US 3067801 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 11, 1962 c. H. SORTOR 3,067,801
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INSTALLING A WELL LINER Filed NOV. 13. 1958 F'I[:?| l F'IE 2 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 I36 #p x TI l3 4 3 H 3 so z 56 54 A F 82 l TOR 58 CHARLIENSVI-ELNSORTOR 63 2 Gay A74 ATTORNEY C. H. SORTOR Dec. 11, 1962 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INSTALLING A WELL LINER KI H. I
5 Sheets-Sheet 3 III, l HnmnuHH w i M NR$MMNwmmwhmmwnumHHHHHHHMHMMMHHHHUHWHHHJHURHHHH WuHHr- L 464 M w m 9 5 5 8 O E 6 O 6 2 I I Z 44 1 6 4 O T m w m w aw m 2 2 2 w 9 8 O A T 6 I O m Q 6 a 9 w 2 4 6 W I 1/ N w T O O 4 8 O 6 2 O4 6 1 4 4 O 26 m 2 9 2 2 8 3 5 5 3 5 e a 5 7 6 6 INVENTOR CHARLES H-SORTOR 54 58 BY A v"W*"' ATTORNEY Dec. 11, 1962 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INSTALLING A WELL LINER Filed Nov. 13, 1958 C. H. SORTOR 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Q I I 0 INVENTOR CHARLES H. SORTOR ATTO RN EY Dec. 11, 1962 c. H. SORTOR 3,067,801
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INSTALLING A WELL LINER Filed NOV. 13, 1958 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 P'IE EI I3 F'Il3 lEI INVENTOR CHARLES H. SORTOR ATTORNEY 7 between the liner and the casing.
United States Patent 3,067,801 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INSTALLING A WELL LINER Charles H. Sortor, Fresno, Calih, assignor to FMC Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Filed Nov. 13, 1958, Ser. No. 773,675 Claims. (Cl. 153-80) This invention pertains to methods and apparatus for installing liners in well casings.
When a well casing becomes twisted or broken it is necessary to install a liner therein to cover the broken or twisted section and thus restore the well as nearly as possible to its former condition.
In the use of methods and apparatus previously known for installing liners, the internal well diameter was materially reduced, making the subsequent installation of pumps and other well equipment difficult.
Another difliculty encountered in the use of previously known methods and apparatus for installing liners was that extremely long liners were sometimes required so that the liner could be supported either on the well bot tom or on the shoulder formed by some preexisting diam- :eter reduction within the well.
7 is firmly locked within. the casing. 7
Another object of the invention is to provide a method of, and apparatus for, installing a liner within a casing, which are of such a nature that the upper end of the liner so installed does not present an obstruction that-would be likely to interfere withsubsequent lowering of a well pump or other equipment therethrough.
These and other objects and advantages, of the invention will become apparent from the following description and accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is an elevation of a liner adapted for installation in a well in accordance with the method of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a partly broken away elevation of the swaging tool of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a. section taken on line 3-3 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is an isometric of one of the liner supporting clips adapted to be attached to the swage jaws. I
,FIGS. 5A and 5B together form a partial axial section of the swage with a liner mounted thereon.
FIG. 6 is a partial section, illustrating the action of the swage in expanding the liner into contact with the well casing. I
FIGS, 7, 8 and 9 illustrate the manner in which the liner is installed in a well casing.
FIG. '10 illustrates one means for increasing the bond FIG- 11 illustrates a second means bond between the liner and the casing.
FIG. 12 illustrates a method of installing a longer liner than that illustrated in FIG. ,1.
3,067,801 Patented Dec. 11, 1962 other manner so that it covers the damaged portion of the casing which has been so enlarged.
The present invention also contemplates the enlargement of the damaged casing to its former diameter prior to the installation of a liner. A swage 20 capable of performing the enlarging operation within the well casing, is illustrated in FIGS. 2, 3, 5A, 5B, and 6. The swage 20 comprises a cylindrical body separated into upper and lower portions 24 and 26, respectively, by a partition 28. A ball 30 is attached to the upper end to permit attachment of the swage 20 to a hoisting device.
A piston head 32 is slidably received within the lower portion 26 of the swage 20. The piston head 32 (FIG. 5A) is fixedly connected to a piston rod 34 which extends downwardly through a member 36 threaded into the lower end of the lower portion 26 of the swage 20. A spring 38 encircles the piston rod 34 and is confined between the member 36 and the piston head 32 to urge said piston head upwardly.
Two longitudinally extending ports, or passageways, 40 and 42 (FIGS. 5A and 5B) are formed in the separator 23. One of these passageways 40 is connected to the discharge of a fluid pump 41 driven by a submersible electric motor 43 located in the upper portion 24 of the swage 20. When actuated, the pump 41 delivers hydraulic fluid from the interior of the upper portion 24 of the swage 20 through the passageway 40 into the space between the piston head 32 and the separator 28 to force the piston head downwardly. When it is desired to allow the piston head 32 to rise, the hydraulic fluid is permitted to return to the interior of the portion 24 of the swage 20 through passageway 42. The return flow through passageway 42 is controlled by a solenoid-actuated valve 45.
The unit 36 is provided with a plurality of downwardly projecting radial webs 50 (FIGS. 5A and 6). In the instant case four of these webs are shown; however, it is contemplated that more or less than four may be used. A transversely extending pivot pin 52 is fixed in each of the webs 50. Each of the pins 52 pivotally supports a downwardly extending swaging jaw 54. Each of the jaws 54 is bifurcated at its upper end to straddle its associated web 50.
The outer surfaces of the swaging jaws 54 are arcuate and of such dimensions that when the jaws 54 are closed the upper portions 56 of their outer surfaces form a cylindrical surface having the same diameter as the body of the swaging tool 20. The lower portion 58 of each of the jaws 54 is tapered downwardly and inwardly; A plurality of toggle links 60 connect the jaws 54 with a cap member 61 threaded on the lower end of the piston rod 34.
When hydraulic pressure is applied to the top of the piston 32 the piston 32 is moved downwardly, as already explained, and the piston rod 34 actuates the toggle links 60 to spread the jaws 54 from the position illustrated in FIG 5A tothat illustrated in FIG. 6. When the hydraulic pressure is released, the spring 38 moves the piston 32 upwardly and the jaws 54 return to 'the position illustrated in FIG. 5A.' I
While a particular self contained hydraulic swage capable of being handled by a simple wire line has been described herein, it should be noted that the invention is for increasing the FIG. 13 illustrates a modified swage jaw of integral construction.
The usual ,method of installing a liner contemplates first using a swage to restore and enlarge the damaged well casing to, or nearly to,- its original diameter, and then either driving a liner therein or hanging the liner in some not limited thereto and may be practiced with other types of swages.
The present invention contemplates the mounting of a clip 62, of the type illustrated in FIG. 4, on the lower end of each of the jaws 54 in the manner illustrated in FIGS. 2, 5A and 6. The clip 62 is arcuate and'has a body portion 63 and an outwardly extending flange 64. A vertical bore 66 is provided in the central portion of the clip. A suitable cap screw 68 can be inserted through the bore 66 and threaded into a suitably tapped opening ential distribution of the swage jaws.
70 in the lower end of the swage jaw 54. When the clip 62 is so mounted, the arcuate fiange 64 is spaced from the lower end of the jaw 54 to provide an arcuate groove 72 therebetween.
It is to be understood that instead of using a separate clip 62 as described above, a special swage jaw 54a having an annular groove 72a milled adjacent its lower end could be used as illustrated in FIG. 13.
In preparing the liner 80 (FIG. 1) for installation, a series of inverted V-shaped notches 82 are cut in the lower end thereof to provide a plurality of V-shaped legs 84 equal in number to, and circumferentially disposed in the same manner as, the jaws 54 on the swage. The lower edge of each of the legs 84 is turned inwardly to form a lip 86 (FIGS. A and 6). The swage 20 is then inserted into the liner 80 and the legs 84 are bent inwardly until the lips 86 are received within the grooves 72.
The swage 20, with the liner 80 mounted thereon, is then lowered through the well casing 90 until the desired elevation within the well is reached. The swage 20 is then actuated to expand the liner into contact with the casing 90, as illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7. It will be noted that the swage 20 is expanded far enough to cause a slight outward bulging of; the casing 90, whereby the liner will be firmly locked therein.
The swage jaws 54 are then retracted to disengage them from the lips 86 on the bottom of the liner 80. The swage is then lowered so that the largest portion of the jaws 54 is adjacent the lips 86, and is again expanded to force the lower ends of the leg portions 84 of the liner 80 and the lips 86 outwardly against the casing 90 in the manner indicated in FIG. 8.
The swage jaws 54 are again retracted and the swage 20 is raised until the largest diameter portion of the jaws 54 is adjacent the upper end of the liner 80. The swage jaws 54 are again actuated to expand the upper end of the liner 80 outwardly against the casing 90, as illustrated in FIG. 9. Thus, the upper end of the liner does not form an obstruction to any tools subsequently lowered therethrough. The swage jaws 54 are then again retracted and the swage 20 is removed from the well.
If a firmer connection between the liner 80 and the casing 90 is desired, hardened metal buttons 100 (FIG. may be formed on the outside of the liner adjacent the regions thereof to be engaged by the largest diameter portion of the swage jaws 54 during the first above described expanding operation, or sharp pointed rivets 102 (FIG. 11) may be mounted thereon instead of, or in addition to, the buttons 100. It will be appreciated that if the buttons 100 are used, these buttons will force indentations in the casing 90, and if the sharpened rivets 102 are used they will penetrate the casing 90, to more firmly lock the liner therein when the swage is expanded.
When it is desired to install a liner longer than that which can be conveniently handled in the above manner, i.e., supporting it at the bottom of the liner, the method illustrated in FIG. 12 may be used. This method is essentially the same as that described above. A plurality of liner sections 110 are successively lowered into the easing 90, each section being fastened to the preceding sections as by welding, or other means of connection, until nearly the desired length of liner is obtained. A clamp 112 is then clamped around the upper portion of the last section 110 of the liner and rests on the upper end of the casing 90 or a casing head (not shown).
The uppermost liner section 114 is then prepared by making a plurality of pairs of parallel, longitudinally extending cuts 116 and 118 adjacent the bottom thereof to provide a plurality of support leg structures 120. The number of leg structures 120, and their circumferential disposition corresponds to the number and circumfer- The lower edges of the legs 120 are turned inwardly to form lips 122.
After the swage 20 has been properly positioned within 'the'section'114, the legs 120 are bent inwardly until the lips 122 are received within the previously described grooves 72 on the jaws 54 of the swage 20. The lower edge of the material of the liner section 114 between the leg structures 120 is then welded to the upper edge of the uppermost liner section 110. The clamp 112 is then removed and the complete assembly is lowered to the desired elevation within the casing and the swage jaws 54 are expanded to lock the liner in place in the same manner as described above.
While a preferred embodiment of the apparatus of the invention is described herein, it should be noted that various changes may be made therein Without departing from the spirit of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. The method of installing a Well liner in a well cas ing, which comprises severing a longitudinally extending section of the liner therefrom along all but the upper part of the section to form a bendable supporting leg, forming a lip on said supporting leg projecting inward there from, inserting into said liner a swaging tool having movable jaws with outwardly facing recesses formed therein, bending said leg inward to seat said lip within said recess in one of the jaws of the swaging tool to mount the liner on the swaging tool, lowering the swaging tool with the liner thereon into the well casing, expanding the jaws of the swaging tool to bend said sup porting leg outward to its original relation within the liner, further expanding the jaws of the swaging tool to bulge the casing with the supporting leg of the liner swaged into the bulge thus formed, and retracting said jaws to disengage them from the liner.
2. The method of installing a well liner in a Well casing, which comprises severing a longitudinally extending section of the liner therefrom along all but the upper part of the section to form a bendable supporting leg, forming a lip on said supporting leg projecting inward therefrom, forming a protrusion projecting from the outer surface of said leg, inserting into said liner a swaging tool having movable jaws with outwardly facing recesses formed therein, bending said leg inward to seat said lip within said recess in one of the jaws of the swaging tool to mount the liner on the swaging tool, lowering the swaging tool with the liner thereon into the well casing, expanding the jaws of the swaging tool to bend said supporting leg outward to its original relation within the liner, further expanding the jaws of the swaging tool to embed said protrusion within the inner surface of the casing and to bulge the casing with the supporting leg of the liner swaged into the bulge thus formed, and retracting said jaws to disengage them from the liner.
3. An apparatus for installing a tubular well casing liner having a plurality of bendable leg portions and an inwardly projecting lip on each of said leg portions, said apparatus comprising a swage removably receivable within the bore of the liner and having radially movable elongate swaging jaws, means fastenable to each of said swaging jaws adjacent its distal end defining an outwardly facing groove adapted to receive the lip of one of the leg portions of the liner when said leg portions are bent inward to attach the liner to the swage whereby the liner is movable upward and downward within a well casing in response to axial movement of the swage, and means for moving said jaws radially outward to swage the liner to the casing and radially inward to release the lips from the swage.
4. An apparatus for installing a tubular well casing liner having a plurality of lips rigid therewith projecting radially into the bore thereof, said apparatus comprising a swage receivable within the bore of the tubular liner and having'movable elongate swaging jaws, a clip fastened to the distal end of each of said jaws, each of said clips having a flange spaced from said distal end of its associated 'jaw to define a radially outwardly opening groove within which the lip of one of said leg portions of the liner is receivable when the leg portion is bent inward to attach the liner to the swage for axial movement therewith, and means for moving said jaws radially outward to swage the liner to the casing and radially inward to release the lips from the jaws and thereby to detach the liner from the swage.
5. An apparatus for installing a tubular well casing liner having a plurality of bendable leg portions and an inwardly projecting lip on each of said leg portions, said apparatus comprising a swage having movable elongate swaging jaws, a clip hastened to an end of each of said jaws, each of said clips having a flange spaced from said end of its associated jaw to define an outwardly opening groove within which the lip of one of said leg portions of the liner is receivable when the leg portion is bent inward to attach the liner to the swage for movement in either direction with the swage, and means for moving 6 said jaws radially outward to seat the lips within said grooves and thereby attach the liner to the swage and radially inward to detach the lips from said jaws and thereby release the liner from the swage.
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