US 3060611 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1962 P. A. D'ANDREA 3,060,611
REPRODUCTION OF A TEXTURED SURFACE Filed Aug. 24, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 ii FIG.1
VIIIIIIIIIIII/li |4 INVENTOR 22 Phlllp A. dAndreo ATTORNEY Oct. 30, 1962 P. A. DANDREA 3,060,611
REPRODUCTION OF A TEXTURED SURFACE Filed Aug. 24, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 8
INVENTOR A. dAndrep States Patent ice 3,060,611 REPRODUCTION OF A TEXTURED SURFACE Philip A. dAndrea, 1808 Fairfax St., Elmont, N.Y. Filed Aug. 24, 1959, Ser. No. 835,710 4 Claims. (Cl. 41'27) This invention relates to imparting surface texture to a printed image and more particularly to imparting a tangible three-dimensional texture to such images so that a reproduction of an oil paintaing can be produced which will approximate the original. The invention further relates to the technique and process of producing and imparting such three-dimensional texture effect to a print or image.
Many attempts have been made to faithfully recreate an image, especially of an oil painting, which will impart a fair degree of authenticity. Although these reproductions have admirably duplicated color, tone, etc., the attempt at texture reproduction has been noticeably lacking in the characteristic accuracy, depth, and sharpness of an original oil painting.
It is therefore an object of this invention to produce a reproduction of a picture, either monochrome or multicolor, which will faithfully reproduce the basic characteristics of an original oil painting.
A further object of the present invention is to create brush strokes and canvas texture that are sharper, clearer, and of greater depth than heretofore possible.
Another object of this invention is the reproduction of an oil painting, print or other pictorial representation by means of a process in which texture and depth is imparted to its surface.
Still another object of this invention is to reproduce an oil painting or other pictorial representation possessing in true relief the originals surface characteristics such as may have been imparted to it by the touch of the artists brush, palette, knife or other implement, and other surface evidences of the painting process.
Still a further object of the present invention is to produce a copy of an oil painting which in appearance will simulate an oil painting in color, line, tone or value, surface irregularities and texture, the varying thicknesses of paint, brush marks, variations in paint depth, overpainting and underpainting, and canvas grain, thereby reproducing the quality of such oil painting with the greatest artistic effect and accuracy.
Still another object of this invention is to reproduce an oil painting from a print which may be reproduced by any known printing process, including silk screening, and needs no special preparatory processes prior to the utilization of the process herein disclosed.
A further object of this invention is to provide a proc ess of making a reproduction of an oil painting which will faithfully impart an additional degree of authenticity to the print of the original oil painting for use as a decorative unit.
Still a further object of the present invention is a process of reproducing an oil painting which will lend itself to mass production and in accordance with which a reproduction will be relatively inexpensive to manufacture.
Generally, the foregoing objects are attained by providing a means for removing, intact, a printed image from its paper base in the form of a plastic film and imparting to such film a three-dimensional texture. The film, with such texture incorporated therein, is then mounted upon a canvas, or other foundation which the user may desire to decorate.
Other and further objects, advantages, and inventive characteristics of this new and unique product and process will become apparent to those versed in the art from the following description of a particular embodiment of this invention as illustrated in the drawing in which:
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a print showing the layered modeling compound enveloped in plastic layers thereupon;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a completed mold;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of a print prepared for separation of the pigment from a paper base;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of a transparent color film;
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a transparent color film in register with the mold;
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of a transparent film with the texture imparted thereto;
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional View of a textured transparent color film with a backing agent applied thereto; and
FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of a completed textured reproduction mounted on a permanent surface.
Referring now to the drawing in which like numerals refer to similar parts in the several views, there is illustrated the successive steps in producing a textured copy of an oil painting.
In carrying out this invention, any printed reproduction 10 of a painting, made by any known printing process Where pigments 11 are deposited upon a surface 12, as for eaxmple, paper, plastic, etc., may be used.
For the purposes of illustrating the process of this invention, I secure a printed reproduction of a painting 10,
of any desired size, in its true and natural colors, upon a paper surface, and apply a first coating of a water soluble glue 13 thereupon. Such glue 13, when applied to the face of the print 10, should maintain a relatively smooth surface thereupon and should not crack upon drying and contraction. A coating of nitro-cellulose film 14 in the order of from .001 to .010 inch is next applied. Following the drying of the film 14, a coating of modeling compound 15 is then deposited, by brush or other means, correctly following the printed lines of the image being copied. The coating of modeling compound 15 as here applied results in the substantial final texture and depth, as applied to the print. Brush strokes may be added, eliminated, changed or followed directly as seen on the printed reproduction, as well as layered to any thickness so as to impart the desired depth in the finished reproduction. A preferred plaster-like, quick setting modeling compound which has been found suitable for such coating, comprises 4 parts of plaster of Paris, 1 part of white Portland cement, 3 parts of mucilage, and 3 parts of water. After drying of the modeling compound, a further coating of nitro-cellulose compound 16 is then applied and it has been found that a thickness substantially less than the first coat of nitro-cellulose 14 previously applied is desirable. The resulting molded sheet seen in FIG. 1, thus comprises a modeling compound 15 substantially following the brush strokes of the printed copy of the painting, enveloped or sandwiched between two layers of cellulose films 14, 16, such layers being water-resistant and adhering to the water-soluble glue 13 deposited upon the paper 12 and ink base 11.
The foregoing structure, after drying, is then immersed in a water bath, whereupon the water-soluble glue 13 is dissolved out, removing the layers of the ink 11 and paper 12 and leaving the molded sheet comprising the modeling compound 15 between the water resistant layers of nitrocellulose 14, 16.
A canvas 21 of dimensions appropriate to the original print 10 is next coated with a coating of nitro-cellulose compound 22. While such canvas 21 is still wet, the
modeling compound 15 enveloped in layers of cellulose, 14, 16, as above described, is applied thereto, and upon Patented Oct. 30, 1962:
contact with the coated canvas 21, adheres immediately and sets firmly on the complete evaporation of the volatile portions of the nitrocellulose compound. The brush strokes and texture remain upon the canvas to form a positive mold or cast as seen in FIG. 2. The mold as thus formed may be used to impart the required texture to as many prints as may be desired to be reproduced.
An individual print 30 consisting of a pigmented deposit 11' on a paper base 12 is now coated with a thin first layer of nitro-cellulose 31 in the order of .0005" followed by a heavy coating of ethyl cellulose 32 in the order of .001" to .02 which adheres to and builds up the body of film 31 as seen in FIG. 3. These coatings 31, 32 are permitted to volatilize and fuse into a single film. In instances where brush strokes are of greater depth or extremely sharp, it is desirable to add a third coating of a vinyl compound (not shown) such as vinyl chloride. It has been found that such vinyl compound does not combine with the film of nitro-cellulose and/or ethyl cellulose but merely forms a temporary surface layer upon the nitro-cellulose and ethyl cellulose layers, insuring such layers against puncture or damage, when heat and vacuum stress are later applied. After imparting the texture to such plastic film, as presently to be described, the aforementioned vinyl compound coating is peeled and discarded.
The print 30, having a coating of nitro-cellulose 31 and ethyl-cellulose 32, and in some instances of vinyl compound, is now stripped of its paper foundation 12 after soaking, in water, resulting in a transparent film 40 retaining all the color of the original print and comprising the ethyl-cellulose 32 and nitro-cellulose 31 layers upon an ink base 11' as seen in FIG. 4. The aforementioned step is of course repeated for as many prints as it is desired to impart texture to.
Returning now to the mold 20 as seen in FIG. 2, the back surface of the color film 40 is now placed in register with the face of the canvas mold 20 (i.e. ink side down) as seen in FIG. 5. Indirect heat from a radiant heat source in the range of 350 to 500 F. is applied from above, softening the plastic color film 40, while a vacuum in the range of 15 to 29 inches is simultaneously applied from below. Although indirect heating is here used, other heating techniques may also be used. The texture lines, ridges, etc. of the mold 20 are thus imparted to the softened film 40 through the use of such heat and vacuum, as seen in FIG. 6.
After the texture is imparted to the color film 40, a whitening agent 71, filler, backing agent or plastery agent, is applied to the back surface thereof. A water based paint, or plaster-of-Paris, may advantageously be used, giving such film body, as well as whiteness. Where a tinted background is desired, such whitening agent may be tinted before application.
The film 40, backed with the whitening agent 71 or filler, may, after drying, be mounted by gluing 81 or other means, upon a canvas 82 or other surface which the user may wish to so decorate.
Where more permanent dies are desired and an even finer textured film made therefrom, the positive canvas mold, as heretofore described, may be formed into a negative mold of plastic, metal, etc., by any known die forming means. This negative mold will then serve to impart the texture to the plastic film. It is to be noted, however, that in the use of a negative mold, the color film, when being registered with such mold, will be placed with the ink surface away from the face of such mold.
Although nitro-cellulose has been described as preferred, other compounds, such as ethy1-cellulose and cellulose acetate, to name a few, have proven to be generally well suited in carrying out the process of this invention.
It is to be understood that although the above disclosure has been made with reference to the reproduction of texture of oil paintings, it is within the ambit of this invention that the process herein disclosed may also be applied to reproducing texture and surface characteristics, other than brush strokes, of such techniques of art as fresco, mosaic, painting or stone, encaustic, etc. upon a printed surface.
1. The process of reproducing texture upon a conventional printed picture, in simulation of an oil painting, comprising the steps of forming a mold having thereupon brush strokes following the printed images, then forming a transparent plastic film having incorporated therein the pigments of the printed picture, then registering said mold with said plastic film, applying heat above said film and vacuum pressure from below said mold, by conventional means, whereby the texture of said mold is imparted to said plastic film removing said film from said mold, then applying a water-based white pigment to the back of said film, and finally mounting said film upon a permanent surface.
2. In the process of reproducing texture upon a conventional printed picture, according to claim 1, the process of forming a mold comprising the steps of depositing a coating of water soluble glue upon said printed picture; then applying a first coating of nitro-cellulose upon said water soluble glue after said glue is dried; followed by applying a coating of modeling compound upon said nitrocellulose coating following the printed lines of said printed picture; then applying a second coat of nitro-cellulose upon said modeling compound after said compound is dried to form a water-tight envelope of nitro-cellulose, modeling compound and nitro-cellulose; then dipping said printed picture, glue and envelope in a water bath, whereby said water-soluble glue is dissolved out and said printed picture is removed from said envelope; next coating a canvas with nitro-cellulose and applying said envelope upon said coated canvas, whereby said envelope is fused with said canvas to form a positive mold.
3. In the process of reproducing texture upon a conventional printed picture according to claim 1, the process of forming a transparent color film by steps comprising coating a conventional print with a layer of nitrocellulose, then applying a second coating of ethyl-cellulose upon said coating of nitro-cellulose, whereby said coat of nitro-cellulose and said coat of ethyl-cellulose are fused with said pigment deposit to form a plastic film layered upon said pliable base, then soaking said printed picture with said plastic film thereupon in water and removing by peeling said pliable base therefrom to form a plastic color film, said pigment deposit firmly adhering to said plastic coatings.
4. In the process of reproducing texture upon a conventional printed picture according to claim 3, applying a coating of vinyl compound upon said plastic film prior to soaking said printed picture with said plastic film in water to form a protective coat upon said printed picture with said plastic film thereupon.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 89,188 Wachsmuth Apr. 20, 1869 1,104,126 Meyercord July 21, 1914 1,897,875 Werner Feb. 14, 1933 2,108,822 Lippincott Feb. 22, 1938 2,117,795 Eriksen May 17, 1938 2,814,077 Moncrieif Nov. 26, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 15,108 Great Britain June 27, 1912 of 1911