US 3063075 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 13, 1962 G. F. JONAS 3,003,075
MANUFACTURE OF THI'N SOLE SHOES WITHOUT LASTS Filed July 15. 1960 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 muwraz/ GILB/S/PT E Jaws Nov. 13, 1962 G. F. JONAS 3,063,075 I MANUFACTURE OF THIN SOLE SHOES WITHOUT LASTS Filed July 15. 1960 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fl G.6
m 1 Q/l/l/l IN YEA/ra 6/4 3527 [Jan 45 wan Nov. 13, 1962 G. F JONAS 3,063,075
MANUFACTURE OF THIN SOLE SHOES WITHOUT LASTS Filed July 15. 1960 3 Sheets-Shet 3 Iii 11072.
zzzzzr E fa/ms States This invention relates to shoe construction, and more particularly to the manufacture of light, flexible, inexpensive shoes.
With the rising cost of labor and materials, it becomes increasingly more important to develop techniques that simplify the manufacturing operations, minimize on the material requirements and otherwise lower manufacturing costs. Modern trends, especially in womens shoes, favor designs which are of simple appearance, light in weight, soft and otherwise more comfortable. Accordingly, a general objectof this invention is to provide a shoe offering these qualities while also reducing the amount of material and labor needed to a minmum.
. Briefly, the improved shoe of this invention comprises an upper and outsole, preferably with a special insole piece. The insole piece is cut to the outline of the shoe bottom or outsole, somewhat like a conventional insole, but differs in other respects. It may be split off from a conventional leather or composition outsole, or it may be of a different material from that of the outsole. Preferably, this insole part has an opening in the front portion, which opening may be a longitudinal slit (Subsequently secured by cementing to outsole, tape or with a zig-Zag stitch), or when the insole is split from the outsole, the opening may be formed during the splitting operation (the outsole having a raised portion corresponding to the opening in the insole).
The upper is formed without a lasting allowance, the bottom marginal portion being turned in and stitched to the upper marginal surface of the insole or outsole. This in-turned portion of the upper may be as small as onesixteenth of an inch, hence there is a considerable saving of upper material, as compared with a lasted upper. The insole or outsole is traced with a marker to provide marks at spaced points along the upper marginal surface, and in die-cutting the upper, marks are formed along its bottom margin. The marks facilitate alignment of the parts when the upper is stitched to the insole. The stitching (carried on with conventional fitting room sewing machines) is preferably started in the forepart of the shoe, so the shoe becomes closed only as the stitching moves around to the back, where there is adequate room for the machine to extend into the foot opening of the shoe. An opening in the front of the insole, while not essential, permits the sole to be spread out, thereby permitting a more rounded curve during the sewing operation around the otherwise sharp toe portion.
After the upper is sewn to the insole or outsole, a last is inserted and the outsole is cemented, stitched or otherwise secured by conventional soling equipment. A shank may be inserted between the two layers of the sole, either or both the toe and heel portions may be lasted in a conventional manner, and a counter may be incorporated, if so desired. After the outsole is attached, the edges are trimmed and set in a conventional manner, either on or off the last, and heels may be fastened in any suitable manner. Although not necessary, a sock lining may also be inserted.
From the foregoing brief description, it will be apparent that there is a considerable saving in upper material, as compared with a lasted upper, the insole member, when used, does not require the complications of those in lasted shoes, and the assembly of the upper to the insole is relatively simple. In contrast to conventional slip-lasted atent O shoes, where the upper margin projects outwardly, there is no necessity to cover or wrap the edges. Since the margin of the upper is turned inwardly upon the upper surface of the outsole or insole, there is no need for bottom fillers or mid-soles, nor any necessity for specially ironing-out, roughening or otherwise preparing the upper prior to attachment to the outsole, nor is there any problem in selecting a cement which is compatible with the upper as well as the two sole parts, nor does the thickness of the upper become a factor in edge trimming and setting. In fact, the edge trimming and setting can be carried out with the shoe oil? the last, using the stitch as the accurate guide for even edges. Various appearance or design effects can be achieved by varying the thickness of the respective sole parts and by various edge trimming procedures. Finally, the outsole may be formed by molding rubber or plastic directly to the insole member.
Other features of the invention will be in part apparent from and in part pointed out in the following detail description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. l is a perspective view of a shoe constructed in accordance with this invention;
FIG. 2 is an exploded perspective illustrating certain parts for making the shoe of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view illustrating the operation of stitching the upper to the insole;
FIG. 4 is a transverse sectional view illustrating the attachment of the outsole to the insole;
FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 4, but showing the completed shoe with the edges of the sole trimmed;
FIG. 6 is a detail section illustrating the alternative manner of attaching the outsole;
FIG. 7 is a view similar to FIG. 6, but showing a molded outsole;
FIG. 8 is a longitudinal sectional view showing how an outsole is split to form the insole with a front hole;
FIG. 9 is a plan view of the insole part illustrating an alternative way of forming and closing an opening in the insole;
FIG. 10 is an exploded perspective of the insole and upper for making an alternative embodiment of the shoe;
FIG. 11 is a perspective view illustrating the assembly of the FIG. 10 upper and insole; and
FIG. 12 is a bottom perspective view showing how the toe and heel of the upper may be lasted to the insole.
Referring to the drawings, there is shown a shoe having an upper 1, an insole 3, an outsole 5 and a heel 7. The upper may be formed of any desired material to have any desired appearance, and does not have a lasting allowance. The bottom margin 9 of the upper is adapted to be turned inwardly and stitched to the upper marginal surface of the insole, but the in-turned stitched margin of the upper need not be widefor example, the portion extending inwardly beyond the stitching might be as narrow as one-sixteenth of an inch. The parts forming the upper are usually die-cut, and in accordance with this invention, the dies are adapted to provide a series of marks 11 along the bottom margin.
The insole 3, outsole 5 and heel 7 can be formed of any suitable material in a conventional manner, as by cutting the parts from leather or composition sheet material. In initially cutting the soles, it would be understood that they are of slightly greater outline than that of the final sole, the edges being trimmed after attaching the outsole.
The insole 3 is marked along its upper marginal surface, as by a stencil, so as to define a line 12 extending about the margin inwardly spaced relationship therefrom and a series of spaced marks 13 along the line 12. An insole so marked and matched upper are then assembled and stitched together, the marks 11, 12 and 13 guiding the worker while the parts are sewn together. The
bottom margin 9 of the upper is turned inwardly over the upper surface of the insole, as indicated in FIG. 3, so as to be aligned with the peripheral line 12 on the insole, and a mark 11 on the bottom edge of the upper is registered with the proper mark 13 on the insole. Preferably, the stitching 15 is begun at one side of the shoe near the front of the shoe and continues around the toe, down the other side, around the heel and back to the point of beginning. It is desirable to stitch the front part of the shoe initially, since there is then more room for the head of the sewing machine S. As the shoe becomes closed, the stitching moves to the back part of the shoe, where there is ample space for the head of the sewing machine to extend through the foot opening. In the shoe illustrated in FIG. 3, the sewing extends continuously around the insole, and the shoe is therefore made without a last, the shape of the shoe being determined by the marks 11, 12 and 13 which guide the sewing machine operator.
The assembly of upper and insole is then fitted over a last L to facilitate application of the outsole (FIG. 4). In a preferred embodiment, the outsole is merely glued to the insole using conventional soling equipment. The edges of the sole may then be trimmed with the last remaining in the shoe. Alternatively, since the shape of the shoe is determined by stitching the upper to the insole, and the insole is of the same dimensions as the outsole, the soles can be secured together without a last by using pressure-sensitive adhesive. In this event, trimming is done off the last and the line of sewing15 may serve as a guide during the trimming operation. The heel 7 would normally be applied while the shoe is off the last, and a sock lining (not shown) can be inserted and glued in position, after removal from the last.
While a particularly convenient and economical method of attaching the outsole is to glue it directly to the insole, it will be understood that other techniques can be employed. For example, the outsole may be also secured by a line of stitching 17, as indicated in FIG. 6, or an outsole 5A might be molded directly to the insole using a mold M and rubber or other moldable material, as illustrated in FIG. 7. These techniques will be understood by those skilled in the art. In addition, a shank (not shown) may be incorporated between the insole and outsole merely by inserting the shank prior to attachment of the outsole.
Although the insole and outsole may be cut from different sheets of material, a particularly convenient manner of forming the insole is to split it off from the outsole. In splitting the sole, each part may be of uniform thickness throughout its respective area, or the insole may be formed with a tapered or feathered margin, the latter providing a thin margin to facilitate the sewing operation atrlid a relatively stiff central part for better shaping of the s oe.
In addition, the invention contemplates that the insole may be, and preferably is, formed with an opening in the front central portion thereof. Such an opening is desirable in that it permits the insole to be spread apart while the upper is stitched to the insole in the toe region. By spreading the front part of the insole, one avoids the sharp turn otherwise required while stitching the toe portion of the shoe. This opening may be provided several ways. Referring to FIG. 8, there is shown one system wherein the insole is split from the outsole to a non-uniform thickness such as to provide a raised portion 19 in outsole 5B and an opening 21 in insole 3B. The opening 21 becomes closed, of course, when the outsole is attached, and the resulting two-ply sole is of uniform thickness throughout this entire area. Referring to FIG. 9, the opening may be formed as a slit extending longitudinally, as shown at 21C in insole 3C. The slit is closed by a zig-zag stitch 23 after the upper has been stitched to the insole.
In the embodiments disclosed above, the upper is shaped without a last. Referring now to FIGS. 10-12, there is shown another embodiment somewhat similar to that described previously, but with the toe and heel portions of the upper being lasted to the insole. The upper 1D for such a shoe is cut to provide lasting allowances 25 and 27 at the toe and heel, the intermediate portions 29 of the bottom edge being marked and inset. Conversely, the insole 3D is formed with inset margins 31 and 22 at the toe and heel, the intermediate margins 35 being offset outwardly and being marked for cooperation of the marked margins 29 of the upper. In assembling the upper to the insole, the marginal portions 29 of the upper are turned inwardly and stitched to the upper marginal surfaces 35 of the insole (FIG. 11). The partial assembly of upper and insole is then placed upon a last, whereupon the toe and heel margins of the upper are lasted to the toe and heel portions of the insole, as will be understod by those skilled in the art (FIGS. 7). The shoe is then completed in conventional manner.
In making a heel lasted shoe of this type, it will be understood that a stiff counter may be incorporated for greater rigidity at the heel portion of the upper. The counter (not shown) fits within a pocket indicated at 37 (FIG. 10) in the upper and would have a bottom portion adapted to extend over the lower marginal portion of the insole. Similarly, a stiff toe cap may be incorporated in a toe lasted shoe of this invention.
It will be apparent that the procedure described above offers numerous advantages over more conventional shoe manufacturing techniques. For example, as compared with a lasted shoe, the upper of the present shoe requires less material, there is no time-consuming lasting operation, there is no necessity for filling spaces between insole and outsole, there is no need for ironing, roughening or otherwise preparing the margin of the upper prior to securing to the outsole, there is no problem of selecting a cement which is compatible with the upper as well as both soles, and the thickness of the upper is not a factor in edge trimming. As compared with conventional sliplasted shoes, where the bottom margin of the upper is turned outwardly, there is no need for covering or wrapping the edges, although the edges of the insole might be covered or Wrapped to produce an interesting design variation. Rather, the bottom margin is turned inwardly so that it lies flat in the natural contour of the foot and shoe, leaving no upstanding ridge, it being understood that the in-turned margin is of minimum width.
Although several embodiments are described, various other changes in and modifications of the construction described will be apparent and may be made without departing from the spirit of my invention or sacrificing its advantages.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. A process of making a light flexible sole shoe of a type having a large foot opening, such as a slipper, that comprises cutting an insole and outsole of substantially identical outline, marking the top surface of the insole with a peripheral line generally parallel to the edge thereof, providing an upper with a bottom margin cut to predetermined dimensions, progressively turning the bottom margin of the upper over the top surface of the insole into edge alignment with said peripheral line and progressively machine sewing the upper to the insole while so positioned off the last substantially about the entire periphery of the insole, thereafter attaching said outsole to said insole to provide a composite outsole of substantially uniform thickness from one edge to the other edge of the sole.
2. A process of making a light type having a large foot opening, such as a slipper, that comprises cutting an insole and outsole of substantially identical outline, marking the top surface of the insole with a peripheral line generally parallel to the edge therefiexible sole shoe of a of, forming an opening in the front portion of said insole which opening terminates short of the edges thereof, providing an upper with a bottom margin cut to predetermined dimensions, progressively turning the bottom margin of the upper over the top surface of the insole into edge alignment with said peripheral line and progressively machine sewing the upper to the insole While so positioned off the last substantially about the entire periphery of the insole, the front portion of the insole being spread apart as the sewing progresses about the front toe pertion, returning said insole to its normal shape and there after attaching said outsole to said insole to provide a composite outsole of substantially uniform thickness from one edge to the other edge of the sole.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Engel Oct. 17, Sutcliffe Dec. 13, Maiellano Mar. 7, Brauner Dec. 10, Kilburn Sept. 30, Grilfin Sept. 15, Fern Dec. 2, Ivinn Mar. 30, Lyness Oct. 19, Carson Apr. 5,
FOREIGN PATENTS Germany Apr. 14, Australia Oct. 22,
France June 9,