US 3055750 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 25, 1962 J. J. DE CAROLIS 3,055,750
COLD WEATHER STARTING APPARATUS FOR DIESEL ENGINES Filed Oct. 20, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 i W 40 I $455 /c30 -50 E 52 g *5] 7 22--- 4\- 24- k Fig.1
Iii W w Z4 26' v 2127 25 ml INVENTOR.
p 1962 J. J. DE CAROLIS 3,055,750
COLD WEATHER STARTING APPARATUS FOR DIESEL ENGINES Filed Oct. 20, 1959 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 ITTORIVEKS' p 1952 J. J. DE CAROLIS 3,055,750
COLD WEATHER STARTING APPARATUS FOR DIESEL ENGINES Filed Oct. 20, 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 United States Patent Qiiiice 3,055,750 Patented Sept. 25, 1962 3,655,75t) COLD WEATHER STARTENG APPARATUS FOR DKESEL ENGINES Julius J. De Qarolis, State College, Pa., assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army Filed (Bet. 20, 1959, Ser. No. 847,663 4 Claims. (61. 43-493) The invention relates to the introduction of starting fuels into the intake air stream of internal combustion engines with delivery of the starting fuel in the engine cylinders in the best state for initiating combustion.
The problem of starting internal combustion engines in cold weather, and particularly diesel or other engines using heavy or less volatile oils, has long been recognized as evidenced by US. Patents Nos. 1,250,465 (C. D. Jenney, December 18, 1917), and 1,451,434 (D. Roesch, April 10, 1923). It is commonly known that Cold Weather" exists, insofar as a diesel engine is concerned, at any temperature below plus 40 F. The recent increased use of diesel power and increased interest in arctic and semi-arctic areas has resulted in a renewed search for methods and apparatus to facilitate cold starting of those engines. This need is particularly critical in the military services because of an even more than average increase in interest toward both diesel power and cold areas,
Various aids have been used in the organization of methods and apparatus for the cold starting of internal combustion engines. Developments have included the use of a highly volatile priming fuel such as ethyl ether or di-ethyl ether, the use of heat in the form of heated fuels, heated air, or glow plugs, and induced volatilization of the starting fuel by means of sprays, jets and wicks to introduce the fluid into the air intake of the engine. However, while failing to solve some of the existing problems, as for example maximum vaporization, these partial solutions have introduced other problems of their own. When the vaporization of introduced priming fluids is incomplete and there is a large content of entrained larger droplets, contact of the air mixture with extremely cold surfaces causes precipitation and depositing of the priming fluid on the walls of the intake manifold and other places enroute to the cylinders resulting in the storage of a large amount of priming fluid in the air intake system. This situation presents a problem. When the engine is started, it receives not only the normal fuel supply being introduced through the injectors but also the increased charge of the excess priming fluids suddenly picked up in the intake manifold by the increased air velocities resulting from the engines catching. The combination of normal fuel plus the excess priming fluid can cause incomplete combustion as a result of an improper air fuel ratio of possible long term damage to the engine as well as an uncontrollable overspeeding which could cause immediate harm in the engine.
Previous apparatus for the introduction of priming fluids have failed to take into account the low mass and speed of air flowing through an intake system of an engine during the cranking period and consequently the use of air or hydraulic atomizers which have produced a mass mean drop size in the order of 30-50 microns have been found to be inadequate. These heavier droplets lose velocity and precipitate out of slow moving air whereas a good delivery without gravity or cooling precipitation can be obtained if the mass mean drop size is maintained in the order of 5 microns with actual vaporization of a maximum content of the priming fluid. For example, a test conducted on an engine at minus 30 F. indicated that at the end of a thirty seconds cranking period less than one fourth of the fuel introduced to the intake system ever reached the cylinders, in the case of fuel having a mass mean droplet size of the order of 3050 microns.
The present invention directed to apparatus for the starting of internal combustion engines, particularly diesel engines, in temperatures as low as those normally expected to be encountered anywhere on earth provides for the introduction of a vaporized priming fluid into an engine with the use of heat, jets, air pressure and pressure of vaporization to provide the maximum vaporization and atomization of the starting fluid. The invention also provides for the introduction of the proper amount of priming fluid under the proper pressure for starting an engine at any particular temperature.
It may then be said that the principle object of this invention is to provide apparatus for the introduction of a liquid priming fuel to an internal combustion engine wherein the fuel has been metered, volatilized and introduced under pressure to provide for the delivery of the proper amount of fuel vaporized to the maximum to correspond with the need of the engine as determined by the ambient temperature.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a system to introduce a measured quantity of fluid fuel, in a form providing maximum vaporization and minimum droplet size of the volatilized fuel remaining unvaporized, into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engme.
Another object of the invention is to correlate the amount of a priming fuel and the pressure at which the volatilized fuel is introduced into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine with the ambient temperature or the engine temperature at the time of starting.
Another object of this invention is to combine gaseous pressure, a volatile priming fuel, heat, vapor pressure and gaseous atomization to produce the maximum vaporization and minimum mass droplet size of volatilized but unvaporized priming fuel in the introduction of a priming fuel into an internal combustion engine through the air intake.
Another object of this invention is to correlate the pressure forcing a priming fuel into the intake manifold of an engine with the amount of the fuel introduced to produce a nonlinear rate of introduction of the fuel correlated with the requirement of the engine for an initial maximum followed by a constantly diminished time rate of introduction of priming fuel.
Still another object of this invention is to provide apparatus to facilitate the cold weather starting of internal combustion, particularly diesel, engines adaptable to use over a wide range of temperatures, as for example from plus 40 F. to a minus F.
Briefly, in accordance with this invention, there is provided an apparatus for the introduction of a volatilized liquid priming fuel into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine. The apparatus includes a metering reservoir wherein provision is made for the measuring of a quantity of the liquid fuel to correspond with the ambient temperature and means for introduction of a gaseous pressure to the metering reservoir to drive the metered fuel from it. The apparatus also includes a heated vaporization chamber in communication with the metering reservoir for volatilization and vaporization of fluid introduced to it from th metering reservoir and conduits to lead vaporized fluid from th heated vaporization chamber through the intake manifold. The various components are so arranged that when the heating elements are thermostatically controlled and there is a flow of the liquid fuel from the metering reservoir to vaporization chamber, with the ensuing vaporization of fuel, a maximum pressure will be built up quickly in the vaporization chamber which will in turn drive volatilized fuel from the vaporization chamber into the intake manifold. The arrangement of the components is also such that the pressure on the volatilized fuel will reach an immediate maximum and will then constantly decrease so that there is an initial maximum rate of introduction of volatilized fuel followed by a constantly diminishing rate of introduction of fuel into the intake manifold.
In the accompanying drawings, illustrating preferred embodiments of the improvements comprising the invention:
FIG. 1 is an elevation, partly in section, of an apparatus for the introduction of volatilized priming fuel into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine;
FIG. 2 is an elevation, partly in section, of an apparatus for the introduction of volatilized priming fuel into an internal combustion engine generally according to the same invention as that of FIG. 1 but with modification in the vaporizer and pressure system; and
FIG. 3 is a vertical section of the apparatus of FIG. 2 with modified fuel metering and supplemental pressure components.
Referring more particularly to FIG. 1 of the drawings, the particular embodiment of the invention includes generally a fuel metering reservoir 1 with a conduit 2 interrupted by a solenoid valve 3 for the gravity flow of fuel from the reservoir to a vaporizer 4 which includes a vapor delivery tube 5 protruding from the vaporizer into intake manifold 6 of an internal combustion engine. The fuel metering reservoir 1 may take the form of an upright chamber 7 having one wall 8 of translucent or transparent material, a pressure tight top 9 with a removable filler plug 10 and pressure tight bottom 11 containing tap plug 12 providing for communication from the interior of the reservoir to conduit 2. Wall 8 is provided with graduate markings 13 calibrated in degrees of temperature to indicate the level of a liquid priming fuel such as ethyl ether necessary to start the particular engine to which the apparatus is attached in the particular ambient temperature at the time of starting. Flow of liquid from fuel metering reservoir 1 to vaporizer 4 through conduit 2 is controlled by solenoid valve 3 containing a valve in housing 14, solenoid switch 15 and control circuit 16 which includes a control switch 17 for activation of the circuit and the solenoid.
Vaporizer 4 includes an upright housing 20 into the bottom of which is let tap 21 for flow of liquid from conduit 2 to the interior of the housing. Vaporizer housing 20 contains insulation tube 22 of thin aluminum or other material of small heat capacity but high heat reflection of a shape conforming to that of the interior of vaporizer housing 28 so that it can be spaced from the interior walls of the housing as determined by shoulders 23 to establish an air space 24 surrounding the insulation tube. Resting on the interior step 25 of insulation tube 22 is platform 26 which has its lower surface approximately parallel to but spaced from the interior of the bottom of vaporizer housing 20 so as to provide a fluid conducting space 27 in fluid communication with conduit 2. Platform 26 is ported as at 28 in several places to permit conducting space 27 to be in fluid communication with the interior of insulation tube 22. Within insulation tube 22 there are located a heat storage tube 30 conforming to the interior shape of insulation tube 22 but sufficiently smaller than the insulation tube to provide for a vaporizing chamber or space 31 between their walls and heating cartridge 32 within the heat storage tube 30. The heat storage tube may be made of a fairly heavy gauge copper or other material of good heat conductance and relatively high heat capacity and contains the heating cartridge 32 in heat transfer relationship with itself. Heating cartridge 32 is arranged so as to fill less than the entire space 33 within the heat storage tube and the heat storage tube 30 is ported at 34 to provide for fluid flow from vaporizing space 31 through heat storage tube 30 to the interior space 33 for reasons to be described later.
The vaporizer housing 20 is closed by top 35 which contains a fluid tight tap plug and cap 36 for entrance of wires 37 into the interior of the vaporizer. Wires 37 connect to a power circuit 38 containing switch 19, relay 29, and pilot light 39 and the heating cartridge 32 as controlled by a thermostat 4t). Vaporizer cap 35 is bored through at 41 to provide for the receipt and seating of the vapor delivery tube 5 and tap 42 in such a way that the interior of the vapor delivery tube 5 and tap 42 are in fluid communication with the space 33 within the heat storage tube of the vaporizer. Tap 42 forms a connection for a pressure or vapor conduit 43 which is in turn connected to tap 44 through a wall of chamber 7 for fluid communication with the interior of the fuel metering reservoir 1. Vapor delivery tube 5 is elongated and contains a vapor passage 45 extending through the shank portion 46 and vapor nozzle 47 which latter protrudes into the intake manifold 6. The construction of the vapor delivery tube resembles that of vaporizer 4 in that the vapor passage 45 is defined by an interior Wall 48 of a material having good heat conductivity and high heat capacity. An outer wall 49 of good heat reflection and low heat capacity serves to contain the intermediate heating element layer including insulation and a helical electrical heating wire 50 of common design powered by a source of current not shown.
In operation, the apparatus of FIG. 1 is charged by the insertion of a proper amount of priming fuel such as ethyl ether into the metering reservoir 1 through filler plug 10 as indicated by the proper temperature graduation 13 with the solenoid valve 3 in a closed position. Circuit 38 is then activated to heat heating cartridge 32 which causes the interior of the vaporizer to reach a predetermined heat above the boiling point of the priming fluid which temperature is maintained by thermostat 4th. Relay 29 which is normally closed connects light 39 when thermostat 40 is open, disconnecting the heater 32, but is electrically biased to connect thermostat 40 to the battery when heating is required. After pilot light 39 indicates a condition of readiness, switch 17 in the solenoid valve circuit may be closed prior to or in conjunction with activation of the engine starter. Closing switch 17 opens solenoid valve 3 and permits the priming fluid to gravitate through conduit 2, fluid conducting space 27 and ports 28 into the vaporizing space 31 where the priming fluid is quickly subjected to a temperature above its boiling point. The immediate result of contact of the priming fluid with heat storage tube 30 is a commencement of heat induced vaporization which causes vapor to flow on through the vaporizing space 31, ports 34 through the heat storage tube 30, space 33, the bore at 41 in the cap and into both conduit 43 and the vapor passage 45. As the pressure caused by the vaporization increases, there is an increase of pressure in the fuel metering reservoir over the top of the remaining liquid fuel which forces all of that priming fluid from the metering reservoir and conduit 2 into the vaporizer. The build up of pressure causes the vapor to be forced through vapor passage 45 into intake manifold 6. A most important result of this arrangement is that the pressure caused by the vaporization of the primer quickly gains a maximum which is dissipated by the exit of vapor through the vapor delivery tube 5 causing the time rate of delivery of vaporized primer from vapor nozzle 47 to reach a peak at the initial portion of the cranking cycle when it is most needed in the engine and thereafter to constantly diminish to provide some but not too much priming fluid as the engine begins to fire.
In FIG. 2 the fuel metering reservoir 51 is connected by means of conduit 52 interrupted by solenoid valve 53 to the vaporizer 54 which is provided with a vapor delivery tube 55 to the intake manifold 56 of an internal combustion engine. Fuel metering reservoir 51 includes a chamber defined by walls 57 and translucent or transparent wall 58 made pressure tight by the top 59 and bottom 61, the top 59 being provided with a filler plug 60. Communication between the interior of the fuel metering reservoir 51 and conduit 52 is by means of tap 62. Wall 58 of the reservoir carries graduate markings 63 corresponding to markings 13 but with the addition of a scale reading in pounds per square inch as shown in the drawings. Solenoid valve 53 is identical to the arrangement of solenoid valve 3 of FiG.- 1 and the elements 64, 65, 66, and 67 are the counterparts of the valve housing 14, solenoid switch 15, solenoid circuit 16 and switch 17 respectively.
Vaporizer 54, shown here in vertical section as having a triangular configuration, may be of any shape as pyramidal, conical or V shaped, is built about a flo r plate 70 of heavy gauge copper or other material of good heat conductivity and high heat capacity. Sloping interior walls 71 are made of thin aluminum or other material of good heat conductance and low heat capacity to reduce the heat energy requirement. The floor plate 70 and interior walls 71 are surrounded by heating wire element 72 which is packed in an insulation and retained in place and protected by an exterior wall 74 which preferably has properties of heat reflection and low heat capacity. The heating wire 72 also extends into the vapor delivery tube 55 and is powered by power circuit 78 which includes the relay 69, the pilot light 79, thermostat 80 and switch 87. Relay 69 normally maintains its switch to light 79 closed, opening it on the passing of current through the heating wire loop of the circuit. Vaporizer 54 also includes block 75 at the juncture of the side walls facing floor plate 70 and bore plug 76 which interconnects the conduit 52 and spray nozzle 77. Spray nozzle '77 is coordinated with floor plate 70 so that spray size, distance of nozzle to plate and plat-e area are selected to cause nozzle 77 to cast a finely divided spray evenly over floor plate 70 at normal range conditions of pressure and priming fluid flow. Vapor delivery tube 55 which is set into the side of vaporizer 54 by means of the sleeve 81 is identical in structure to vapor delivery tube 5 previously explained.
Instead of the regenerative pressure system used in FIG. 1, the embodiment of FIG. 2 uses a separate pressure system 82 which includes an air pump 83 connected to the fuel metering reservoir by means of conduit 84 which is let through wall 57 by means of tap 85. Also attached to and communicating with the interior of the fuel metering reservoir is a pressure gauge 86 of commercial type. Graduations 63 on wall 58 include the same calibration in degrees Fahrenheit as found at 13 in FIG. 1 and in addition carry a corresponding pressure in pounds per square inch. The graduation marlings 63 therefore serve not only to indicate the amount of liquid priming fluid to be placed in the metering reservoir but also indicate the proper pressure under which to place the priming fluid to produce the desired result of intense initial pressure and the following required rate of decrease of pressure. The markings 63 must therefore be determined by calculation or experiment for any particular internal combustion engine to which the apparatus is fitted.
Operation of the apparatus of FIG. 2 is substantially identical with that of FIG. 1 and requires charging of the metering reservoir 51 through filler plug 60 to the desired level as indicated by the temperature graduations 63 with the solenoid valve 53 in the closed position. The reservoir is then charged with a gaseous pressure to that indicated on the graduations 63 by means of pump 83 with the pressure being indicated on gauge '86. At the same time, heater circuit 78 is activated by closing switch 87 to bring the vaporizer and particularly floor plate 70 to the desired temperature as controlled by thermostat 80, which temperature is above the boiling point of the particular priming fluid used. When the proper temperature of vaporizer 54 is reached,
6 the apparatus is in condition for starting the engine as indicated by pilot light 79 which is switched on by deactivation of the coil in relay 69.
With the vaporizer at the proper heat, the priming phase of the apparatus is commenced by the closing of switch 67 to open valve 53 either in advance of or in connection with the commencement of cranking the engine. Opening of valve 53 permits expulsion of the priming fluid from the metering reservoir under the gaseous pressure previously mentioned through spray nozzle 77 to cause the priming fluid to be applied directly against hot floor plate 70. The injection of priming fluid into the vaporizer under pressure and the resulting vaporization of the priming fluid as it hits the hot floor plate 70 causes a quick rise in pressure within the vaporizer. This pressure causes the hot vapor to be forced through the heated vapor deliveiy tube into the intake manifold 56 of the engine. Delivery of vapor into the manifold is according to the same time rate pattern as was explained in connection with the view of FIG. 1, i.e., an initial maximum or peak rate of delivery followed by a constantly decreasing rate of priming fuel delivery. In this instance the decrease in rate of delivery results directly from the fact that a decrease of pressure in the fuel metering reservoir caused by the expansion of the gas in the reservoir to replace the escaping liquid decreases the pressure with a consequent slowing of the rate of delivery of the primer from spray nozzle 77 Again through coordination of the amount of primer, pressure, vaporizer heat and chamber size of the vaporizer, the primer fuel delivery into the intake manifold is coordinated with the starting of the particular engine.
In FIG. 3 there is a vertical section of the invention generally corresponding with FIG. 2 except for the use of an automatic fuel metering system which is slightly different from the visually charged fuel metering reservoir of FIG. 2. Generally in FIG. 3 there are a priming fuel tank 90, priming fuel metering reservoir 91 and vaporizer 94 which is identical to and serves the same purpose as vaporizer 54 as illustrated in FIG. 2 and previously described. Solenoid 95 controlling valve 93 interrupting conduit 92 between the fuel metering reservoir 91 and its accompanying control circuit is also identical with the solenoid 65 and circuit 66 illustrated in FIG. 2 and for that reason not included in FIG. 3. Priming fuel tank 90 is any convenient fuel tank with a filler plug 96 and two ports 97 and 98 in the bottom. Metering reservoir 91 consists principally of a block 100 which contains horizontal bores 101, 102, and 103 and reselvoir chamber 104- which is closed by bottom plate 105 shaped for drainage into plug 106 to which is connected conduit 92. Block 100 is also provided with vertical bores 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, and 112 and relief 113. Block 100 and tank 90 are fastened together with registry between relief port 97 and bore 107 and between fuel port 98 and bore 108.
Bore 101 contains fuel valve 115 secured in the bore by means of plug 116 and retained in pressure charge position by means of spring 118. Fuel valve 115 carries piston portions 119 with the sealing rings 120 which are in fluid tight registry with the interior of bore 101 and reduced portions 121 which serve as fluid conduits. Piston portions 119 and reduced portions 121 of fuel valve 115 are so arranged that when the valve is in the pressure charge position illustrated as biased by spring 118 there is fluid communication between relief port 97 and fuel port 98 of the fuel tank and fluid communication between vertical bores 110 and 111 of the block whereas when the valve is moved to the fill position by an operators pulling on handle 117 compressing spring 113 relief port 97 is in fluid communication with vertical bore 109 and fuel port 98 is in fluid communication with vertical bore 110 in which is seated one end of filler tube 122 while bore 11.1 is blocked from fluid communication with any other port or bore.
Metering shaft 123 is journaled in bore 102 and contains a longitudinal bore 125 open to vertical passage 109 at the internal end of the shaft and continuing up the shaft toa convenient location for metering tube 126 which protrudes normally to the shaft and has one end seated into a radial bore 127 to provide fluid communication from bore 109 through longitudinal bore 125 and metering tube 126. Metering shaft 123 terminates at its opposite end in pinion 128 and is retained in bore 102 by means of retainer plug 124.
Attached beneath block 100 at the cutaway portion 129 is temperature control 130 which includes a mounting block 131 bored to permit passage at shaft 132, liquid filled bellows 133, bellows cover 134, and capillary tube 135 forming the path for transmission of fluid pressure between bellows 133 and a liquid filled temperature probe 136 which is supported by the engine block 137 with the temperature probe protruding into the coolant 138 of the engine. For effective operation, the volume of temperature probe 136 is large compared to the volumes of bellows 133 and capillary tube 135. The temperature control 130 also includes a coil spring 139 operating between the mounting block 131 and bellows cap 140 to bias the bellows toward a contracted position. Shaft 132 of the temperature control is secured to bellows cap 140 and extends onto bore 112 of metering block 100 to terminate in rack 141, a prolongation of shaft 132.
Rack 141 mehes with pinion 128 and carries cam 143 which is positioned to move back and forth across the axis of bore 103. Bore 103 carries spring valve 145 which is biased against valve seat 146 by means of spring 147 and cam follower 148. Plug 149 serves to close the open end of bore 103. Bypass 113 vents valve seat 146 and reservoir chamber 104 to the atmosphere through the side of block 100 as controlled by valve 145. Block 100 also carries a pump 150 which is mounted with its exhaust seated in bore 111.
Operation of the automatic priming fuel metering apparatus illustrated in FIG. 3 varies slightly from operation of the apparatus as illustrated in FIG. 2 in that the measuring of the proper amount of priming fluid and air pressure is determined automatically from the engine temperature rather than by the manual filling of a reservoir to a graduation corresponding to ambient temperature. Contraction of a liquid contained in bellows 133 and temperature probe 136 because of the coldness of the engine causes a contraction of the bellows 133 under the bias of spring 139 accompanied by a lowering of shaft 132 which through rack 141 causes a rotation of metering tube 126 about the axis of shaft 123 to swing the open end of metering tube 126 in an arc to increase its vertical distance from bottom plate 105' of the reservoir chamber. This open end of metering tube 126 will as hereinafter explained determine the fluid level and con sequently the volume of priming fluid to be used in a start. The downward movement of shaft 132 is also accompanied by an increase of the pressure that the earn 143 exerts on the cam follower 148 so as to increase the amount of fluid pressure needed to open valve 145 to vent reservoir chamber 104 to the atmosphere through bypass 113.
In preparation for a start after, or concurrently with, the activation of the vaporizer heater in the manner explained in connection with the discussion of FIG. 2, the fuel metering apparatus of FIG. 3 is charged by the operators pulling on handle 117 to move fuel valve 115 to the contracted position of spring 118 permitting priming fluid to gravitate from tank 90 through fuel port 93, vertical bores 108 and 110 of block 100 and through filler tube 122 into reservoir chamber 104. Air trapped in reservoir chamber 104 escapes through the route of metering tube 126 and bores 125, 109, 107, and relief port 97 into tank 90. This escape route of air will ensue even though an initial surge of priming fluid may run through relief port 97 until such time as the priming level in the reservoir chamber reaches the open end of filler tube 122. When the level of priming fluid reaches the open end of metering tube 126, the escape of air from the reservoir chamber 104 is cut 011, preventing further flow of priming fluid from tank into the reservoir chamber. Reservoir chamber 104 may be provided with visual means to permit the operator to see when the fuel stops running if the normally ensuing noises of filling the reservoir are not sufiicient. When the operator releases handle 117 to permit spring 118 to bias the fuel valve to its pressure charge position, the reservoir chamber 104 contains the amount of primer that will be used but under insufficient pressure to cause the proper forcing of the fluid from the reservoir chamber 104 into vaporizer 94. The pressure charging is accomplished by means of pump 150 which has been placed into communication with filler tube 122 by release of valve handle 117. The reservoir chamber 104 is charged with air until the pressure is sufiicient to operate valve venting the chamber to the atmosphere. Escape of air through bypass 113 indicates to the operator that the primer is charged. Operation then continues in the same manner as described in connection with FIGS. 1 and 2 by activation of solenoid valve 93 to permit passage of the priming fluid into the vaporizer and intake manifold as illustrated in FIG. 2.
It is to be understood that the form of the invention herein shown and described is a preferred example of the same and that various changes in size, shape, and arrangement of parts may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the appended claims.
1. Apparatus for cold Weather starting by the introduction of volatilized priming fluid into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine comprising a pressure isolated reservoir, means for measuring a specific amount of priming fluid into said reservoir, a vaporizer having a vaporizing chamber and an electrical heating element in the chamber for vaporization of priming fluid, a valved conduit interconnecting said reservoir and said vaporizer for gravity flow of fluid from the reservoir to the vaporizer chamber, an elongated vapor delivery tube attached at one end to the vaporizer and having a nozzle at its opposite end adapted to be placed in the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine for delivery of vaporized priming fluid from the vaporizer chamber to the intake manifold of an engine, and a gaseous pressure system for the introduction of a pressurized gas into said reservoir on top of a level of priming fluid therein, said pressure system including means responsive to an increase in temperature providing for an initial large pressure which will diminish itself in driving the priming fluid from the reservoir to the vaporizer and in driving vaporized priming fluid from the vaporizer through the vapor delivery tube.
2. Apparatus for cold weather starting by the introduction of a vaporized priming fuel into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine comprising a pressure tight fuel metering reservoir and a vaporizer located with respect to said reservoir so as to permit gravitation of liquid from said reservoir to said vaporizer, said reservoir including means for introduction of liquid into the reservoir and means for measuring a predetermined amount of liquid in the reservoir, said vaporizer including a vaporizing chamber, means for heating and maintaining a predetermined heat in said vaporizing chamber and a vapor delivery tube carried by said vaporizer for delivery of vapor from said vaporizing chamber to an intake manifold of an internal combustion engine, said reservoir and vaporizer being interconnected and maintained in said relative position by a first fluid conduit interconnecting the bottom of the reservoir and the bottom of the vaporizing chamber, said first fluid conduit including a shut-off valve and means for operating that valve, a second fluid conduit interconnecting said reservoir and said vaporizing chamber near the tops thereof whereby placing a predetermined amount of priming fuel into the reservoir, raising the temperature of said vaporizing chamber to a temperature above the boiling point of the priming fluid in the reservoir and opening said shut-off valve will cause gravitational flow of the priming fuel from said reservoir to said vaporizing chamber, vaporization of said priming fuel, creation of a gaseous pressure in said vaporizing chamber, in said second fluid conduit and in said reservoir allowing continued flow of the priming fuel from said reservoir to the vaporizing chamoer and allowing continued vaporization of the fuel whereby a vapor under pressure will be caused to flow from said vaporizer through said vapor delivery tube to an internal combustion engine.
3. Apparatus for cold weather starting by the introduction of volatilized priming fluid into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine to facilitate cold weather starting comprising a pressure isolated fuel metering reservoir, a vaporizer including a vaporizing chamber, valved conduit means interconnecting the reservoir and the vaporizer for fluid communication between the interior of the reservoir and the vaporizer chamber and a vapor delivery tube carried by the vaporizer for delivery of vapor from the vaporizing chamber to an intake manifold of an internal combustion engine, said reservoir including means for metering into the reservoir a predetermined amount of liquid priming fuel and means for subjecting priming fuel in said reservoir to a gaseous pressure, said vaporizer being in position to receive a gravitational flow of liquid from said reservoir and including means for heating said vaporizing chamber and maintaining said vaporizing chamber at a predetermined temperature, said valved conduit means including a shut-off valve and being in position with respect to the reservoir and the vaporizer to carry a liquid from the reservoir to the vaporizing chamber under the force of gravity, said means for introduction of fuel into the reservoir including a fuel tank and a fluid conduit interconnecting the fuel tank and the reservoir, temperature sensitive control means acting upon said reservoir for determining the appropriate fuel level in the reservoir and adjustable level control means within the reservoir responsive to said temperature sensitive control means for controlling flow of fuel from the tank to the reservoir to accomplish the fuel level determined by the temperature sensitive control means, said means for subjecting priming fuel in said reservoir to a gaseous pressure including linearly responsive means controlled by said temperature sensing control device for limiting the amount of gaseous pressure to be introduced into the reservoir and for producing a diminishing pressure within the system, said means for maintaining the vaporizing chamber at a predetermined temperature including a thermostat and a signal device to indicate maintenance of the vaporizing chamber at the predetermined temperature and said vapor delivery tube having one end carried by said vaporizer with its interior fluid communication with said vaporizing chamber and with its other end having a vapor nozzle adapted for insertion into the interior of an intake manifold of an internal combustion engine whereby an amount of priming fuel determined to be appropriate for the existing temperature of an internal combustion engine may be metered into said reservoir and subjected therein to the gaseous pressure appropriate for the particular temperature and amount of priming fuel and caused to flow through the valved conduit into the vaporizing chamber, vaporized and forced through the vapor delivery tube into an intake manifold of an internal combustion engine under pressure.
4. Apparatus for the introduction of volatilized priming fluid into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine to facilitate cold Weather starting comprising a pressure isolated fuel metering reservoir, a vaporizer including a vaporizing chamber, valved conduit means interconnecting the reservoir and the vaporizer for fluid communication between the interior of the reservoir and the vaporizer chamber and a vapor delivery tube carried by the vaporizer for delivery of vapor from the vaporizing chamber to an intake manifold of an internal combustion engine, said reservoir including means for metering into the reservoir a predetermined amount of liquid priming fuel and means for subjecting priming fuel in said reservoir to a gaseous pressure, said vaporizer being in position to receive a gravitational flow of liquid from said reservoir and including means for heating said vaporizing chamber and maintaining said vaporizing chamber at a predetermined temperature, said valved conduit means including a shut-off valve and being in position with respect to the reservoir and the vaporizer to carry a liquid from the reservoir to the vaporizing chamber under the force of gravity, said vaporizing chamber containing and being nearly filled by said means for heating and maintaining a predetermined temperature, and said means for subjecting priming fuel to a gaseous pressure including a pressure conduit interconnecting the interior of the reservoir and vaporizing chamber at their respective upper portions whereby an amount of priming fuel determined to be appropriate for the existing temperature of an internal combustion engine may be metered into said reservoir and subjected therein to the gaseous pressure appropriate for the particulartemperature and amount of priming fuel and caused to flow through the valved conduit into the vaporizing chamber, vaporized and forced through the vapor delivery tube into an intake manifold of an internal combustion engine under pressure.
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