus between the body and bore above the packer while positively locking the fluid pressure on the packer after it is set.

The present invention contemplates a deformable, resilient, packing element in the form of a sleeve mounted on the external surface of the tubular body of a cementing shoe. One end of the sleeve is fixed to the body and a piston cylinder is provided for the free end of the sleeve. Fluid pressure is placed within the piston cylinder so as to move the free end of the sleeve as a piston and buckle the central portion of the sleeve away from the body until the well bore sides are engaged in a sealing relation.

The invention further contemplates a valve mounted within the piston cylinder which prevents the escape of the fluid pressure so the iluid pressure keeps the packer locked in its sealing engagement with the well bore.

The invention further contemplates piston valves within the tubular body which are moved by the uid pressure to selectively open a port in the tubular body into the piston cylinder, cover the port into the cylinder, and, iinally, open a port in the tubular body above the packer.

Other objects, and advantages of the present invention will become readily apparent from the following detailed description of the invention with specic references to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a longitudinal section of a cementing shoe embodying the present invention disposed within a well bore, with its parts in their initial positions;

,. ICC

FIG. 2 s a cross-section of the shoe of FIG. 1 along lines 2 2;

FIG. 3 is a cross-section of the shoe of FIG. 1 along lines 3-3;

FIG. 4 is a longitudinal section similar to FIG. 1, disclosing a valve shift within the shoe body and the packer being positioned; and

FIG. 5 is a longitudinal section similar to FIGS. l and 2 disclosing the shoe packed off within the Well bore and the side ports opened to the well bore.

FIGS. 1, 4 and 5 are used to illustrated the over-all operation of the cementing shoe structure in which the invention is embodied. The packer is shown mounted on the wall of the shoe as the shoe is run in the bore of an oil well. The positions given the internal parts of the shoe are then illustrated in other drawing figures as energy is applied to move the packer into sealing position between the shoe wall and the well bore.

FIG. l specifically shows the parts `of the shoe in their initial positions as the shoe is lowered into a well bore. The well bore ll is given only perfunctory illustration as the fact is developed that the bore is a hole, substantially circular in cross-section, the walls` of the hole being engaged by the packer of the shoe.

The shoe is lowered a predetermined `depth in well bore 1. The string of pipe, carrying the shoe on its end, is indicated at 2. The end of pipe 2 is threaded and engaged to a coupling 3. The body 4 of the shoe is then threaded up into coupling 3.

Body 4- is in the form of a tube. The various parts of the shoe, movable and fixed, are mounted directly on this body tube. A coupling 5 is threadedly ymounted on the lower end of shoe body 4. A guide nose 6 is threaded up into coupling 5, this member fixing the longitudinal dimension of the shoe assembly.

The shoe as a whole, considering the parts related as described to this point, has a continuous passageway provided from the pipe string 2 to the well bore below the shoe. All the parts within tubular body l have axial ybores to provide this passageway, and guide nose 6 has a series of holes 7 giving access from pipe 2 to the bore below the shoe. Therefore, as string 2 is run in bore ll, and before the packer of the shoe is set, the well may be worked with fluids as desired. After the cernenting program is completed on the bore above the shoe, after it is packed to the well bore, the various parts within tubular body 4 may be removed with a drill and the well bore 1 below the shoe worked as desired, through the pipe string 2.

The packer of the cementing shoe is made of deformable material in the form of a cylinder, mounted on the external wall of tube body 4. Packer lll, as a sleeve, is fixed securely by its lower end to the body 4l. Specifically, the lower end of packer 10 is clamped to the body tube by the upper end of coupling 5 overlapping the packer. A counter bore at 11, from the upper end of coupling 5 forms the overlapping recess between coupling 5 and body 4 in which the lower end of packer 10 seats. As a sealing provision, an 0-ring 12 is positioned between packer l0 and the well of body 4.

The present invention provides for fluid pressure to be applied down pipe string 2, directly upon sleeve packer 10 in such a way that the sleeve buckles outward, toward the walls of bore 1 and into sealing engagement therewith. The lower end of packer 10` is held in iixed relation to the I'body pipe 4. Therefore, the upper end of the packer must be moved by the fluid pressure in buckling the portion of the sleeve intermediate its ends into sealing position against the bore wall.

The prior art has illustrated various mechanical connections for transmission of fluid pressures internal of `a chamfer cut 15' on the inner edge of the sleeve.

pipe strings on to deformable packers. However, the present invention advances the novel concept of moving the upper end of the sleeve as a piston within a cylinder to bulge, or buckle, the section of the packer intermediate its ends. This action of the sleeve form of packer is obtained without substantial decrease of the lwall thickness of the packer. The full `strength of the cylinder of deformable material is thereby retained. Further, provisions are made to hold the fluid pressure on the packer end, pistoned in its cylinder, after the fluid pressure within pipe string 2 has been removed. The retention of fluid pressure on the packer keeps it permanently set, regardless of subsequent activity carried on within pipe string 2.

In forming a piston housing over the upper end of packer 10, housing shell 13, having a generally cylindrical form, is extended from a shoulder 13A on body 4, down over the upper end of sleeve-packer 1f). The main portion of housing shell 13 is spaced from the outer surface of body 4 to provide an annulus into which the upper portion of packer 10 extends. The upper end of housing shell 13 is extended inwardly to rest beneath shoulder 13A and engage the outer surface of body 4 with a sliding llt.

An O-ring 13B seals in the inwardly extending upper end of housing 13 to body 4 in providing a piston cylinder which is closed at its upper end and which receives the packer 10. The upper end of packer 10 has its wall thickness sized to give a sliding t in the piston cylinder formed between the external wall of tubular body 4 and the inside surface of housing shell 13. Fluid pressure is conducted into this piston cylinder for direct application to the upper end of packer 10. An O-ring 14 is carried in a groove cut in the external surface of packer l so as to function as a seal between the packer and housing shell 13. Sealed into the cylinder of housing shell :13 by O- rings 12, 13B and 14, the uid pressure is effective in moving the upper end of the packer toward its lower end. The result of moving the upper end of the packer toward the lower end is to buckle the packer of deformable material outward, into sealing engagement with the walls of Well bore 1.

FIG. 2 is used to illustrate more clearly the relation between housing shell 13, packer and tubular body 4. Also, FIG. 2 relates the structure in the combination which directs the fluid pressure force outward, from the body 4 wall, and upon the packer 10.

FIG. l shows the upper end of the packer 10 as having Fluid pressure within the chamber is effective on the lip of the packer 10 formed in this manner to energize the seal the packer end forms with the internal surface of housing shell 13. Further, the fluid pressure is directed between the internal surface of packer 10 and the outside wall of tubular body 4. F-IG. 2 illustrates a series of grooves 16 cut longitudinally in the internal wall of packer 10, from charnfer 15 to a point just above O-ring 12. These grooves 16 conduct the fluid pressure in the piston housing 13 behind packer 10 in order that it will exert its force radially outward from the body 4, against packer 10. Thus, not only is there the force of the fluid pressure applied longitudinally, against the end of packer 10, but the force of this same fluid pressure is applied radially out- Ward to move the center section of the packer into sealing engagement with the Wall of well bore 1. FIGS. 4 and 5 may be referred to in illustration of the progressive positioning of the packer under the force of this fluid pressure.

The fluid pressure of pipe string 2 is conducted into the piston chamber, formed with housing shell 13, through openings `17 in the wal-l of tubular body 4. FIG. 3 shows holes 17 to be preferably four in num'ber and spaced evenly in a horizontal plane. Within the piston cylinder of housing shell 13, these holes 17 are `covered by a ring 18 of expansible material, preferably of the same material used for packer'lfl. As fluid pressure within body tube 4 is applied to holes 17, ring l is expanded enough to permit fluid to flow from under the ring and into the piston cylinder into direct application to the packer. However, `when the fluid pressure in pipe string 2 and the shoe body is removed, ring 18 contracts to effectively seal holes 17, trapping the fluid pressure in the piston cylinder on the packer. The external edges of ring 18 are given slight chamfer cuts at 19 to provide lips which will be energized by the fluid pressure in the piston cylinder to effectively seal across lopenings 17.

When fluid pressure is admitted to the piston cylinder, the operation of `the packer is simple, clear and understandable. However, the structure for bringing the iluid pressure from pipe string 2 into the piston cylinder must also be understood as a function of the complete cementing shoe combination.

One desirable function of the shoe structure is isolation of the piston cylinder from the pipe string interior while the shoe is positioned in the well bore 1 at its predetermined packing position. This isolation is insured during this operation by valve ring 20. This piston ring 2l) is a simple sliding member within the tubular `body 4 which bridges and seals across holes 17.

Valve ring 2t) does not directly seal across holes 17 in the wall of tubular body 4. Specifically, shift valve 21 is provided, as a cylindrical member, having a sliding fit within the walls of tubular body 4. Holes 22 are in the wall of shift valve 21, aligned with holes 17 of body 4. A manifold groove 23 is formed in the outside wall of valve 2l, joining all holes 22 and holes 1'7. Further, O-ring seals are provided in grooves above and below the holes 22 and groove 23 to seal to the inside wall of body 4. With valve ring 20 sealed to the inside wall of shift valve 21, valve ring 26 initially blocks any iluid within the body 4 and pipe string 2 from entering the piston chamber through holes 17 and 22. The advantage and desirability of this isolation function of valve ring 20 is to prevent any drilling mud or other fluids within well hole 1 from clogging and fouling the holes 17 and 22 and piston chamber as the shoe is lowered through these fluids to its predetermined position. Once in position, the fluids may be yblown from the shoe by gas and the valve ring shifted to a location below the aligned holes 17 and 22 to give the fluid pressure supplied string 2 access to the packer as a piston.

Valve ring 2@ is initially assembled in the bore of shift valve 21 with shear screws 25 holding the ring in its sealing position. The shear screws, or pins, are placed in holes evenly spaced in the walls of valve ring 20 and shift valve 21. FIG. 3 should Ibe specifically referred to as disclosing how the shear member holes are alternated in the wall of valve 21 with aligned holes 17 and 22, in the same Plane.

Shear screws 25 are 'failed by fluid pressure applied to the valve ring 20. The pressure is made effective 0n the ring by closing the central passage through the ring. The passage is specifically closed by dropping a valve member 26 in the form of a ball down pipe string 2 so it will rest on seat 27. Once ball 26 is on seat 27, the fluid pressure subsequently applied `to pipe 2 from a source at surface level will develop a force on both ball 26 and ring 20. Raised to a predetermined first value, `the force of the fluid pressure fails the screws 25 in shear. Valve ring 20 shifts its position to shoulder 28 which is formed on the lower end of shift valve 21. The lrepositioning of valve ring 20 clears aligned holes 17 and 22 as shown in FIG. 4. Check valve ring 18 expands and the fluid pressure of pipe 2 is applied to the end of packer 10 and behind packer 10 to move it into operative sealing position against well lbore 1 wall.

The fluid pressure of pipe 2 is then raised to a second predetermined value. As the fluid pressure increases to its second value the positioning of packer 10 is completed. Shear screws 29 are then failed in shear by the second value of the fluid pressure, shifting valve 21 downward.

Shear screws 29 are spaced about the walls of shift valve Z1 and tubular member 4 in aligned holes provided near the top of shift valve 21. Four of these shear members can be provided, similar to the four shear screws 25.

However, the strength of the two sets of screws, in shear,

is materially different so valve ring 20'wil1 be repositioned first. Y

Shift valve 21 is moved downward, under the force of the Huid pressure developed on ball 26, Vring 20 and valve 21 -as a unit. The movement will continue until shift valve Z1 cornes against shoulder 30 in the wall of body 4. This travel of the valve brings the O-rings 3l and 31A in a position where they seal openings 17 from the interior of the, shoe. FIG. 5 illustrates this final relation of the parts. The fluid pressure in the piston ychamber is trapped on the packer 10, and openings 32 in the wall of body 4 permit passage of fluids from pipe 2 into the annulus formed between the body `4, yand pipe 2 and the walls of the well bore 1 above packer 10. Operated in the foregoing manner, the shoe functions to limit the working of the well bore to above the shoe packer until the shift valve 21, valve ring 20, ball 26 and guide nose 6 are drilled out of the shoe.

From the foregoing it will be seen that this invention is one well adapted to attain all of the ends and objects hereinabove set forth, together with other advantages which are obvious and which are inherent to the apparatus. t

It will be understood that certain features and subcombinations are of utility and may be employed without reference to other features and subcombinations. This is contemplated by and is within the scope of the claims.

` As many possible embodiments may be made of the invention without departing from the scope thereof, it is to be understood that all matter herein set forth or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrativc and not in a limiting sense.

' The invention having been described, what is claimed is:

l. A cementing shoe for an oil well including,

a body in the form of a tube adapted to be carried in the well bore on the end of a pipe string,

a packing element in the form of a cylinder mounted on the external surface of the body tube wall and fixed by one end to the body tube wall,

a housing shell in the form of a cylinder mounted about the outer surface of the body tube wall and spaced from the body tube wall throughout substantially its entire length and extending inwardly from one of its two ends to form a seal with respect to the body tube wall,

said shell forming a piston cylinder sized to receive the free end of the packing element with a sliding tit while said packing element is sealed fluid tight with respect to the housing shell, said packing element having a passage on its internal surface extending from its free end by which fluid pressure is applied between the packing element and body tube wall,

a source of lluid pressure connected to the interior of the housing shell for direct application to the free end of the packing element in the piston cylinder and to the center section of the packing element between the wall of the body tube and the packing element through said passage,

'p whereby the free end of the packing element will be moved toward the fixed end as a piston within the cylinder of the housing shell and the `center section of the packing element will be simultaneously buckled away from the body wall without substantial decrease in cross-sectional thickness of the packing element until a seal is made between the sides of the well bore and the packing element.

2. A cementing shoe for an oil well including,

a body in the form of a tube adapted to be carried in the well bore on the end of a pipe string,

a packing elernent in the form of a cylinder mounted on the external surface of the body tube wall and fixed by one end to the body tube Wall,

a housing shell in the form of a cylinder mounted about the outer surface of the body tube wall and spaced from the body tube wall throughout substantially its entire length and extending inwardly from one of its two ends to form a seal with respect to the body tube wall,

said shell forming a piston cylinder sized to receive the free end of the packing element with a sliding fit while said packing element is sealed fluid tight with respect to the housing shell, said packing element having a passage on its internal surface extending from its free end by which fluid pressure is applied between the packing element and body tube wall,

an opening through the wall of the body tube to the interior of the piston cylinder and above the free end of the packing element,

a source of fluid pressure connected to the opening for direct application to the free end of the packing element in the cylinder formed by the housing shell and for direct application to the center section of the packing element between the external surface of the body tube and the packing element through said passage,

whereby the free end of the packing element will be moved toward the fixed end as a piston within the cylinder of the housing shell and the center section of the packing element will be simultaneously buckled away from the body wall without substantial decrease in cross-sectional thickness of the packing element until a seal is made between the sides of the well bore and the packing element.

3. A cementing shoe for an oil well including,

a body in the form of a tube adapted to be carried in the well bore on the end of a pipe string,

`a packing element in the form of a cylinder mounted on the external surface of the body tube wall and fixed by one end to the body tube wall,

a housing shell in the form of a cylinder mounted about the outer surface of the body tube wall and spaced from the body tube wall throughout substantially its entire length and extending inwardly from one of its two ends to form a seal with respect to the body tube wall,

said shell forming a piston cylinder sized to receive the free end of the packing element with a sliding fit while said packing element is sealed fluid tight with respect to the housing shell, said packing element having a passage on its internal surface extending from its free end by which fluid pressure is applied between the packing element and body tube wall,

an opening through the Wall of the body tube to the interior of the piston cylinder and above the free end of the packing element,

a source of fluid pressure arranged for connection to the opening for direct application to the free end of the packing element in the cylinder formed by the housing shell and for direct application to the center section of the packing element between the external surface of the body tube and the packing element through said passage,

and means positioned within the body to initially obstruct uid flow through the opening and into the interior of the cylinder while the string of pipe is run in the well bore.

4. A cementing shoe for an oil well including,

a body in the form of a tube adapted to be carried in the well bore on the end of a pipe string,

a packing element in the form of a cylinder mounted on the external surface of the body tube wall and fixed by one end to the body tube wall,

a housing shell in the form of a cylinder mounted about the outer surface of the body tube wall and spaced from the body tube wall Vthroughout substantially its entire length and extending inwardly from one of its 7 two ends to form a seal with respect to the body tube wall,

saidshell forming a piston cylinder sized to receive the free end of the packing element with a sliding fit while said packing element is sealed iluid tight with respect to the housing shell, said packing element having a passage on its internal surface extending from its free end by which iluid pressure is applied between the packing element and body tube wall,

an opening through the wall of the body tube to the interior of the piston cylinder and above the free end of the packing element,

a source of uid pressure arranged for connection to the opening for direct application to the free end of the packing element in the cylinder formed by the housing shell and for `direct application to the center section of the packing element between the external surface of the body tube and the packing element, through said passage,

a valve ring positioned within the body tube and sealed across the opening through the wall of the body tube to prevent iluid from passing into the interior of the cylinder formed over the packing element by the housing shell while the string of pipe is run in the well bore,

and a spherical valve member for sealing the valve ring bore in order for lluid pressure to be applied to the ring so it will shift in the body tube and expose the opening through the wall of the body tube to the fluid pressure.

S. A cementing shoe for an oil Well including,

a body in the form of a tube adapted to be carried in the Well bore on the end of a pipe string,

a packing element in the form of a cylinder mounted on the external surface of the body tube wall and iixed by one end to the body tube wall,

a housing shell in the form of a cylinder mounted about the outer surface of the body tube wall and spaced from the body tube wall throughout substantially its entire length and extending inwardly from one of its two ends to form a seal with respect to the body tube wall,

said shell forming a piston cylinder sized to receive the free end of the packing element with a sliding t while said packing element is sealed fluid tight with respect to the housing shell, said packing element having a passage on its internal surface extending from its free end by which fluid pressure is applied between the packing element and body tube wall,

an opening through the wall of the body tube to the interior of the piston cylinder and above the free end of the packing element,

a source of fluid pressure arranged for connection to the opening for direct application to the free end of the packing element in the cylinder formed by the housing shell and for direct application to the center section of the packing element between the external surface of the body tube and the packing element through said passage to move the free end toward the `fixed end and the center section into sealingl engagement with the walls of the Well bore,

a valve ring positioned within the body tube and sealed across the opening through the wall of the body tube to prevent iluid from passing into the interior of the cylinder formed over the packing element by the housing shell While the string of pipe is run in the well bore,

a spherical valve member for sealing the valve ring bore in order for fluid pressure to be applied to the ring so it will shift in the body tube and expose the opening through the wall of the body tube to the fluid pressure,

and a check valve arranged within the cylinder formed over the packing element by the housing shell to prevent the escape of iiuid pressure from the cylinder through the opening after the fluid pressure has been applied to the opening.

6. A cementing shoe for an oil well including,

a body in the form of a tube adapted to be carried in the well bore on the end of a pipe string,

a packing element in the form of a cylinder mounted on the external surface of the body tube wall and fixed by one end to the body tube wall,

a housing shell in the form of a cylinder mounted about the outer surface of the body tube wall and spaced from the body tube wall throughout substantially its entire length and extending inwardly from one of its two ends to form a seal with respect to the body tube wall,

said shell forming a piston cylinder sized to receive the free end of the packing element with a sliding tit while said packing element is sealed fluid tight with respect to the housing shell, said packing element having a passage on its internal surface extending from its free end by which fluid pressure is applied between the packing element and body tube wall,

a first opening through the wall of the body tube above the location at which the housingshell is mounted on the outside wall of the body tube,

a second opening through the wall of the body tube t0 the interior of the piston cylinder and above the free end of the packing element,

a shift valve in the form of a cylinder with an opening and initially positioned within the body tube to seal on either side of the first opening through the wall of the body tube while providing a passage aligned with the second opening through the wall of the body tube so fluid pressure can pass through the aligned passage and opening from the interior of the body tube to the interior of the cylinder formed over the packing element by the housing shell,

means positioned within the body to initially obstruct fluid flow through the aligned passage and second opening while the string of pipe is run in the well bore,

and a source of uid pressure connected to the interior of the body tube for direct application through the second opening to the free end of the packing element in the cylinder formed by the housing shell and for direct application to the center section of the packing element between the external surface of the body tube and the packing element.

7. A cementing shoe for an oil well including,

a body in the form of a tube adapted to be carried in the well bore on the end of a pipe string,

a packing element in the form of a cylinder mounted on the external surface of the body tube wall and lixed by one end to the body tube wall,

a housing shell in the form of a cylinder mounted about the outer surface of the body tube wall and spaced from the body tube wall throughout substantially its entire length and extending inwardly from one of its two ends to form a seal with respect to the body tube wall,

said shell forming a piston cylinder sized to receive the free end of the packing element with a sliding fit while said packing element is sealed fluid tight with respect to the housing shell, said packing element having a passage on its internal surface extending from its free end by which fluid pressure is applied between the packing element and body tube wall,

a rst opening through the Wall of the body tube above the location at which the housing shell is mounted on the outside wall of the body tube,

a second opening through the Wall of the body tube to the interior of the piston cylinder and above the free end of the packing element, Y

a shift valve in the form of a cylinder with an opening and initially positioned within the body tube to seal on either side of the first opening through the wall of the body tube while providing a passage aligned 9 with the second opening through the Wall of the body tube so uid pressure can pass through the aligned passage and opening from the interior of the body tube to the interior of the cylinder formed over the packing element by the housing shell,

a valve ring positioned within the shift valve cylinder and sealed across the passage aligned with the second opening through the wall of the body tube to initially obstruct lluid ow through the aligned passage and second opening while the string of pipe is run in the well bore,

a spherical valve member for sealing the valve ring bore in order for fluid pressure to be applied to the valve lring which will shift the ring in the body tube and aligned passage to the interior of the body tube,

and a source of fluid pressure connected to the interior of the body tube for direct application through the aligned passage and second opening for direct application to the free end of the packing element in the cylinder formed by the housing shell and for direct application to the center of the packing element between the external surface of the body tube and the packing element to move the free end toward the fixed end and the center section into sealing engagement with the walls of the well bore.

References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Smith Oct. 24, 1939 Johnson July 8, 1952 Renouf Feb. 10, 1959

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Classifications
U.S. Classification277/333, 166/187, 166/318, 166/326
International ClassificationE21B33/13, E21B33/14
Cooperative ClassificationE21B33/14
European ClassificationE21B33/14