|Publication number||US3067068 A|
|Publication date||Dec 4, 1962|
|Filing date||Mar 9, 1959|
|Priority date||Mar 9, 1959|
|Publication number||US 3067068 A, US 3067068A, US-A-3067068, US3067068 A, US3067068A|
|Original Assignee||E R B Tobacco Products Co Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (75), Classifications (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 3,067,068 TlEACtC@--LIKE CUMPGSHEQN Joseph Finberg, Qhicago, ill., assignor to E R E Tobacco Products 630., Inc, (Ihicago, Ill., a corporation of Ellinois No Drawing. Filed Mar. 9, 1959, Set. No. 75 7535 12 Claims. (U. 131-2) in present inver -ion generally relates to improved tobacco-like composi ons and more particularly relates to improved tobaccoiike and chewing compositions which have no nicotinecontaining ingredients and to similar compositions which contain decreased amounts of nicotine, but all of which compositions have properties which are comparable to those of conventional soul? and chewing tobacco compositions.
In recent years, there has been considerable investigation of the physiological effects of conventional tobacco on the hum Hi system. For the most part, investigators of such effects are in agreement that tobacco can be detrimental to the users health. Although all of the substances in ordinary tobacco which are toxic to the human system when the tobacco is smoked or otherwise utilized have not as yet been determined, investigations have clearly shown that nicotine in the concentrations usually present in tobacco is one ingredient of the tobacco that is definitely toxic to the user. As is well known, nicotine is widely used as a toxic agent, particularly in fumigants and in insecticides. Moreover, it has been found that as little as 40 milligrams of nicotine maybe fatal to a human when injected directly into the circulatory system.
Analyse indicate that dried tobacco leaves usually contain from about 1.5 percent to about 8 percent by weight of nicotine, combined with an organic acid, such as citric acid or malic acid. When tobacco is burned, a substantial amount of the nicotine in the tobacco is volatilize-d and is entrained in the tobacco smoke so that when the smoke is inhaled a considerable proportion of the volatilized nicotine in the smoke is rapidly absorbed through the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract into the human circulatory system. The nicotine is then available to produce a number of undesirable effects upon the smoker.
The present invention directed to snuff and chewing compositions which are nicotine-free or which have re duced concentrations nicotine. The chewing compositions may include plugs, twists and similar forms. Both snuff and the chewing compositions are mainly utilized by being held in a wad in the mouth against the mucous membranes and chewed. Some snuit is also inhaled.
It has been found that nicotine can be released from the tobacco and transferred to the human circulatory system to a considerable extent when snutt and chewing tobacco are utilized by the user. in this connection, nicotine is soluble in Water so that when the saliva of the user acts upon the plug or mass of tobacco or upon the pocket of snuff held in the users mouth, a considerable proportion of the nicotine in the tobacco is dissolved and is readily absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth into the circulatory system.
Some nicotine can also be and usually is swallowed during mastication of snufi and chewing tobacco. This is analogous to the nicotine which may be taken up in the salivary secretions of the tobacco snicker and swallowed during the smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipe tobacco. T.e nicotine which reaches the stomach region in the saliva or jui e from t1 snuii or chewing tobacco can readily pass through the gastrointestinal tract into the circulatory system in a manner similar to that by which it enters the circulatory system from the mouth.
It has been demonstrated that nicotine has a pronounced physiological effect upon the cardiovascular systern of the user, which effect is directly related to the concentration of nicotine.
It has been estimated that absorption into the human physiological system of perhaps 3 milligrams of nicotine is capable of establishing a condition of vase-constriction in the cardiovascular system of the user of the tobacco. At times, the constriction may be sufficiently severe, depending upon the concentration of nicotine in the system and upon tolerance of the user to the nicotine, to produce spasms or irregular muscular contractions of the heart and blood vessels. This vase-constriction of the blood vessels is often accompanied by an acceleration of the heart rate and a simultaneous rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
The ingestion of nicotine into the human circulatory system in the concentrations usually encountered during the act of smoking tobacco or of chewing snuff or chew ing tobacco also appears to have a pronounced effect in contributing to the cause and symptoms of thromboangiitis obliterans (Buergefs disease), Raynauds disease, gangrene and various manifestations of coronary artery disease, such as angina pectoris.
Another undesirable physiological effect produced through the introduction of nicotine into the system of the tobacco user is an increase in gastric acidity. This elfcct is particularly pronounced in persons who are suffering from peptic ulcers. Moreover, this effect is much in evidence in snuff and chewing tobacco users than in smokers since there is a much greater likelihood of takin tobacco juice into the stomach by way of saliva if the user is chewing snutf or plug tobacco, particularly if the tobacco is held in his mouth over an extended period of time, rather than merely smoking the tobacco.
It is also well known that tobacco may irritate the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory system, particularly when the tobacco is utilized in the usual manner in which snuff and chewing tobacco are utilized, that is, it is held for extended periods of time in direct contact with the tongue and mucous membranes of the mouth. It is believed that these effects are to a considerable extent directly due to the nicotine in the tobacco, as well as other toxic constituents of the tobacco.
In view of the various disadvantages connected with the presence of nicotine in tobacco products, attempts have been made by various manufacturers of tobacco prodnets to eliminate or to substantially reduce the amount of nicotine in tobacco to levels which do not produce pronounced physiological effects, such as those previously described. However, none of such attempts have been proven to be completely successful. Such. attempts have been largely directed to cigarette tobacco, in contrast to pipe tobacco, cigars, snuif and chewing tobacco. Moreover the majority of such attempts have been directed to the removal, as by extraction, of all or most of the nicotine from the tobacco itself before incorporation thereof into the finished product. Attempts have also been made to remove nicotine from the tobacco during use. Such latter attempts, of course, have been limited to smoking compositions where filters or the like can be connected to the cigarette, pipe or cigar so as to take out all or most of the nicotine from the smoke during the act of smoking.
None of the so called de-nicotiriized t-obaccos which have been commercially produced have a nicotine content reduced by a sufiicient extent to materiallylessen or avoid the previously described harmful efiects of nicotine. Moreover, such attempts to de-nicotinize tobacco have been found to be relatively expensive and time consuming and frequently result in an undesirable nicotine content. The qualities adversely aflected usually are taste and appearance, so much so in most processes incident to removing the nicotine to any material degree that the resulting tobacco product is commercially unappealing.
enemas Commercially available tobacco filters which do not destroy the characteristic tobacco taste of the smoke and which do not seriously retard the passage of the smoke into the mouth of the smoker have been found to reduce the nicotine content of the smoke so slightly that the physiological effect on the smoker is usually altered only to an insignificant extent.
The nicotine content of tobacco, as previously indicated, varies considerably, depending upon the type of tobacco. The darker grades of tobacco usually are stronger in flavor and also higher in nicotine content than the lighter grades of tobacco. It has been conventional in the manufacture of snuff and chewing tobacco to utilize the heavier, more flavorful, stronger, higher nicotine-containing tobaccos in preference to the milder tobaccos utilized in smoking compositions, particularly cigarettes.
Recently, tobacco manufacturers have turned to such darker more flavorful grades of tobacco containing higher concentrations of nicotine in an effort to retain sufficient flavor in the tobacco smoke when utilizing filters with the cigarettes. However, removal in the filter of some of the flavor with some of the nicotine results in a filtered smoke having a pleasing natural taste but also a nicotine concentration at least that of the smoke of unfiltered, high quality, mild tobaccos. Accordingly, the physiological effects contributable to nicotine have not been alleviated to any considerable extent by current practices in filtering tobacco smoke. Moreover, in view of the extreme importance of full bodied strong flavor in snuff and chewing tobacco and in view of the association of strong flavor with high nicotine concentration in tobacco, few or no steps have been taken to counteract or to reduce the high concentrations of nicotine usually present in snuff and chewing tobacco compositions. Extraction of nicotine from the tobacco to a level which would not produce demonstrable physiological effects on a human being when the tobacco was incorporated into and utilized as snuff and chewing tobacco would no doubt result in tobacco of impaired flavor and appearance, commercially unsatisfactory for its intended purposes.
Since the deleterious effects of nicotine cannot be avoided by subjecting the tobacco for conventional snuff and chewing tobacco compositions to the usual nicotine reducing steps, the need has existed for a commercially acceptable nicotine-free tobacco-like composition which can be utilized as snuff or chewing tobacco. There has also been a need for a similar composition which contains nicotine in substantially reduced concentration, preferably those concentrations which do not produce deleter ious physiological effects in the user of the composition.
Such improved snuff or chewing composition, whether nicotine-free or containing a decreased amount of nicotine, must be commercially satisfactory by reason of taste, color, flavor, texture and other important qualities.
I have now discovered improved snuff and chewing tobacco-like compositions having properties which render them commercially acceptable and which have certain distinct advantages over the usual snuff and chewing to bacco compositions. The improved compositions of the present invention are equally adaptable for snuff and for chewing compositions and are either substantially or completely free of nicotine or contain nicotine in any decreased concentration, in contrast to conventional snuff and chewing tobacco compositions, so as to decrease or wholly eliminate the toxic effects attributable to the nicotine present in conventional snuff and chewing tobacco compositions.
Effective control of the nicotine content is achieved so that any nicotine concentration desired can be provided in the composition without resorting to any modification of tobacco such as, for example, pre-treatment thereof by extraction or the like. Moreover, the improved compositions of the present invention are completely commercially satisfactory. They are smooth tasting, evenly textured, flavorful and ideally suited for snuff and for 4 chewing tobacco-like compositions of high quality and appearance. Moreover, the compositions can be adjusted so that the constituents are substantially non-irritating to the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, in contrast to conventional tobacco compositions.
The most important ingredient of my improved snuff and chewing compositions comprises dried, cured leaves from the papaya plant, technically known as the Carica papaya, a member of the Caricaceae family of plants. The papaya plant is also known as the melon tree and the pawpaw. Th carica papaya plant is, in the mature state, usually in the form of a branched tree of approximately 20 feet in height, having seven lobed leaves of large size. The papaya is indigenous to tropical America, Hawaii and various other tropical countries.
For the purposes of the present invention the leaves of the papaya plant are processed in accordance with conventional methods of tobacco processing. The processed papaya leaves, which contain valuable digestive enzymes beneficial to the human system, when incorporated into the finished snuff and chewing compositions have substantially the same color, texture and other qualities as processed nicotine-containing tobaccos but are substantially soothing and non-irritating to the human upper respiratory tract and, of even more importance, contain no nicotine and therefore do not produce the pronounced physiological effects, previously described, which are attributable to nicotine. The leaves of the papaya plant can be readily substituted for or utilized in combination with processed tobacco leaves in the preparation of improved snuff and chewing compositions and the like.
Accordingly, the principal object of the present invention is to provide improved snuff and chewing compositions, that is, tobacco-like compositions primarily utilized for chewing purposes. A further object of the present invention is to provide improved snuff and chew ing tobacco compositions including non-nicotine-containing vegetable fibers. It is also an object of the present invention to provide snuff and chewing compositions con taining at least substantially reduced amounts of nicotine but which have improved characteristics. Another object of the present invention is to provide nicotine-free snuff and chewing compositions, which compositions have taste, color, texture, aroma and flavor qualities closely resembling those of standard commercially available snuff and chewing tobacco products. It is also an object of the present invention to provide new snuff and chewing tobacco compositions which do not produce harmful effects normally caused by the nicotine present in conventional snuff and chewing tobacco compositions and to eliminate certain deleterious effects attributable to the nicotine. It is a further object of the present invention to provide snuff and chewing compositions having a similar flavor and taste and which are substantially less irritating to the mucous membranes of the mouth and stomach than conventional snuff and chewing tobacco compositions.
Further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from a study of the following detailed description.
It has been found that papaya leaves when processed in the same manner as tobacco leaves are substantially equivalent thereto in those desirable features upon which the commercial acceptability of tobacco snuff and chewing tobacco compositions is based. The papaya leaves have the further important advantage of being inexpensive, non-irritating and nicotine-free. As previously pointed out, the flavor, taste, appearance and aroma, as well as other desirable characteristics of the snuff and chewing tobacco compositions are not depreciated by the introduction of papaya leaves into such compositions.
Any substitution of papaya leaves for tobacco in a snuff or chewing tobacco composition, in accordance with the present invention, represents an improvement in the composition, due to a reduction in the nicotine content soot es of the composition and also a decrease in the irritating qualities of the composition attributable to the nicotine content.
Since the effects of nicotine on the human physiological system may be considered cumulative and most likely are directly related to the concentration of nicotine, any decrease in nicotine concentration benefits the user of the composition. Moreover, the greater such decrease in nicotine concentration the greater the benefit. it is desirable that the reduction in the nicotine content by substitution of papaya leaves for tobacco in the composition be substantial. Preferably, such substitution is carried out to a point where the nicotine content of the product is below that which will produce a discernible physiological reaction in the user of the product.
It is within the scope of the present invention to provide nicotine-free chewing compositions such as snuff, chewing or plug tobacco which contain no natural tobacco, that is, where nicotine-containing tobacco is completely absent from the composition and is replaced in the composition by papaya leaves. Such compositions may, if desired, comprise papaya leaves, and any suitable flavoring, emulsifying or other conditioning and/or binding agents such as those conventionally utilized in the preparation of chewing tobacco compositions including snuff. The papaya leaves can be substituted for tobacco on a l-to-l weight basis without deleteriously affecting the quality of the finished product. Such complete adaptability or" the papaya leaves in chewing compositions such as snuff and plugs either in substitution for or in combination with tobacco, is highly beneficial in the formulation of improved commercially acceptable compositions.
it has been found that in order to assure that the composition of the present invention will have the desired characteristics, aroma, taste, texture and appearance, a certain minimum amount of processed papaya leaves and/ or tobacco leaves should be present in the composition. Such leaves should preferably have been first subiected to conventional snuff or chewing tobacco processing steps before the product is prepared in final form. in this connection, the term processed papaya leaves and processed tobacco leaves is meant to include, but not to limit the present invention to, those leaves which undergo one or more curing or aging or similar processing steps during production of the finished chewing or snuff composition. The processing steps may include, for example, drying, sweating, fermenting and aging, or their equivalents.
The chewing and snuff compositions of the present invention may be prepared in conventional forms and in accordance with conventional procedures.
Referring specifically to chewing compositions, these compositions may be in any conventional form, such as plugs, twists, fine-cut and scrap. Plug is the predominant form of chewing tobacco. Earle air-cured tobaccos are conventionally utilmd in chewing tobacco-s. Such tobaccos of a dark color are usually heavy in aroma, taste and te.ture. Moreover, they contain a relatively high concentration of nicotine. Sun Dried, Burley, One Sucker, Green River, Flue-Cured, Fire-Cured and Cigar Leaf Scrap tobaccos are some of the more popular varieties of tobacco conventionally utilized in chewing tobacco compositions.
Chewing tobaccos are generally heavily cased, that is, treated with flavoring agents, binders, humectants, etc. and are usually highly flavored. Chewing tobaccos are relatively simple to prepare in finished form, there being no extensive processing steps for modifying the constituents. The chewing compositions of the present invention can be prepared in accordance with such processing steps.
Snuff may also be considered to be a form of chewing tobacco, since it is similar in use to plug tobacco. However, it is also used without chewing. Moreover, it is conventionally prepared in an extensive and involved series of processing steps, which include fermentation. This processing is designed to impart to the snuff constituents delicate and distinctive aroma, and a pleasing flavor, texture and taste so as to greatly enhance the commercial acceptability of the product. Such processing may be utilized to prepare the snuff compositions of the present invention.
Snuif is conventionally prepared from dark fire-cured and dark air-cured types of tobacco. During processing, the cured tobacco leaves usually are cut into strips one to two inches wide and then subjected to drastic fermen tation. Alternatively, the tobacco may be in powdered form when fermented. The fermented tobacco may then be dried and powdered, if not alreadyin that form. At some point during the processing usually a considerable ouantity of casing or flavoring material is added to the tobacco.
Snuff can be classified into three primary types: (1) the dry or Scotch form; (2) the moist, Scandinavian or Swedish form; and (3) the semi-moist or Irish, Macoboy, or Rappee form. Of the three types of snuff the semimoist type is the most rarely used. The dry or Scotch form of snuff, as well as the other types may be subdivided into two sub-categories, (a) the sweet, which is flavored with various casing materials or flavoring agents, and (b) the plain, which is pure unflavored tobacco.
In the conventional preparation of snuif, the Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia types of dark fire-cured and dark air-cured tobaccos are most popular. These tobaccos conventionally undergo a preliminary aging of approximately 2 to 4 years before they are used in snuffmaking. During such preliminary aging, the tobacco passes through a series of natural sweats to modify the constituents thereof.
Referring now more particularly to the conventional snuif-making procedure, selected aged (and cured) tobacco leaves are first blended together, then passed through a separating machine which eliminates undesirable components. They are then moistened with water. The tobacco at some stage either before or after moistening with water is usually cut into small uniform pieces. After moistening, the cut leaves are subjected to artificial fermentation. The fermentation technique will vary, depending upon the final flavor and other characteristics desired in the snuff. By way of illustration, hogsheads or open bins or the like may be utilized as fermentation vessels under temperature conditions ranging from about 75 F. to about F. The fermentation may take place over a period of from about two to about six months. Alternatively, in certain processes, the fermentation is carried out at a higher temperature, for example about F. for a shorter period of time, for example, two or three weeks.
In order to carry out the fermentation satisfactorily, moisture must be present, as well as warm temperature, viable enzymes and a suitable substrate, including in some instances added sugar, etc. The enzymes naturally occurring in the tobacco in most cases are sufficient to bring about the fermentation without enzymes to the system. Details of the fermentation step widely vary among the snuff manufacturers.
After the fermentation step, the resulting fermented tobacco is usually dried by heating at a high temperature which, in addition to drying the tobacco, purifies it, that is, it stops the fermentation, killing the various enzymes responsible for such fermentation. Between the fermentation and drying steps, some processes call for salting the fermented mass with a controlled amount of salt, after which the mass is then dried. Thereafter, the tobacco may be ground to a very small mesh size and then distributed for packaging or packed into bags or the like and further aged or cured.
Several of the steps in the conventional processing of snuff from the initial leaf to the final product are interchangeable and optional. Various curing, aging and aoevgese fermenting techniques can be introduced at various points in the processing.
In this connection, for example, the casin or flavoring agents can be added before cutting, during curing, during milling or just before packaging, if desired. The conventional process of making snuff is relatively flexible, but usually is relatively long and complicated. The prod uct produced thereby had a delicate fiavor, aroma, texture and taste, often highly aromatic and distinctive.
In accordance with the present invention, tobacco leaves may be utilized in the preparation of snuff and other chewing compositions as well as papaya leaves. Before incorporation into the snulf, plug, etc., the papaya and tobacco leaves are subjected to conventional processing conditions which include aging, curing, drying and the like, so that processed leaves are utilized.
Vegetable fibers or leaves other than tobacco and papaya may also be present in the snutf or chewing composition. Such fibers and/or leaves may be subiected to processing conditions similar to those utilized for the papaya and tobacco leaves. Among the non-nicotinecontaining vegetable fibers and/or leaves which may be mixed with papaya leaves and tobacco in making up the total of fibrous material in the present compositions, which are particularly effective for such purposes are processed hop leaves, primrose leaves and coltstoot leaves. Those chewing compositions of the present invention which include coltsfoot leaves have an especially soothing eifect on the mucous membranes of the human upper respiratory tract. However, in addition, the processed apinon-processed fibers and leaves from the following vegetable species can be employed in the improved chewing compositions of the present invention:
Beet leaves Patchouli Vanilla planifolia Yerba mat leaves Golden-regen Maple leaves Mentha piperita leaves Drosera roluna'ifolia Cassia fistula Carthamus tinctorius Paraguay tea leaves Ilex paraquayensis Nasturtium leaves Ethovan or vanirome Marrztbium vulgaree leaves Zea maize Leaves of melilot (yellow) T rilisa odoratissima Cyprepedium flower Candelilla plant Cabbage leaves Lettuce leaves Calendula oflicinalis As previously indicated, in preparing the chewing compositions of the present invention, the leaves and any fibers which may be present, that is, the total amount of fibrous constituents is preferably first processed to the dried and cured state. After such processing, the leaves 3 and fibers are blended together with additional materials and are subjected to certain procedures to convert the mixture to the desired final form, that is, to chewing plugs, snuff and the like.
in the processing of the specified papaya and other leaves and fibers to the dried and cured state preliminary to their use in finished compositions, conventional tobacco processing techniques or equivalent techniques can be utilized. in this connection, the papaya leaves, for example, may be dried and cured, as by sun drying, or by exposing the leaves to air currents and artificial heat, or by any other equivalent means suitable to conventional tobacco drying and curing. For example, the leaves may be subjected to natural aging and curing over an extended period of time, for example, about 2 to 4 years, as is the case with tobacco conventionally utilized in the manufacture of snuff.
During aging papaya leaves and tobacco leaves both pass through a series of natural sweats which somewhat modify the characteristics or" the leaves, mellowing them and curing them of harsh flavors and tastes. During the curing, papaya leaves lose their chlorophyl, become flexible and change color to approximately that of nicotine containing tobacco.
The other types of vegetable leaves and/ or fibers utilizable in the composition of the present invention and previously listed may also be subjected to drying and curing according to conventional tobacco processing techniques or equivalent methods to prepare them for use in the compositions of the present invention.
The various types of vegetable leaves and fibers, including papaya and tobacco leaves, may be subjected to the drying and curing operations either separately or in any admixture. The process of preparing the leaves and/or fibers for use in the compositions of the present invention may also include inducing sweating, as previously mentioned, fermenting and aging under suitable conventional tobacco processing conditions to fully develop the desirable properties of the vegetable materials. The processed leaves and/or fibers can then be stored until ready for conversion into the final form of composition of the present invention.
Alternatively, the curing, aging, fermenting and similar treating steps subsequent to the drying can sometimes be carried out, at least in part, during actual processing of the composition into its finished form.
Subsequent to drying and curing but before incorporation of the vegetable leaves and/ or fibers into the desired product, such leaves and/ or fibers may be separately or collectively shredded and/or graded according to conventional tobacco processing techniques common in the preparation of tobacco smoking compositions. The shredding and grading eliminate any undesirable constituents, such as coarse stems, veins and the like. Thereafter the diiferent types of leaves and/or fibers may be mixed together in the desired proportions in accordance with the principles of the present invention. Alternatively, the various selected vegetable fibers and/ or leaves, including papaya and tobacco leaves, after drying and curing, may be mixed together in the proper proportions before the shredding and grading.
It should be understood that the described shredding and grading steps may be carried out or eliminated, as desired, or as called for by the particular conversion method utilized in preparing the chewing product.
The sum total of the processed tobacco and papaya leaves which should be present in the chewing compositions of the present invention, whether it is snuff or plugs, twists and the like, should be at least about 70 percent by weight of the total amount of fibrous material, that is, both fibers and leaves, in the composition. Preferably the sum total of processed tobacco and papaya leaves is at least about percent by weight of the fibrous material in the composition. It should be understood that in any 9 event some papaya leaves, sutficent to reduce the nicotine content of the composition in contrast to straight tobacco should be present.
For chewing compositions in the form of plugs, twists and the like, the total amount of fibrous material in the composition should be at least about percent by weight of the finished composition. In the case of snuff, the total amount of fibrous material should be at least about 70 percent, by weight of the finished composition. The remainder of the composition comprises casing materials and other conventional constituents as hereinafter more fully set forth.
Accordingly, the sum total of processed papaya leaves and tobacco leaves present in the finished chewing composition in the form of plug, twist and the like should be at least about 28 percent by weight of the finished composition. The sum total of processed papaya leaves and tobacco leaves present in the finished snuff composition should be at least about 49 percent by weight of the finished composition.
It the finished chewing composition, whether snuff or plug, twist, etc., contains no processed tobacco whatsoever, and, accordingly, is nicotine-free, the processed papaya leaves should be present in an amount of at least about 70 percent, by weight of the fibrous constituents of the composition. In the case of plugs, twists and the like, at least about 28 percent, by weight of the final composition, should be papaya leaves, and in the case of snufi, at least about 49 percent, by weight of the final composition. It has been found that in the described nicotine-free compositions, the desired commercially acceptable color, texture, taste, flavor and aroma for the product cannot be obtained unless the concentration of processed papaya leaves is at least that specified in the foregoing.
Accordingly, a part of the present invention comprises the provision of a composition containing processed papaya leaves but containing no tobacco leaves whatsoever. It is also a part of the present invention to provide a composition which contains processed papaya leaves but which contains no nicotine-containing tobacco leaves.
Vegetable fibers and/ or leaves other than tobacco and papaya may be present in the mixtures in amounts of up to about 30 percent by weight of the fibrous material in the composition. In addition, various amounts of tobacco conditioning agents, including moisture, flavoring agents, humectants and the like, including binding agents usually present in snuff and other chewing tobacco compositions, may be utilized in the compositions of the present invention. The total amount of such conditioning agents should not exceed about 30 percent, by weight of final composition, for snuff and should not exceed about 60 percent, by weight of final composition, for plugs, twists and similar chewing compositions.
After drying and curing, mixing, shredding and grading, the processed fibers and/or leaf mixture may then be combined with the other constituents, if any, to pro vide the finished compositions of the present invention. During processing, homogenization techniques instead of the usual non-homogenization techniques may be employed, if desired. In the event that such homogenization techniques are employed the previously described steps of shredding and grading the leaves and/ or fibers can be eliminated. However, homogenization procedures, which usually include the steps of grinding up the later reconstituting the processed leaves and/or fibers, are unnecessary in the preparation of the snuff and other chewing tobaccolike products of the present invention. in this connection, the snuff in final form is a powder, and furthermore, the plugs, twists and the like are preferably maintained in the natural leaf form in the finished products. However, this does not exclude the use of a homogenization procedure, since the products could be ground and reconstituted in accordance with the homogenization pro- 1d cedure then reground in the preparation of snuff, or left in reconstituted form in preparing the chewing tobaccolilre compositions.
in the event, however, that non-homogenization procedures are utilized, as is preferred, snuff can be prepared utilizing the previously described shredding and grading steps so as to remove the coarsest veins and stems from the mixture. However, the shredding and grading steps are unnecessary with this procedure, particularly since the mixture is normally finely ground during its subsequent conversion to the finished product. Moreover, it is often advantageous not to grade out the stems and veins of the papaya leaves which are present, since such leaves impart a lighter color to the mixture more closely approximating the true color of natural tobacco-containing snuff.
The process for the manufacture of finished chewing compositions, particularly of the types represented by plugs, twists, fine-cut chewing compositions and scrap compositions, relatively simple and direct. Subsequent to the drying and curing of the leaves and/ or fiber con stituents in accordance with the foregoing, the constitu cuts are blended together and shredded and graded as previously indicated, the latter two steps often being elirrinated, since whole leaves and/ or fibers are popular in some forms of the chewing compositions. After the blending or mixing together and shredding and grading, if any, of the leaves and/or fibers, the resulting mass is pressed and before or during pressing, and sometimes also after pressing, the mass is cased.
in the casing step for chewing plugs, tw sts etc, the mass of leaves and/ or fibers is sprayed or otherwise contacted with a viscous casing material until such mixture has a casing material content of up to about 60 percent, preferably about 40 percent, by weight of final composition.
The following is a list of the better known ingredients which can be combined in the casing material to treat the dried cured leaf and/or fiber mixture in preparing the desired chewing product:
Either niacin or rutin or both substances may also be incorporated in the composition, if desired, preferably by being added to the casing materials for the composition. Both niacin and rutin have certain d nctly beneficial effects in tobacco-like chewing composition. When such a composition containing niacin (nicotinic acid) is utilized, niacin passes into solution in the saliva and is brought into contact directly with the mucous membranes in the mouth and, if a portion of the chewing composition is swallowed, in the stomach. The niacin in solution in the saliva is then at least in part absorbed from the solution and passed directly through the mucous membranes into the human circulatory system. The absorbed niacin causes a dilation of the blood vessels of the user, with a resultant relaxation of tension and production of an overall satisfied feeling (euphoria). The amount of niacin used in substantially all instances in the chewing compositions should be within the general range of from about 0.l to about 2.5 percent by weight of the final composition. Smaller amounts have decreased efiects, while larger amounts are usually unnecessary therapeuti" cally.
Rutin which is present in tobacco in minute amounts may also be included in increased amounts in the chewing composition. Rutin is added in order to prevent capillary fragility in the user of the chewing composition and to decrease capillary fragility where present. It has been found that the amount of rutin which should be added to the composition in order to provide the desired effects is also in the range from about 0.1 to about 2.5 percent by weight of the entire composition.
The same materials which are used as flavoring agents, sweeteners, coloring agents, aromatics and humectants in the casing of tobacco may be utilized to advantage in the casing of processed papaya leaves, with or without processed tobacco leaves, and one or more of the non-nicotine containing vegetable fibers and/or leaves previously de-' scribed present.
in certain circumstances, it may be desirable to provide a low concentration of easing material, for example, below about 20 percent, in the composition. However, some casing material must at any rate be utilized as a means for binding the mixture together and for imparting to the mixture the desired concentration of moisture and flavoring, so that a uniform flavorful product of a suitable consistency for chewing is obtained. if casing material as such is not utilized, the dried and cured leaf mixture may be adjusted to the desired moisture content by the addition thereto of appropriate amounts of water and binder as by spraying, steaming or similar operations.
In accordance with conventional non-homogenization practice, after the mixture of leaves and/or fi ers has been treated with the desired amount of casing material it may be placed in a heated room and heated under pressure, for example 10,000 to 20,000 pounds per square inch. This heating and pressing operation brings about an aroma which closely resembles that of pure nicotinecontaining tobacco and the leaves and/or fibers of the mass are pressed together into a coherent mass, capable of retaining a given shape. The mixture, of course, may include tobacco and does include papaya leaves. During this pressing and heating step, the water content of the mixture may be reduced by evaporation to a controlled point, preferably to between about and about 14 percent by weight of final composition, although other concentrations may be provided. This water concentration, together with other moistening agents, including glycerine, of the chewing composition act to establish the desired moisture and consistency for chewing purposes.
After the heated mass is pressed together into the desired plug, twist or other form it can be shredded, if desired, to produce strands of varying size. However, it is preferable that the cured leaves and/ or fibers, including the papaya and tobacco, be kept whole and be merely bound together, as described, by the casing material.
Subsequent to the shredding step, if any, and subsequent to the casing, heating and pressing steps, the plug, twist or similar shaped mass may then, if desired, be subjected to aging steps to more fully develop the taste, flavor, appearance and other qualities of the product. Usually, however, this step is omitted, inasmuch as the preliminary steps of drying and curing the leaves and/ or fibers before casing usually include a certain amount of aging and fiavor developing. Accordingly, the flavor, taste, aroma, appearance and other desirable qualities of the mixture are sufiicientiy developed for the purposes of the present invention before the casing, pressing and heating steps are carried out.
In most instances, after the casing and pressing and heating steps and without the use of a separate or additional aging step, the plug, twist or the like form of chewing composition is ready for final forming and packaging operations. if desired, a separate final spraying step utilizing a relatively small amount of moisturizing agent, including water, glycerine, etc., flavoring agent and/or humectant or the like can be carried out before the packaging operations so as to more accurately control the moisture content and other characteristics of the product.
It should be understood that the described technique is only illustrative of a conventional procedure for the manufacture of twists, plugs and the like chewing product utilizing the compositions of the present invention, and that any other conventional tobacco processing tech- 12 niques for the manufacture of such chewing compositions, would also be satisfactory for the purposes of the present invention.
The chewing compositions of the present invention differ from those conventionally prepared from tobacco substantially only in the ingredients, that is, papaya is present in an effective amount as sun dried, cured, ripened leaves, with or without other selected and specified leaves and/or fibers in specified concentrations, so as to provide a superior product having the flavor, taste, aroma, appearance and other physical characteristics of conventional tobacco twist, plugs or the like, but with a decreased or nil nicotine concentration and with decreased physiological effects due to such reduced nicotine concentration.
The following examples are illustrative of certain embodiments of the chewing compositions of the present invention, and methods of manufacturing the same:
EXAMPLE 1 A chewing composition was prepared in the form of plugs. in the preparation thereof, the constituents listed in Table I below were first separately dried and cured, according to conventional tobacco drying and curing techniques, including a period of aging until flavorful, and were then mixed together in the relative proportions indicated in Table I below.
TableI Percentage by weight Constituents: of final composition Papaya leaves Tobacco leaves 8 Coltsfoot leaves 6 Eucalyptus leaves 6 Following the mixing together of the above-specified dried and cured constituents, the mixture was then cased with the following casing composition.
Table 11 Percentage by weight Constituents: of final composition Lupulin 1.5
Maple sugar- 6. Caramel 12 Licorice 5 Distilled water 15 Glycerol 20 and the excess water, if any, can later be removed or additional water can be added to the product, as needed, at some subsequent stage, i.e. during the pressing and heating operations, in order to adjust the water content to the desired level.
The casing material was sprayed in the form of a fine spray to coat substantially all portions of the mixture of papaya leaves, tobacco, coltsfoot leaves and eucalyptus leaves.
Following the casing step, the cased mixture was then subjected to an elevated temperature and pressure, for example, a pressure of about 10,000 pounds per square inch, in accordance with conventional tobacco plug-forming operations and utilizing conventional tobacco machinery. During this procedure the cased mixture was shaped and formed into the desired finished plug form of chewing composition. Moreover, the full flavor and aroma was developed, the casing material permeating the fibrous constituents and intimately blending therewith. During the same step, small adjustments were made in the water 13 content of the plug mixtureso that its final moisture content was about 15 percent by weight of the final composition.
After the described heating and pressing operations, the formed plugs were ready for final packaging and shipment as finished products. A final casing operation was dispensed with, in view of the accurate water level of the plugs, as determined by tests onplug samples, and further in view of the fully developed flavor, aroma, taste and other physical characteristics of the finishedplugs, so that they closely approximated high quality plugs made solely of natural tobacco and casing materials in accordance with a similar conventional process.
However, the plugs of this invention during use had a milder flavor and reduced irritation to the mucous membranes, as well as the decreased physiological effects attributable to nicotine and these advantages were obtained due in large part to the greatly decreased concentration of tobacco in the product.
EXAMPLE 2 Chewing compositions .in the v:form of twists were prepared generally in accordance with the method set forth in Example 1, except that the fibrous constituents of the composition solely comprised papaya leaves which were present in an amount of about 40 percent, by weight of final composition. The casing composition utilized in the method was asset forth below.
.As previously indicated, the water concentration indicated in Table III represented the total amount of water in the finished chewing composition, including that in the casing materials and also the papaya leaves.
Following the previously described casing, heating and pressing operations, the twists were also subjected to a shredding operation to divide the papaya leaves into relatively long narrow strips. The twist form was then reconstituted by further pressing operations at the previously described elevated pressures and temperatures, after which the twists were sprayed with a very small amount of water to readjust the final water concentration to the previously described level of 15 percent by weight of final composition. The twists were then ready for packaging and sale.
An examination of the physical characteristics of the finished twists indicated that such twists closely approximated conventional high quality tobacco fabricated twists in appearance, taste, flavor, aroma, texture and other physical characteristics.
Again, however, distinct advantages in mildness, lack of irritation to the mucous membranes of the mouth during use and total absence of physiological effects attributable to nicotine were obtained in the twists due to the use of papaya leaves therein. These advantages increased the overall quality of the twists.
EXAMPLE 3 A further plug chewing composition was prepared in the manner generally set forth in Example 1, except that the following constituents were utilized as the fibrous constituents in the composition.
Table IV Percentage by weight Constituents: of final composition Papaya leaves Tobacco leaves 27 Beet leaves 3 Maple leaves 3 14 :Following the mixing of the constituents specified in the above table, the constituents were in accordance with the method set forth in Example 1 subjected to a casing operation, which casing operation was carried out utilizing the following casing composition.
Tzz ble V Percentage by weight Constituents: of final composition :H'oney Vanillin .3
Molasses 4 Gum arabic '1 Rum flavor 1 Apple cider l Glycerine 12 Water 15 Niacin 0.1
EXAMPLE 4 A further chewing twist composition was prepared according to the method generally set forth in Example 1.
However, the fibrous constituents had the following composition.
Table VI Percentage by weight Constituents: of final composition Papaya leaves 20 Tobacco leaves 50 Coltsfoot leaves 3 The casingcomposition was as set forth in the following.
Table VII Percentage by weight Constituents: of final composition Rutin 2.5
Water 1 Glycerine 7 Molasses 3 Gum karaya 1 Honey 1 Niacin 2.5
Approximately percent of the above set forth casing composition was sprayed thoroughly on the mixture of fibrous constituents until they were cased. The gum karaya and molasses as well as the honey had the elfect of binding together the mixture of fibrous constituents. The binding operation was aided by subjecting the composition to the usual heating and pressing operations, at which time the fibrous mixture was shaped into the desired twist form. Subsequent to the heating and pressing operations, the formed twists were then recased lightly the remainder of the casing material and then immediately packaged so as to remain relatively moist.
It was found that the twists closely resembled the high quality twists prepared in accordance with Example 2.
The foregoing examples demonstrate that high quality chewing compositions of the plug or twist type can be readily formed, utilizing papaya leaves as a constituent of the fibrous materials in the composition and utilizing the same techniques as are conventionally employed in the manufacture of conventional tobacco chewing compositions of the plug and twist type. Furthermore, the compositions of the present invention were milder in flavor, and substantially less irritating to the mucous membranes of the mouth and had at least substantially reduced effects attributable to nicotine in contrast to conventional plug and twist chewing compositions. In addition, nicacin and rutin in the compositions of the present invention produced the previously described desired physiological effects on the users of the chewing compositions.
The conventional procedure for preparing tobacco snuff, as previously described, results in a product having a delicate flavor and aroma, mainly due to the fermentation step carried out under carefully controlled conditions, including temperature and time of fermentation. Snuff of high quality and closely resembling in general appearance conventionally prepared tobacco snuff can be prepared in accordance with the present invention utilizing dried and cured papaya leaves with or without dried and cured tobacco and/or the other suitably pretreated fibrous constituents, as previously described. Conventional snuff making techniques can be employed for the preparation of the papaya-containing snuff.
The following examples illustrate certain features of the snuff of the present invention and methods of manufacturing the same:
EXAMPLE In accordance with a conventional snuff making practice, selected, aged and cured tobacco leaves were first blended together with selected, aged and cured papaya leaves in the proportions as set forth in the following table.
Table VIII Percentage by weight Constituents: of final composition Papaya 35 Tobacco 35 The blended mixture was passed through a separating machine to eliminate large stems and the like and was then moistened with a small amount of water and cut into small uniform strips approximately three inches by one quarter inch. The cut strips were then subjected to artificial fermentation in open bins at from about 75 F. to about 95 F. over an extended period of time in the presence of a considerable quantity of water, sugar, and yeast cells made from hops and other cereal grains, forming with the enzymes present in the fibrous constituents an enzyme fermentation system. Also present in the bins Was a casing composition constituting the following.
Table IX Percentage by weight Constituents! of final composition Licorice 4 Glycerine 12 Caramel 2 Maple sugar 3 Apple cider 2 Cane sugar 2 The fermentation was carried out over a period of two and a half months while constantly maintaining the temperature within the indicated range, preferably at about 95 F. During the fermentation period additional sugar was added from time to time as needed for the proper growth of the enzymes in the fermentation system. Samples were taken at various intervals during the fermentation period to determine the extent of fermentation.
When the desired degree of fermentation had been reached at the end of the two and one-half month period,
the fermented mass was stirred and then spray dried by passing it through a conventional spray drying apparatus at a relatively high enzyme deactivating temperature.
This temperature also had the effect of purifying the anixture of other viable organisms. The spray dried mixture was finely ground to a small mesh size, after which the water content was adjusted to its final concentration of approximately 5 percent and the resulting material was then distributed for packaging as a finished snuff product. 7
The snuff product was tested for flavor, aroma, taste and other snuff qualities, including texture and general appearance, and was compared against several conventional high quality snuff tobaccos. It was found that the snuff product closely resembled conventional high quality snuff, except that it was somewhat milder in taste, Was less irritating to the mucous membranes and had substantially reduced physiological effects attributable to nicotine. Accordingly, the overall quality and commercial acceptability of the snuff product was concluded to be higher than that of each of the conventional tobacco snuffs against which it was compared.
EXAMPLE 6 Snuff was prepared generally in accordance with the method set forth in Example 5, .except that the following fibrous composition was utilized.
Table X Percentage by weight Constituents: of final composition Papaya leav s 40 Tobacco leaves 10 Coltsfoot leaves l0 Eucalyptus leaves 5 Maple leaves 5 The mixture of fibrous constituents was not shredded, but was ground to a fine mesh size before the fermentation step. In the fermenting step, the following casing composition was utilized.
There was also present in the bin during the fermentation period yeast cells, the fibrous constituents abovespecified, a substrate comprising a suitable concentration of sugars to support the desired enzyme growth and fermentation, and water. The fermentation was carried out for a period of approximately three and a half months at an average temperature of about il0 F.
Subsequent to the fermentation, instead of spray drying, the fermented mass was boiled at atmospheric pressure to reduce the mass to dry powder and sterilize it.
The dried snuff powder was then subjected to remoistenlng with water to adjust the water concentration to the desired level of approximately 13 percent by weight of final composition. The snuff was then ready for packaging and sale.
The snuff was similar to conventional high quality snuff in flavor, taste, texture, aroma, and general appearance, but had greatly reduced physiological effects due to nicotine and, moreover, produced the desired dilation of the blood vessels of the snuff user, together with a relaxation of tension and euphoria.
EXAMPLE 7 An additional snuff was manufactured in accordance with the method set forth in Example 5, except that papaya leaves were the sole fibrous constituents. The papaya leaves were present in a concentration of about 17 85 percent by weight of final composition. also contained the following casing materials.
The snuff The remainder of the snuff, that is, about 8 percent by weight, comprised water. The fermentation step was carried out at about 90 F. for about four months. During such time, the flavor and aroma of the papaya leaves fully developed. Following the spray drying of the fermented mass, the snuff was ground to a fine powder and subjected to a slight remoistening with water to bring the water content to within the desired range.
The snufi produced by the described process was substantially the same in physical characteristics as the snuff of Example 6 and had generally the same physiological effects. In addition, capillary fragility was decreased in the snuff user due to the presence of an appreciable concentration of rutin.
EXAMPLE 8 High quality snuff was prepared in accordance with the procedure generally set forth in Example but utilizing the following fibrous constituents.
Table XIII Percentage by weight Constituents: of final composition Tobacco leaves 33 Papaya leaves 3O Coltsfoot leaves 7 Fermentation was carried out for about two and one half months at about 95 F. In the fermentation step,
the following casing material was employed.
Table XI V Percentage by weight Constituents: of final composition Licorice 2 Cloves 0.5 Glycerine 6 Vanillin 0.5 Caramel 2 Maple sugar 2 Niacin 2.5 Rutin 2.5
In addition, humectants and water were present in the finished snuff in a concentration of about 12 percent by weight.
The finished snuff was found to be quite similar to the snuff of Example 7, both in physical characteristics and physiological effects. Accordingly, it was a high quality snuff having highly advantageous characteristics over conventional snuff.
It will be seen from the foregoing, that chewing compositions of the nature of snuff and also plugs, twists and the like, but having certain advantages over conventional chewing tobacco compositions are provided in accordance with the present invention. Nicotine is either present in reduced concentrations or is absent in the compositions of the present invention. Accordingly, the physiological effects due to nicotine are decreased or eliminated without sacrificing quality of the product and without necessitating special processing techniques. In addition, niacin and/or rutin may be employed in concentrations effective to provide their desired physiological effects. The chewing compositions of the present invention are both easy and economical to manufacture and are of commercial importance.
Various modifications in the compositions of the present invention and in the methods and apparatus for manufacturing the same as are within the skill of those versed in the art are contemplated as being within the scope of the present invention.
Certain features of the present invention which are believed to be new are set forth in the following.
1. An improved cherning composition consisting es sentially of vegetable fibers and casing material, said casing material being present in an amount sufficient to maintain said vegetable fibers in a moist, coherent, chewable mass, at least about 70 percent by weight of said fibers and at least about 28 percent by weight of said composition being dried, cured papaya leaf.
2. An improved chewing composition consisting essentially of vegetable fibers and casing material, said casing material being in a concentration of at least about 40 percent by weight of said composition, at least about 36 percent by weight of said composition being dried, cured papaya leaf.
3. An improved chewing composition consisting essentially of vegetable fibers, casing material and at least one physiologically effective compound selected from the group consisting of rutin and niacin, said casing material being present in a concentration of about 40 percent by weight of said composition, said physiologically effective compound being present in a concentration of between about .01 and about 2.5 percent by weight of said composition and substantially the remainder of said composition comprising said vegetable fibers, at least about 70 percent by weight of which are dried, cured papaya leaves.
4. An improved snuff composition consisting essen tially of a finely ground mass of vegetable fibers and casing material, at least about 70 percent by weight of said fibers and at least about 49 percent by weight of said composition comprising dried, cured, fermented papaya leaf.
5. An improved snuff composition comprising a finely ground mass of vegetable fibers and casing material, at least about percent by weight of said fibers and at least about 63 percent by weight of said composition being dried, cured, fermented papaya leaf,
6. An improved snuff composition consisting essentially of a finely ground mass of vegetable fibers, casing material and at least one physiologically effective compound selected from the group consisting of rutin and niacin, at least about 90 percent by weight of said fibers and at least about 63 percent by weight of said composition being dried, cured, fermented papaya leaf, said physiologically effective compound being present in a. concentration of between about .01 and about 2.5 percent by weight of said composition, substantially the remainder of said composition comprising said casing material.
7. An improved chewing composition consisting essentially of vegetable fibers and casing material, said casing material being present in an amount sufficient to maintain said vegetable fibers in a moist, coherent, chewable mass, at least about 70 percent by weight of said fibers and at least about 28 percent by weight of said composition being a mixture of dried, cured papaya leaf and dried, cured tobacco leaf.
8. An improved chewing composition consisting essentially of vegetable fibers and casing material, said casing material being in a concentration of about 40 percent by weight of said composition, and at least about 36 percent by weight of said composition being a mixture of dried, cured papaya leaf and dried, cured tobacco leaf.
9. An improved chewing composition consisting essentially of vegetable fibers, casing material and at least one physiologically effective compound selected from the group consisting of rutin and niacin, said casing material being present in a concentration of about 40 percent by weight of said composition, said physiologically aoevgoee fibers and at least about 49 percent by weight of said com- 10 position comprising a mixture of dried, cured, fermented papaya leaf and dried, cured, fermented tobacco leaf.
11. An improved snuff composition comprising a finely ground mass of vegetable fibers and easing material, at least about 90 percent by weight of said fibers and at least about 63 percent by Weight of said composition being a mixture of dried, cured, fermented papaya leaf and dried, cur-ed, fermented tobacco leaf.
12. An improved snuff composition consisting essentially of a finely ground mass of vegetable fibers, casing material and a physiologically effective compound, selected from the group consisting of rutin, niacin and mixtures thereof, at least about 90 percent by weight of said fibers and at least about 63 percent by weight of said composition being a mixture of dried, cured, fermented papaya leaf and dried, cured, fermented tobacco leaf, said physiologically effective compound being present H at! in a concentration of between about .01 and about 2.5 percent by weight of said composition, and substantially the remainder comprising said casing material.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 97,962 Ramel Dec. 14, 1869 2,198,188 Viscardi Apr. 23, 1940 2,930,720 Finberg Mar. 29, 1960 FOREIGN PATENTS 14,829 Great Britain May 25, 1901 131,635 Australia Mar. 4, 1949 187,242 Austria ec. 15, 1955 OTHER REFERENCES Ser. No. 261,049, Lande (A.P.C.), published May 11, 1943.
Osol-Farrar: Dispensatory of the U.S.A., 25th Edi- 20 tion, parts II and III, pp. 1782 and 1783, column 1.
Papain (pub.) by Tainter et al. from the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 54, Art. 2, pp. 143 296, published by the Academy (copy in Div. 43), pp. 147-150 especially cited.
The Tobacco Manufacturers Manual by James B. Lutterman, published in 1887, London SW. (copy in Div. 2).
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