US 3058551 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. J. MARTIN 3,058,551
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND ELEMENTS THEREFOR Oct. 16, 1962 6 Sheets-Sheet l Filed 001'.. 16, 1959 aol Zeno@ IN VEN TOR.
l .i m I l l l l IIIIII l .yV/"IV//M// Ir//Lxz1 A Susa a 11 Oct. 16, 1962 J. J. MARTIN 3,058,551
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND ELEMENTS THEREFOR Filed Oct. 16, 1959 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 @ggf A JNVENToR. Jas/oer ffar'vz Oct. 16, 1962 J. J. MARTIN 3,058,551
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND ELEMENTS THEREFOR Filed Oct. 16, 1959 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 IN VEN TOR.
Oct. 16, 1962 .1.J. MARTIN 3,058,551
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND ELEMENTS THEREFOR Filed Oct. 16, 1959 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 IN V EN TOR.
Jasperfrm BYUJ OSUGAMLCBM forn Oct. 16, 1962 .1.J. MARTIN 3,058,551
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND ELEMENTS THEREFOR Filed Oct. 16, 1959 -6 Sheets-Sheet 5 INV ENTOR J'asper JNarn' .zT-1920 CAD am@ LO, @www ATTORNEY Oct. 16, 1962 J. J. MARTIN 3,058,551
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND ELEMENTS THEREFOR Filed Oct. 16, 1959 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 BY ummm LAM ATTORNEY 3,058,551 BURDING CONSTRUCTIGN AND ELEMENTS THEREFOR Jasper J. Martin, Rte. 18, Knoxville, Tenn. Filed Uct. 16, 1959, Ser. No. 846,843 3 Claims. (Cl. 189-34) This invention relates to building elements and particularly to elements for use in structures which may have pre-fabricated parts.
The primary object of this invention is the provision of an improved building construction.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved building element for securing plates or other parts together.
Still another object of the invention is the provision of an improved building element for securing plates or other parts together and which will have a maximum resiliency when exposed to the pressure of the wind.
A further object of the invention is the provision of an improved building element for securing plates or other building elements together which has no two parts with sharp angles therebetween, thereby giving a maximum resiliency with a minimum liability of breakage when exposed to wind pressure or when exposed to any outside strains.
-Another and further object of the invention is the provision of an improved building element which is adapted for various uses such as a stud, a rafter or a floor beam, in any or all of these uses giving a maximum stiffness where desired and a maximum flexibility where needed.
A still further object of the invention is the provision of an improved building construction wherein is provided a series of overlapping insulation compartments to assist in prevention of the passage of heat.
Still another and further object of the invention is the provision of a building element having an elongated body with an S-shape cross section having oppositely disposed substantially at portions and an intermediate ogee section, thereby forming a circuitous route for the passage of heat through the ogee section and providing overlapping compartments for the occupation of insulation.
Another and still further object of the invention is the provision of au improved building construction having elongated elements for use as rafters or as studs having an S-Shape cross section, with plates secured to opposite sides of the S and with insulation between the plates, thus forming overlapping sections of insulation with a long passage for any escape heat to travel.
Still another object of the invention is the provision of an improved building construction, having outside or inside plates or both, and an element therefor, having a substantially S-shape cross section, with provision for the entry of the edges of the plates into receiving portions of the element, and provision for sealing the plates to the element.
A still further object of the invention is the provision of a building element such as a built up stud, rafter or joist which will have a central elongated element of substantially S-shape or ogee cross section with such thickness and proportions that when rigidly attached to cooperating plates by its substantially plane parallel end portions, will provide a construction within a building, of which it is a part, a substantial weight-carrying wall, roof or yfloor having any desired ilexibility and resiliency, depending upon the said thickness and proportions, and yet after being flexed will return to its normal shape and form after the wind pressure or other outside flexing force, is removed.
Referring to the drawing wherein I have illustrated forms of my invention,
FIG. 1 is a cross section of an element of my invention.
FIG. 2 is a front view showing parts in elevation.
FIG. 3 is a sectional View taken on the Iline 3 3 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a detail view of an overlapping joint.
FIG. 5 is a detail sectional view showing the two fastening means illustrated but with the insulation removed.
FIG. 6 is a detail sectional View showing the top plate- -gutter member 26 in position.
FIG. 7 is of a modified type of top plate-gutter member 126.
FIG. 8, FIG. 8a and FIG. 8b are parts in relative position for assembly to connect the two parts of the gutter together.
FIG. 9 is a detail showing of another way of connecting lengths of gutters together. l
FIG. 10 is a detail vertical cross section of the treatment adjacent a door or other wall end.
FIG. 1l is a showing of the element of construction forming a part of my invention when used as a rafter.
FIG. l2 is a showing of the construction as used at the top of the roof of a building where my invention is= applied.
FIG. 13 is a showing of a building to which my invention has been applied.
FIG. 14 is a modified form of the structural element having the S-shape cross section but having a sealing groove construction to act to retard the passage of rain water and wind.
FIG. .15 is a further modified form of the element having the S-shape cross section, having two sealing grooves instead of one shown in FIG. 14.
FIG. 16 is a detail elevational view of an additional means to hold the rafter on the top member 26.
FIG. 17 is a detail plan View of the same portion of the structure, showing the additional holding means disclosed in FIG. 16.
FIG. 18 is a perspective view of my invention with the end portions of the S-shape structure extending outwardly beyond the curved portion of the element to provide better accessibility to the fastening means and grooves in the plates and stud 400 to provide greater stability and strength.
FIG. 19 is a View similar to FIG. 18 but showing a 'variation in the means for fastening the parts together.
FIG. 20` is a view similar to FIG. 19 but illustrating the two groove-rib constructions on each extending portion of the S-shape member.
FIG. 2l is an enlarged View showing a means for securing the elements together by Welding.
FIG. 22 is a detail view showing the parts spot-welded together.
FIG. 23 is a view illustrating the details of a construction at a corner.
FIG. 23a is a view showing a structure which is complementary to the structure of FIG. 23.
FIG. 24 is a modied form using corrugated metal sheets in the S-shape studs.
FIG. 25 is a modification illustrating the invention applied to a truck body.
FIG. 26 is a cross-sectional view on the line 26-26 of FIG. 25.
Similar reference characters refer to the same or similar parts throughout the specication and drawing.
Referring particularly to FIGS. l to 3, inclusive, 20 designates a building element having, in the illustrated embodiment, a regular S-shape cross section and is made of sheet material. The particular material may be a plastic, a metal, -an alloy, or any other suitable substance.
In building constructions, the S-shape member is elongated and is used as a stud or rafter or in any place where an elongated strengthening member might be needed. i
Secured to the outer portion a of the S-shape member 20 are plates 21 which are attached by machine screws and nuts 23 or Aby sheet metal screws 23a or by any other suitable means. 'Ihe outer plates 21 are preferably abutted at their adjacent edges as shown in FIG. 1.' The intermediate portion 2Gb of the element 20 is preferably substantially parallel to the outer portion 29a for a purpose to be later made clear.
The inner portion 20c of the S-shape member 20 is similar to the outer portion 20a just described. Secured .to the surface of the inner portion are plates 21a which are similar in construction to the plates 21 attached to the outer por-tion 20a of the S-shape element. These plates 21a are used when an inner wall is desired.
One of the features of my invention is the construction of the element which as shown, provides a long passage for the escape of heat from the interior of the building of which it is a part or the admission of heat from the outside to the inside when it is desired to have the interior of the building cool as in the summer time. This result is brought about by the long passage necessary for the heat to travel through the curved portions 20d and the intermediate portion 20b.
In addition, it desired, I provide an insulation material 24, a section of which is located between each two sections of the building located between two S-shape elements 20. It will be clear from FIG. l that these insulation sections 24 overlap at the element 20h and in a case where a workman did not properly install the insulation 24 by proper packing, the construction of the overlapping portions of the insulation would cause a longer pathfor the circulation of air with a consequent saving in theV dissipation of heat, either from within or from outsidethe structure.
In order to have a tight construction at the place where the plates 21 abut each other and are attached to the 4outer and inner portions 20a, 20c of the element 20, I provide a sealing layer or strip 25 which may be of any suitable material such as a plastic material which may be applied in a sheet strip or applied by brush in liquid or semi-liquid form during or after fabrication of the plates or elements or both.
' In case it is necessary to use plates on very long studs Or rafters, so that it is not convenient or desirable to use a plate as long as the element 20, I have provided for an overlapping of the plates 21 or 21a or both, at the places where adjacent plates come together. In such cases the bottoms of the plates along a narrow strip 2lb at the edge, are off-set the thickness of the plates as shown in FIG. 4, at 21e. The edges of adjacent plates may be secured in relative rigid positions by the sheet metal screws 23a as shown in FIGS. 2 and 4. However, in the ordinary con- 'structions, it is desirable to have as few joints as possible and the ideal construction would have the plates 21 or 21a extend the full length ofthe elements 20.
l In the manufacture ofV the Vparts of my construction of elements 20 and plates 21 and 21a,` the plates may have all or a part of the'scr'ew holes put in before coming onto the job or they may have the positions of the centers of the holes indicated by centerpunch marks in which case the openings for the screws are drilled on the job. The actual construction of the openingslfor the screws 23, 23a may be made by a combined drill and tap or the registering openings in the plates 21, 21a and the S-shape member 20 may be made by a simple drill and the plates secured together by the well-known sheet metal screws.
The insulation 24 may come onto the job secured to the plate 21 or the plate 21a and the insulation and plate put inplace together, or the insulation may be packed in at the job either loose or in sheets,`as desired.
' One method of puttingmy construction together, is to use machine bolts and screws on the outside of the building construction when both sides of the S-shape element 20 are accessible and secure the inside plates 21a by sheet metal screws. In this manner, the machine ,screws fur'- nish an insurance against unauthorized removal of the plates lfrom the outside by any easy method.
In applying sheets 21 where the overlapping portion 2lb is used, the overlapping portion may be held in place by machine screws 23 on the outside of the building and by sheet metal screws 23a. on the inside.
The upper edge of the wall formed by the S-shape member 20 and the plates 21 and 21a with the insulation 24 therein is provided with a top cover plate 26 which, if desired has an outer gutter portion 26a at the outer edge and a down-turned inner edge portion 26h. The gutter portion 26a and the turned-down portion 26b provide against the entry of moisture. See FIG. 6. To insure against the entry of water by wind pressure against the wall, it is sometimes desirable to have a thin gasket 27 which may be made in a strip or put on in a liquid or semi-liquid state as described for the sealing layer or strip 25. Without such a sealing strip Where water is in contact with the outer wall, a high velocity wind may force rain water upwardly and into the insulation space between the outer plate 21 and the inner plate 21a. With the gutter portion 26a at the outer edge of the cover plate 26 the rain Water is conducted away to proper downspouts and away from the building.
An alternative structure for the top plate is illustrated in FIG. 7 wherein the body of the plate 126 is provided with an inner turned-down edge 12611 and an ornamental trough-member 126s.
To secure the top-plate 26, 126 to the structure, there are provided sheet metal screws 23a at the turned-down edge 261:, 126b to be held to the upper edge of the inner plate 21a and similarly, the gutter portion 26a is secured to the outer plates 21 by the sheet metal screws 29a, as shown in FIG. 6. When the sheet metal screws 23a are in position to hold the top-plate 26 in place, the sealing strips 27 seal the connections between the top-plate 26 ad the plates 2l, 21a. against the entry of water at these e ges.
To take care of the passage of water from one section of the gutter 26a to another section, I have provided connectors 26d. These will now be described. The connectors themselves are strips of the same shape as a short section of the gutter whether it is of the shape shown in FIG. 6, or the shape in FIG. 7.
In fabricating the lengths of the gutter 26, 26a, an olfset portion 26cis stamped to provide for connection to the connector 26d or to the adjacent length or gutter, as will be later made clear.
Referring to FIGS. 8, 8a, 8b and 9, the gutter portions `26a are provided with lap-portions 26C at the ends of the sections. These are used where the gutter portions are longer than the length of the usual gutter sections. These lap-portions are larger than the cross section of the gutter so that when the assembly is complete, the inside of the gutter will be continuous as will now be described.
In FIG. 8b, the connector 26d is shown separated from the gutter lengths 26a, and 4this gure shows the screw holes 26x used by the fastening means to secure the sections 26a of the gutter together. It is to be noted that when the parts are secured together, the two sections 26a with the connector 26d form a continuous slope for the rain water in the gutter to carry the Water to the downspout. When it is necessary to cut a gutter and topplate section, because the actual length is shorter than the needed length, the cut end is registered with the lapportion 26e of the adjacent section as shown in FIG. 9. The continuous conformation of the bottom of the trough is maintained with this construction.
When a corner section or a down-spout section is needed, the ends are constructed as heretofore indicated for the gutter lengths, and the necessary connectors are used to hold the sections together.
When it is necessary to close the end of a section assembly as when a door section or a window section is to be inserted, I provide a special construction which will now be described.
Referring to FIG. 10, the parts 21, 21a 20, 23, 23a are similar to and perform the same functions of similar parts as already described. In order to close what would otherwise be an open space between the plates 21 and 21a, I provide an end closure member 28 which has turnedin edges 28a for attachment to the plates 21 and 21a as by the sheet metal screws 23a.
When using my construction of the S-shape construction element 20, as a rafter, for which it is Well adapted, the construction shown in FIG. 6 is first erected with the top plate and gutter member 26 rst secured in place. In order to have a proper bearing surface for the rafter element 20, it is cut on an angle to a proper degree to have the cut surface bear on the top of the top member 26, preferably throughtout the length of the cut surface and the full width of the member 26 as shown in FIG. l1. In FIG. 1\1 the parts 21, 21a, and 26 are as shown in FIG. 6. Secured to the top plate member 26 are the elements 120 serving as rafters for the building construction. The securing means may be of any suitable character as by the screws 29a which are threaded into the top plate member 26. An outer or roof plate 121 is secured to the rafter member 120 as by the sheet metal screws 123. Similarly, the bottom or inner plate 121a is secured to the underside of the S-shape rafter as by the sheet metal screws 123.
The upper ends of the rafter members 120 are cut at the proper angle or angles to coact with the other rafter members 120 as shown in FIG. 12. In the case of a cylindrical building, the rafter members 120 are cut on two angles to fit the two adjacent rafter members 120 where these parts come together at the point of the roof. In case of a building having a ridge, the angle of cut at .the upper end of the rafter member 120 is in accordance with the angle of the roof to bring the two opposite rafter members 129 in vertical contact with each other. Secured to the underside of the rafter members 12@ is a plate construction which may be of a general conical shape as shown .at 130 in FIG. 12 or this member may assume the shape of a long bent plate to conform to the shape of the ridge of the roof of the building. Above the rafter members 121i is a cap member 131 which, as in the case of the member 13), may be of a shape as a cone or as a double ridge board covering the upper edges of the plates 121. All of this is clear from an inspection of FIG. 12 in connection with this description.
In FIG. 13 I have ilustrated the general shape of a building construction, using my invention, and of a cylinrical shape. The particular building shown is well adapted for use as a service or filling station for gasoline and automobile accessories. In actual practice, the width of the panels is such that the width of doors and windows will coincide with the edge of a panel so that practically any desirable width of the sarne may be obtained.
It will be noted that the roof panel 121 in FIG. 13 is of triangular shape. If the type of roof was one having a ridge at the upper extremity, the panels would, of course, be of the appropriate shape and size. The construction lends itself to different uses. For example, if the window W was desired to be in the panel to the right of the door D, it could be easily changed. In constructing the base of the outside wall, the whole structure could be supported on the concrete wall `C and at the end of the fabrication of the building, the edge could be sealed to shut out the rain. The concrete wall would, of course, be of a proper thickness to guard against accidental displacement by contact from automobiles.
In FIG. 14 there is shown a modiiled form of the S-shape structural element for use as a stud, rafter, oor joist or other use where a stiifening member is needed. In this form, an elongated member 226 of S-shape is provided having the same characteristics generally as the element 20. This element 22@ has the outer portion 220a and the inner parallel portion 220C with the Iintermediate portion 22% connecting the outer and inner portions together.
The modiiication consists in the groove 220x in the portion 220a. To conform to this groove, the plates 221 are turned at right angles to their main surfaces, which turned portions fit into the groove 220x side by side. These turned portions are designated 22tly. If desired, the groove 220x may be supplied with a sealing compound 25 `to give the portions 220y a tight water-proof joint as will be well understood by those skilled in the art.
In FIGS. 16 and 17 I show an additional or alternate way of securing the rafters and the plate 26 of FIG. 11 together. In FIGS. 11 and 16, there is a thrust outwardly ofthe inside plates 121er against the vertical plates 21a. In this construction the screws 23a, 29, are depended upon to hold the outside wall and the roof together. However an additional means may be provided. This means will now be described. Y
At the proper places where the rafters 120 are to contact the plate 26, I provide an angular member which may be riveted, Welded or otherwise secured to the top plate 26. Such members 150 are shown in side elevation in FIG. 16 and in plan view in FIG. 17. They are made so that one portion will be secured to the top plate 26 and the other angular portion will be of an angle to receive thereunder, the intermediate portion 12619 and the inner portion 120C of the rafter 120. The outer portion of the rafter is held by the screw 29 which may pass through the plate 121, the outer portion 12041 and the top plate 26. In this way the roof is securely held in place.
The portions 320er and 326C of the element 320 are provided with the grooves 320x to receive the turned-in portions 32031 of the plates 321, 3:21a. The securing bolts 323 and/ or the screws 323:1 are provided to hold the parts together.
If desired, as in the other forms sealing means 25 may be provided between the adjacent parts. Insulating means may be provided as at 2A- to retard the passage of heat from one side of the structure to the other.
In FIGS. 18 to 22 are modications wherein elongated beaded grooves capable of registration with similar grooves and beads of the adjacent parts, constitute, together with the bolts, screws or other fastening means, the securing devices for rigidly connecting the several parts of the structure together to form an elongated solid but flexible stud structure.
In FIG. 18 is illustrated an elongated stud body member 400 having opposite substantially flat portions 40%, 400i), with an intermediate portion 400C of S-shape connecting the substantially fiat portions 400:1 and 400k together to form an integral stud structure. IIn this modification, it is to be noted that the sheet material is relatively thinner than the forms shown in FIGS. 1 to 17, already described and the S-shaped portion is not so pronounced as those of the type of FIGS. 1 to 17. However, this form still provides for the overlapping of the folds in the S-shape, and the desired ilexibility is maintained, to provide for the three features which are important to this invention: (l) the long path for heat to travel from the outside wall through the flat portion 401m to the other flat portion 400b to the inside wall; (2) the overlapping of the folds of the S-shape structure to provide for the space for the rock wool or other insulation and (3), the resiliency of the whole structure including the connecting portion 400C whereby although the individual parts of the assembly are rigidly secured together, the construction as a whole may have a greater or lesser degree of resiliency depending upon the thickness of the parts,
the material and the angularity of the connecting portion of the S-shape structure.
This resilient feature is present in all the structures illustrated in the drawing to a varying degree, depending upon the material used in the Various parts, its length, its thickness and as already pointed out, the angularity of the connecting portion of the stud.
In order to obtain the best results with this invention used as an outside wall exposed to the weather, it is necessary to have tight joints. To bring this about, I provide on either the outside wall or both the outside and inside and inside walls, a gasket 25, similar to the gaskets already described and it is to be understood that such a gasket may lbe used on any and all the places where the parts are secured together and where it is desired. This gasket is illustrated rin the upper part of lFIG. .18 and may be in liquid or semi-liquid form when applied, and be painted on or applied with any suitable instrument such as a putty knife or it may be in the form of a soft plastic strip of proper material and width to cover the joint, thereby making it tight.
When applied to the joint disclosed in FIG. 18, the soft or semi-soft plastic gasket 25 is applied to the joint where the stud portion '4Min and the plate 401C and/or 40611 come together, and before the bolts, screws or other fastening members 402 are applied. As the fastening members are tightened, the plastic material surrounds the bolts or other fastening means and fills the space between these plates and the stud portion `40011 or 40Gb.
When the securing members 462 are 'nally tightened, a rigid structure is produced at the joint and the resiliency of the stud and plates depends upon the resiliency in the bodies of the parts themselves and their change in shape as the outside forces, such as wind pressures, change the shape of the structure. As these exterior yforces are released, the resiliency of the parts returns the parts to normalcy without disturbing the tightness of the joints or changing the set of the material itself.
In the same way, in the joint shown at the lower side of FIG. 18, the gasket 25 may be applied to the adjacent surfaces of the joint where the two plates 401e, 40b abut and contact with the substantially at portion 40Gb of the stud. See lower part of FIG. 18. Then when the securing `fastening members `402 are tightened, the plastic material of the gasket is caused to how out between the surfaces of the stud portion 40015 and the contacting surfaces of the plates 401a, 401b and also between the abutting surfaces of the plate ends and around the Shanks of the securing means 402. When the securing means 402 are tightened, a weather-tight joint is formed to make a rigid joint between the parts while still retaining the resiliency of the structure as a whole.
In FIG. 19, there is illustrated an assembly comprising the S-shape stud structure 410 similar to that illustrated on FIG. 18, but showing a form wherein the plates 415a and 41Sb are overlapped as at 415e.
This structure is illustrated on the lower portion of FIG. 19, which would normally be the outside or weather side of the structure. In this form, one row only of fastening means 416 is used, this row being between the two ribs and grooves 417. The fastening means '416 pass through the overlapping portions of the parts 415a and 415i: and that portion of the stud member 41017 located between the ribs 417. As in the forms previously described, gaskets 25 may lbe applied to the contacting surfaces to make tight joints between the parts. When the securing means 416 are tightened, all three parts 415g, 415b, '41%, are substantially rigidly secured together while the flexibility and resiliency of the whole structure are retained. l Y
At the upper portion of FIG. 19 is illustrated a form wherein the fastening means `468 is attached to the plate 409 on the opposite side of the rib 410. In the same mau- 'ner the gasket 2S may be placed between the plate 409 and the flat portion l41011 of the stud 410 in a manner already described.
On `FIGS. 20, 21 is shown a form of spot-welding wherein slots 420x may be punched in the plate 420 and welds `420y made in the slots to the substantially flat portions y421 of the stud members. The beaded groove portions are indicated at `422.
A suitable method of fastening the plates to the substantially flat portions of the studs is illustrated in lFIG. 22 wherein the plates 430 are spot welded as ,at 430y to the substantially at portions 431.
In the forms illustrated on FIGS. 18 to 22, the method of assembling is slightly different. An approved method is to secure a plate to one stud which may be itself secured in place as at its base. The second and subsequent studs are secured at top and bottom to the plate by, 4for eX- ample, screw fasteners which hold the grooves of the stud in registration with the grooves of the plate, while the remaining fastening means are made secure.
The building of the Whole structure with its parts rigidly secured together and its elongated studs of S-shape crosssection permits the making of the studs of sufficient size to give them their weight-carrying strength, while still retaining the resiliency necessary to permit yielding under wind pressure or other outside influences and return the parts to normal positions.
The S-shape cross-section in a plane perpendicular to the length of the stud as shown throughout the figures of the drawing and the integral structure between the two substantially plane surfaces of the stud and the fact that the transitions between these plane surface portions and the S-shape portion are without sharp edges, permits of a continuous resilient `action throughout the stud and tend to give the stud a longer life.
The studs and plates may be made of any metal, alloy, plastic or other suitable material as long as it has the desired weather-resisting and resilient qualities needed to make it suitable for use as yan outside wall with Weather resisting abil-ity and other qualities including the necessary resilient give-and-take ability to return it to normalcy *after distortion resulting from the wind pressure.
Both studs and plates may be made of various materials or of the same material and may be made of var-ious thicknesses or of the same thickness to t the condtions for which they Iare designed.
This structure having an outside Wall of weather resisting material is used in contact with outside weather and due to the construction of the stud vth S-shape cross-section may be made with greater or lesser resiliency as desired to flex when exposed to wind pressure, the hard knocks of an Iautomotive garage or other conditions in service and its resiliency, due to its material and construction will permit it to return to normal condition when released.
The means for securing the individual parts together may be bolts, rivets, spot-welding, line welding or any other suitable means. These means may be used to rigidly'secure the individual parts together while still retaining the desired exibility and resiliency of the assembly as a whole.
By a suitable selection of the means for securing the parts together, the material yand its thicknesses at the several points and the angle of the intermediate portion of the studs, any desired resiliency may be obtained to take care of the effects of Wind pressures and other outside pressures, and return the p-arts to normalcy after these outside pressures are removed.
In constructing buildings using this invention, it has been found to be good practice to secure the outer plates in place before the inner plates are attached. This is for the reason that the backs of the outer plates are accessible. After this has been done, the inner plates may be secured in place by any suitable means. By this construction it is possible to give the outer connections more security Iagainst unlawful entry.
In FIGS. 18 to 22, where the grooves of the plates and studs register, it is found convenient in some constructions to have the contacting groove surfaces of the studs and plates of slightly diiferent radii to facilitate the making of a tight joint and hold the gasket to a more or less constant thickness.
In `all of the structures illustrated in this drawing, it is to be understood that the overlapping chambers of the S-shape stud and the space between the outer and inner Walls may be lilled with rock Wool or other heat insulation material, although in some of the illustrations, the showing of this insulation has been partially or wholly omitted for the sake of clearness of illustration.
In FIG. 23, is illustrated a suggestion for treatment of a corner of a rectangular building construction utilizing my improved stud construction.
As shown, two S-shaped studs 450, 451 are placed with one substantially at portion of each stud as 450e and 451:1 with their edges close together at the building corner and the corresponding edges 455:1, 456e of the plates 455 and 456 together, the grooves and ribs of the respective studs yand plates being in proper registry with each other.
Suitable openings 455C are provided for the securing means to assist in forming ya rigid connection between the parts while still retaining the resilient features as already described for the other stud constructions.
An angle plate 460 as shown in FIG. 23a with suitable openings 461, may be provided to cooperate with the plates 455, 456 to provide a corner angle for the building construction. Suitable gaskets 25 may be provided to make the corner sections 450 water tight.
In FIG. 24, I have illustrated a stripped-down small section of my S-shaped stud member, the plates and insulation being removed for sake of clearness of illustration. In this form of the invention the substantially S-shaped stud 600 is provided with substantially flat portions 601, 602 which have rib grooves 6011i, 602m which perform the same functions as similar rib-grooves constructions already described. 'Ihe holes 603` are provided for the usual securing means yas selected and as desired.
That portion of the S-shaped studs 600` which connects the two substantially flat portions 601, `602, I have designated as 604. This connecting portion 604, I have provided with corrugations 605, which provide further pliability, ilexibility and resiliency to the stud while still retaining the long passage for heat to travel from one side of the structure to the other, when the stud is incorporated in a building construction. It is to be noted in this construction that there are no sharp corners to facilitate break-age because of bending.
My invention is adapted for use in stationary building constructions and in movable building constructions such as in the construction of vehicles and even in boats. It is well adapted for use in 'a truck body-particularly where the truck is to be used for transportation of articles which are desired to be kept either cold or hot.
In FIG. 25 is illustrated a detail of the cross section of `a truck body using my invention. In this View, the reference character 700 has been used to designate the longitudinal frame member of a tmck which member rests upon the main supporting springs of the truck. Upon these frame members 700 'are secured cross floor beams 701 which comprise the substantially flat members 702, 703. These members 702, 703 are connected integrally with the S-shaped connecting portion 704, the parts 702, 703, 704 being the counterpart and equivalent of the S-shaped stud members already described.
The substantially flat members '703I are secured in place on the 'longitudinal frame members 700 as by suitable bolts 705 which pass through the lower at portion 703 and through the flanges of the longitudinal frame member 700. Suitable closure plate members 706 are provided to close the spaces between the substantially S-shaped floor beams 702, 703, 704. Suitable heat insulating means las rock wool is preferably provided to keep heat within or without the truck body as desired. For sake of clearness of illustration and in view of the fact that it is contemplated, when desired, to use it with all the several constructions this insulation has been omitted from all parts of this figure of the drawing.
Adjacent the ends of the cross frame floor supporting means 701, are secured in vert-ical position, the stud members 710 for supporting the sides and top of the truck body. These stud members comprise the substantially S-shape members 710 which have flat portions 711, 712 and a connecting integral S-shape portion 713. The inner substantially flat portions 711, 712 of these stud members 710 are secured to angle brackets 715 which are suitably bolted to the upper plates 702. To these flat portions 712 are secured the inside lining plates 716, which serve as inside vertical walls of the truck body.
Abutting against these vertical walls 716 and resting on and secured to the cross floor beams 1 are the iloor plates 717. These floor plates 717 are preferably very rough on their upper surfaces to assure tirm footing for the truck operators during loading and unloading operations. The iioor members may be made of any suitable material.
At the outer ends of the cross floor beams 701 and on their upper sides are secured angle members 718 which are suitably bolted in place. To these angle members 713 are bolted the outer substantially flat members 711 of the studs 710.
To these outer substantially flat members 711 are secured plate members 719 which serve as the outer surface of the truck body. The lower portions of the plates 719 extend downwardly to adjacent the lower edge of the substantially flat portion 706.
The lower edges of the plates 719 are secured to angle members 720 which are bolted or otherwise secured to the cross floor beams.
The upright stud members 710 at their upper ends are bolted or otherwise secured to the inner plate members 716 and the outer plate members 719. These inner and outer plate members extend upwardly above the upper end of the S-shape member 710, in the present embodiment and between their upper ends there is secured a horizontal S-shape member 721. The substantially ilat portions 72151 and 72111 of the S-shape member 721 are bolted or otherwise secured to the outer plate member 719 and the inner plate member 716, respectively.
Par-allel to the S-shape member 721 is another S-shape member 722. These S-shape members 721, 722 are similar in general shape to the S-shape members 701 used as floor beams and 710 used as studs. The outer substantially horizontal members 721:1 and 722a are respectively' at the sides and top of the structure and provide stiffening means for the structure as a whole. A top member 730 is provided with a top portion 73051 which provides the vehicle body or other structure with top weather protection and is provided with a portion 730]; which is in a substantially vertical plane. The lower edge of this vertical portion 730b is preferably provided with a gutter 730C for the collection and delivery of rain water in a well-known manner.
In order to increase the efficiency of the parts 721, 722 as stitfening members while still retaining the resiliency of the whole, the two may be bolted or otherwise secured together as by the bolts 731 which are located adjacent the plane where the inner portions 721b, 722b form a right angle to each other.
The plate or plates 716, already described, extend upwardly to be bolted or otherwise secured to the inner portions 712 and 721b of the S-shape members 710, 721 already referred to. In a like manner, the ceiling of the truck body is provided with a plate or pla-tes 740 which are bolted or otherwise secured to the S-shape 1l Y members 722 and 730. The upper edge of the plate or plates 716 and the right edge of the plate 740 illustrated in FIG. 25, come together as illustrated in FlG. 25, to form an interior lining for the truck body.
In the construction of the front truck end and the rear doors and the side and front openings it is believed that the structures set forth throughout the description of the invention are suilicient to enable one skilled in the art to produce a building construction with a chamber having la resilient construction as a Whole while still retaining the ilexibility and heat insulating qualities necessary for such a structure when it is desired :to keep heat in or shut it out according to the use of the structure.
The construction is such that while the adjacent parts are firmly held together, portions may be resilient and pliable independently of other parts.
This `application is la continuation in part of my copending application Serial No. 470,003, tiled November 19, 1954, now abandoned.
While I have illustrated and described embodiments of my invention in detail, it is to be understood that the disclosure is merely illustrative and that the construction and details are applicable to all types of buildings, that any material suitable for the purpose may be used and that modications and changes may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention and within its scope as claimed.
Having described my invention, what I claim is:
l. An outside-type building wall construction which is designed to provide an elongated integral sheet material weight-carrying stud member having a generally S-shaped cross-section, which wall may be expected to be exposed to strong outside forces, such as wind, said construction comprising, in combination:
(a) an elongated llexible resilient sheet material weightcarrying stud member having (b) a generally S-shaped cross-section in a plane perpendicular to its length and having Y (c) outer and inner substantially parallel plane surface portions h (d) an outer weather-proof wall plate of sheet material securely fastened to one of the outer parallel plane surfaces of the stud,
(e) the outer parallel portions of the stud being connected integrally to the intermediate portion by resilient curved portions, the a (f) transition between the parallel and curved portions being gradual and without sharp turns, whereby there is permitted resilient action in a plane perpendicular to the stud length and between the outer parallel portions as when the structure is submitted to outside pressures.
2. An outside-type building wall construction which is designed to provide an elongated integral sheet material weight-carrying stud member having a generally S-shaped cross-section, which wall may be expectedto be exposed to strong outside forces, such as wind, said construction comprising, in combination:
(a) an elongated flexible resilient sheet material weightcarrying stud member having (b) a generally S-shaped cross-section in a plane perpendicular to its length and having (c) outer and inner substantially parallel plane surface portions,
(d) an outer weather-proof wall plate of sheet material securely fastened to one of the outer parallel plane surfaces of the stud,
(e) the outer parallel portions of the stud being connected integrally to the intermediate portion by rcsilient curved portions, the
'(f) transition between the parallel and curved portions being gradual and without sharp turns, whereby there is permitted resilient action in a plane perpendicular to the stud length and between the outer parallel portions as when the structure is submitted to outside pressures,
g) and having the outer wall plate and adjacent portion of the stud provided with coacting groove and flange interlocking portions.
3. Ari outside-type building wall construction which is designed to provide an elongated integral sheet material weight-carrying stud member having a generally S-shape cross section, which wall may be expected to be exposed to strong outside forces, such as wind, said construction comprising in combination:
l (a) an elongated flexible resilient sheet material weight-F carrying stud member having (b) outer and inner substantially parallel plane surface portions,
(c) an outer weather-proof wall plate of sheet material securely fastened to one of the outer parallel plane surfaces of the stud,
(d) the outer parallel portions of the stud being Vconnected integrally to the intermediate portion by resilient curved portions, the
(e) transition between the parallel and curved portions being gradual and without sharp turns, whereby there is permitted resilient action in a plane perpendicular to the stud length and between the outer parallel portions as when the structure is submitted to outside pressures,
(f) and having the outer Wall plate and adjacent portion of the stud provided with coacting groove and flange interlocking portions, and
(g) having a sealing compound for sealing the joint between the coacting groove and flange.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Coffman et al. Dec. 29,