US 3055124 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept- 25, 1962 G. GILMER, JR., ETAL 3,055,124
TERRESTRIAI.. GLOBE, AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THE SAME Filed Nov. 6, 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet l BY if@ 'rro/ewsy Sept- 25, 1962 G. GILMER, JR., ETAL 3,055,124
TERRESTRIAL GLOBE, AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THE SAME Filed Nov. 6, 1961 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENT R. 0km/AM Q/Me-,e e.
United States Patent Utilice 3,055,124 Patented Sept. 25, 1962 Orange, Calif., and Fredrie W. Bohr, 2969 Fallbrook Drive, Santa Ana, Calif.
Fiied Nov. 6, 1961, Ser. No. 150,386 7 Claims. (Cl. 35-46) This invention relates to a terrestrial globe of the relief type, and also relates to a method of manufacturing such a globe.
An object of the invention is to provide a relief globe which illustrates accurately not only the land masses but also the ocean floor.
Another object is yto provide a relief globe which is substantially unbreakable, and which incorporates means to protect the printed portions from deterioration due to rubbing and the like.
A further object is to provide a globe embodying novel means to facilitate assembly thereof, and `also to permit rotation of the globe about its polar axis.
Another object is to provide a relief globe in which all of the numerous elements may be maintained in assembled relationship in the substantial absence of glued joints, so that assembly is greatly facilitated.
Another object is to provide a method of manufacturing a substantially unbreakable and wear-resistant relief globe in a relatively simple and economical manner, yet one which permits a high degree of beauty, accuracy and realism.
These and other objects and advantages ofthe invention will be more fully set forth in `the following specication and claims, considered in connection With the attached drawings to which they relate.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a schematic perspective view of a relief globe constructed in accordance with the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional View taken generally on line 2 2 of FIGURE l;
FIGURE 3 is an exploded perspective view illustrating schematically the various components of the relief globe;
FIGURE 4 is a perspective view illustrating the two generally hemispherical components of the core or base of the globe;
FIGURE 5 is a view corresponding to FIGURE 4 but illustrating the hemispherical components after they have been united by means of an equatorial joint;
FIGURE 6 is a perspective View illustrating a representation of a land mass as printed or silk-screened on a flat sheet of plastic;
FIGURE 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating the vacuum forming of `the planar plastic sheet of FIGURE 6 into a spherical segment which is much less than a hemisphere;
FIGURE 8 is a perspective view schematically indicating the die-cutting of a land mass from the vacuumformed spherical segment of FIGURE 7; and
FIGURE 9 is a highly enlarged fragmentary sectional view of a portion of the showing of FIGURE 2, indicating the nesting of the land-mass elements between the base or core and the transparent cover means.
Stated generally, the relief globe comprises a base or core 10 which is contoured to represent the ocean iioor and also the land masses, such base being colored blue at least at the ocean floor portions thereof. The globe further comprises a plurality of elements 11 representing land masses and decorated in various colors `to illustrate features of geographical significance. Land mass elements 11 are held against base 111 by means of two transparent hemispheres 12 which are spherical in their portions overlying the ocean door and are contoured correspondingly to the land mass elements in their portions overlying the same. The hemispheres 12 are secured together, around the equator, by a means 13 which additionally provides a mount for the globe 'and permits rotation thereof about its polar axis.
Base or core 10 4may be formed of various materials, including `expanded polystyrene or lthe like, but is preferably formed from sheets (unshown) of suitable plastic. Such sheets are vacuum formed into hemispheres 15 and 16 (FIGURE 4) having portions 17 contoured to represent the `ocean floor, and pontions 18 contoured to represent land masses. Although the portions 18 need not correspond exactly to the contours of the land mass elements 11, they :are so shaped that the land mass elements 11 will lock thereon and remain in place when the transparent henri-spheres 12 are mounted in position. As illus- Atrated in FIGURE 5, the hemispheres 15 and 16 are jointed together at 19, for example by means of a suitable adhesive. The joint 19 may be the only adhesively formed joint in the entire relief globe described herein.
The land mass portions 1 of hemispheres 15 and 16 may be uncolored, but the ocean iloor portions 17 should be colored blue as indicated at X in FIGURE 9. In addition, such ocean floor portions may be provided with suitable printing denoting currents, continental shelves, subterranean mountain ranges, etc.
Proceeding next to `a description of the multi-colored land mass elements 11, each of these is formed by pnoviding a llat sheet 21 of plastic or other -suitable base material, and forming thereon a multi-color representation 22 (FIGURE 6) `of la land mass, for example North America. The representation 22 may be applied to sheet 21 by silk screening, for example.
After completion of the silk-screening operation, sheet 21 is disposed over a mold 23 (FIGURE 7) of the type normally employed in vacuum forming. A conventional vacuum forming operation, including use of a line 24 -to draw a vacuum, is then conducted to elfect drawing ,of sheet 21 down into the mold cavity and against the wall thereof. Such Wall is suitably contoured -to represent the various mountain ranges, etc., of the continent in question. If desired, a mold plug 26 may be employed to aid in the molding operation.
The resulting vacuum-formed sheet is, as represented in FIGURE 8 wherein a die is schematically indicated at 27, die-cut or trimmed around the entire periphery of the continent. A`land-mass element 11 is thus formed in the shape of an actual continent such as North America.
It is important that the silk screening operation described relative to FIGURE 6 -be performed in such a way that the representation 2.2 will be accurate after vacuum forming, -and not before. Thus, the silk-screened lines Iare distorted on Ithe flat sheet illustrated in FIG- URE 6, but are made accurate and undis-torted due to the vacuum forming operation `described relative to FIG- URE 7.
It is another feature of the invention that only a relatively `small section of the entire sphere, not a hemisphere, is vacuum formed as described relative to FIGURE 7. This is in order to prevent excessive distortion of the silk-screened representation 22 on the plastic sheet.
It is to be understood that the land-mass elements 11 thus silk-screened vand vacuum formed may represent less than entire continents. There may be, for example, relatively -small silk-screened elements representing the smaller islands, the polar ice caps, etc. With respect to the polar ice caps, these may also be sprayed in white on appropriate portions of base 10.
Proceeding to a discussion of the two transparent hemispheres 12, these are vacuum formed of a suitable plastic, such as butyrate, and each is provided with an equatorial 3 radial llange 28. Such radial flanges have small lips or shoe-portions 29 formed at right angles thereto as indicated in FIGURE 2.
Hemispheres 12 are spherical over the ocean-floor portions of the globe, as indicated at 30. Therremaining portions of hemispheres 12 are, as indicated at 39a, contoured correspondingly to the'land mass elements 11. Since the portions 30a of hemispheres 12 are contoured correspondingly to land masses 11, and since the land mass portions 18 of base 10 are also contoured correspondingly to masses 11, it follows that upon assembly of the globe the land masses will be locked in position without the need of any adhesive joints or the like.
The hemispheres 12 may be left completely transparent at all points or they may be suitably printed, on their interior surfaces as shown at Y in FIGURE 9, with legends denoting various points of interest on the globe.
Proceeding next to a description of the means 13 for securing the transparent hemispheres 12 together, and for permitting rotation of the globe about its polar axis, this comprises a channel-shaped ring 31 adapted to nt around the radial flanges 23. Ring 31, which may be formed of metal or a suitable pla-Stic, is suitably split to permit mounting thereof around the llanges. A track means is thus formed and is suitably lined with a channel-shaped ring 32 of Teflon, the latter being adapted to receive the lips or shoes 29 in sliding relationship.
Fastener means 33 in the form of decorative iinials are inserted through suitable openings in anges 28 to lock the transparent hemispheres 12 together and also to provide means which may be grasped by the user of the globe to effect rotation thereof. One of the finials 33 is provided with an externally-threaded projection, such projection being adapted to be threaded into an internallythreaded portion of the other nial.
A U-shaped or arcuate frame 34 is secured to diametrically-opposite portions of the ring 31 to effect mounting thereof. The center of frame 34 is suitably secured, through use of a mounting fixture 35, to a lixed support element or to a supporting chain, etc. The means to secure the ends of frame 34 to ring 31 comprise pivot elements 36 adapted to be locked when the ring is at any desired inclination.
Description of Assembly, and Summary of the Method To summarize briey the method of manufacture, the two halves of core or base are rst vacuum formed as indicated relative to FIGURE 4. The resulting hemispheres, having ocean oor portions 17 and land mass portions 18, are then siutably jointed together at `19 (FIG- URE 5). At least the ocean floor portions 17 of base 10 are colored blue as indicated at X in FIGURE 9.
The multi-colored land mass elements 11 are then formed by silk screening, onto plastic sheets 21, representations 22 (FIGURE 6) of continents or other land masses. Such representations 22 are distorted in such manner that, after vacuum forming as described relative to FIGURE 7, the representations will no longer be distorted but will instead be accurate. The vacuum-formed land masses 11 are then trimmed or die cut (FIGURE 8) out of the plastic sheets 21 so that they have the same outlines as do the actual continents.
The transparent hemispheres 12 (FIGURES 1 3) are vacuum formed of highly transparent plastic, being shaped with ocean surface portions 30 and land mass portions indicated -at 30a.
In assembling the globe, it is merely necessary to dispose the various land mass elements 11 on the corresponding portions 18 of base 10. The transparent hemispheres 12 are then mounted thereover and are secured together by means of the fasteners (inials) 33. Since the land mass elements 11 are closely nested between the transparent hemispheres 12 and the base 10, as shown in FIG- URE 2, they are locked rigidly in position.
It is thus seen that the major portion of the globe is asvsembled in a short period of time and in a highly simple and economical manner. This portion of the globe is so strong that it may be bounced like a ball, without being damaged. Furthermore, all of the coloring and indicia are fully protected, against rubbing or other forms of wear, by means of the transparent hemispheres 12. The globe will thus last `for many years, without Wear or deterioration.
The track ring 31, having the Telion liner 32, is then mounted around the flanges 28 and lips 29 of the hemispheres 12. Ring 31 is then pivotally secured, by means of the lock elements 36, to the U-shaped or arcuate frame 34. Frame 34 is, in turn, secured by means of mounting element 35 to a globe base, to the wall, to a suspending chain, etc.
When the operator desires to rotate the globe about its polar axis, he merely grasps one of the nials 33 and effects sliding of the lips or shoes 29 in channel 32. Such sliding is readily performed, but there is suiiicient friction to maintain the globe in any desired rotated position. When it is desired to vary the inclination of the polar axis, the locking elements 36 are released and the globe is tilted to any position.
It is to be understood that base 10 may be formed of translucent plastic or other material, and that a suitable electric light may be mounted therein. Such light should be liuorescent in order to prevent excessive generation of heat. The result is a very beautiful effect which causes the oceans to appear in striking contrast to the land mases.
It is also to be understood that the various components of the terrestrial globe may be sold as a kit, for assembly by the purchaser. -For example, a group of students in a school may effect assembly either with or without the land mass elements `11. Where no such land mass elements are employed, the contoured portions 17 of the base or core 10 may be decorated (with either permanent or removable colors) to represent the various land masses.
Various embodiments of the present invention, in addition to what has been illustrated and described in detail, may be employed Without departing from the scope of the accompanying claims.
l. A terrestrial globe, comprising a hollow transparent plastic ball having ocean surface-representing portions all generally spherical about a common center, said ocean surface-representing portions corresponding to the various oceans of the earth, means formed inwardly o-f said ocean `surface-representing portions and spaced therefrom to in- :dicate the floors of the various oceans, and means provided at Ithe remaining portions of said ball to indicate in relief the various land masses, said last-named means extending further from `said center than do said oceanlsurface lrepresenting portions.
2. A terrestrial globe, which comprises a generally spherical base having ocean-floor portions contoured to represent the floors of the various oceans, means provided on said base between the various ocean floor portions thereof to indicate in relief the various land masses, and a hollow transparent ball mounted around said base land said land-mass indicating means, said ball having generally spherical portions disposed over said oceanfloor portions of said base `and spaced therefrom, said ball also having relief portions fitting closely over said land-mass indicating means.
3. The invention as claimed -in claim 2, .in which said land-mass `indicating means comprise multi-colored representations of vari-ous `features of the land masses of the earth.
4. The invention as claimed in claim 3, in which said land-mass indicating means are individual elements disposed on said base in registry with corresponding porltions thereof, said elements lbeing nested beneath corresponding relief portions of said ball.
5. 'Ihe invention as claimed in cl-aim 2, in which said ball Iis formed i-n `two hernispheres each having a radial equatori-al flange, and in which means are provided to secure `said flanges together.
`6. A terrestrial globe, which comprises a base formed of .-two vacuum-formed hollow plastic hemispheres jointed :together to form .a ball, said lbase having ocean-floor portions contoured lto represent :the oors of the various oceans and colored blue, said base `also having land-mass portions contoured to represent the various land masses, a plurality of separate 1and-mass elements contoured .to represent the various land masses, said land mass elements having multiacolored decori-ations on the outer surfaces thereof to indicate various features of the land masses, said land mass elements being nested over the corresponding land-mass portions of said base, first and second hemispheres of vacuum-formed transparent plastic mounted over said base and over said land mass elements, said hemispheres having generally spherical portions disposed over the ocean-floor portions of said base and also having contoured portions contoured to represent the various land masses, said contoured portions being nested over said land mass element-s and maintaining the same in position over said base.
7. The invention as `claimed -in claim 6, in which said vacuum-formed transparent hemispheres -have radial anges at -the equatorial portions thereof, and in which ltrack means are provided to receive said flanges and permit rotation of the globe about 'the polar axis.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 878,308 Patesson Feb. 4, 1908 1,812,110 Meyerhof June 30, 1931 1,928,025 McEwan Sept. 26, 1933 FOREIGN PATENTS 488,480 Italy Dec. 19, 1953