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Publication numberUS3068341 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 11, 1962
Filing dateMar 28, 1960
Priority dateMar 28, 1960
Publication numberUS 3068341 A, US 3068341A, US-A-3068341, US3068341 A, US3068341A
InventorsGrant Cuthbert, Morris L Markel, Ralph G Ortiz
Original AssigneeGrant Cuthbert, Morris L Markel, Ralph G Ortiz
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ceiling light heater
US 3068341 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 11, 1962 R. e. ORTIZ ETAL 3,068,341

CEILING LIGHT HEATER Filed March 28, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 W, a. W

ATTORNEYS.

Dec. 11, 1962 CEILING LIGHT HEATER 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 54 H D 59' @E; Q *8? a7 00 (I za/ a was Z Vfime/ United States Patent ()fiice 3,068,341 Patented Dec. 11, 1962 3,068,341 CEILING LIGHT HEATER Ralph G. Ortiz, Eggertsville, N.Y. (214 Evergreen Drive, Tonawanda, N.Y.); Cuthbert Grant, Eggertsville, N.Y. (51 Ava Lane, Buffalo 21, N .Y.); and Morris L. Markel, Tonawanda, N.Y. (1051 Calvin Ave., Kenmore 23,

) Filed Mar. 28, 1960, Ser. No. 17,947

15 Claims. (Cl. 219-39) This invention relates to an improvement in recessed :ceiling light and radiant heaters.

Recessed ceiling light and radiant heaters of the type with which the present invention is concerned, generally include an incandescent light held in a housing arranged to provide downwardly directed illumination, an electrical resistance heating element arranged under a reflector to provide downwardly directed radiant heat, a fan positioned above the reflector for circulating a COOllng air stream around the parts under the influence of the heating element for preventing overheating of these parts, and a shell for mounting the housing and associated parts within a ceiling. Control means are arranged for the remote control of the light and heater element, and for either individual or joint operation thereof.

An important object of this invention is to provide a recessed ceiling light and radiant heater which will provide adequate light and radiant heat in a bathroom.

A more specific object is to provide a recessed ceiling light and radiant heater that spreads the radiant heater over a preselected area, and which particularly avoids heat concentration directly beneath the unit.

Another specific object is to provide a recessed ceiling light and radiant heater that cools the parts under the influence of the radiant heat by moving air but which has a minimum of air movement and in particular does not produce sensible air flow to one standing directly under or near to the unit.

Another object is to provide such a recessed ceiling light and radiant heater which is simple in construction and low in cost and at the same time is of rugged construction and will stand up under conditions of severe and constant use without getting out of order.

Another object is to provide such a recessed ceiling light and radiant heater which is attractive in appearance as a bathroom accessory.

These and further objects and features of the invention will become apparent from the following description and accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view of a recessed ceiling light and radiant heater embodying one form of the present invention in which the room air used for cooling is discharged through a ceiling duct at a remote place.

FIG. 2 is a bottom view of the same as set in a ceil- FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken generally along lines 3-3 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 4 is a schematic view illustrating the reflective pattern of the radiant heating portion of the unit.

FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 1 showing a modified form of the invention in which the air is circulated only for cooling the parts contained within the main housing of the unit and is returned directly to the room.

v FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view of the form of the invention shown in FIG. 5.

The housing for the recessed ceiling light and radiant heater comprises a sheet metal cylindrical shell or can 10 which has a cover or upper end head 11 fixed to its upper end and being open at its bottom. .A plurality of L- shaped brackets 12 are secured, as by screws 13 accessible from within, at spaced intervals around the periphery of the shell or can 10 to provide radial horizontal attaching fingers 14. These fingers are spaced from the lower edge 16 of the housing 10- and are secured by screws 17 to horizontal supports 18 which: are turn suitably secured to the building joists (not shown) so that the can is recessed into the ceiling with its lower edge 16 forming the plaster line, the plaster of the ceiling being indicated at 19.

The sheet metal scroll or housing 20 of a scroll fan 21 is secured by the U-shaped brackets 22 to cover 11 so as to suspend this fan housing in spaced relation to this cover. The axis of the scroll 20 is vertically disposed and has an inlet opening 23 in its bottom through which air is drawn into the fan housing by a fanw-heel 24 driven by a two speed electric motor 25 arranged in the inlet opening 23. The motor and fanwheel assembly is supported on a disk 26 which is in turn supported by a plurality of radial arms 27 carried by the fan housing around the margin of the opening 23. The tangential outlet 28 of the fan housing can fit into one end of a tubular or duct fitting 29 extending through and mounted on the side wall of the main housing'10 as best shown in FIG. 3. The outer end of this duct fitting 29 can connect with a flexible duct or tube 30 through which the air from the fan can be discharged at a place remote from the recessed ceiling light and radiant heater.

Current for the operation of the fan is supplied from wires 31 from a conventional junction box 32 extending through and mounted on the side wall of the main housing 10. The wires from this junction box also serve an incandescent electric light bulb 33 mounted in and depending firorn a conventional socket 34. This socket, as well as a circular radiant heating element, is supported as follows:

The numeral 35 represents a reflector ring which also serves to channel the room air drawn into the housing 10 so as to have maximum effect in cooling those parts of the recessed ceiling light and radiant heater which require cooling. To this end this reflector ring is made of a single piece of metal and has an upstanding outerrnarginal or peripheral portion 36 the upper edge of which fits against the bottom of the plaster 19. This portion is provided with an annular series of generally rectangular openings 38 through which room air is admitted to the bottom of the housing shell 10 at its rim and is drawn upwardly along the inner fiace of this shell by the fan so aslto hold the temperature of this housing shell to a low va no.

In cross section the reflector ring '35 is continued downwardly and inwardly from the upstanding outer marginal portion 36 by a frusto-conical portion 40 the lower inner edge of which is continued in a parabolically formed reflector portion 41 the concavity of which faces downwardly. The inner edge of this parabolically formed reflector portion 40 of the ring 35 is continued in an upwardly diminishing fru-sto-conical portion 42 the inner rim 43 of which terminates in widely spaced relation to the electric light bulb 33.

The reflector ring 35 is supported by hanger straps 44 secured at intervals around and depending from the bottom rim of the housing 10, each of these hanger straps having a bottom laterally extending ear 45 to which the corresponding side of the reflector ring 35 is secured by screws 46. This reflector ring 35 in turn supports an upwardly diminishing frusto-conical metal ring 47 by means of spring fingers 48 secured at intervals around the inner face of the upwardly diminishing inner frusto-conical portion 42, these fingers extending radially downwardly and inwardly and catching under the bottom rim of this frusto-conical ring 47. The upper rim 49 of this frustoconical ring 47 extends horizontally inwardly and forms an annular shelf for supporting the radially outwardly extending rim 50 of a translucent bowl-shaped globe 51 3 which surrounds the bottom of the electric light bulb 33 and is surrounded by the frusto-conical ring 47 as well as by the inner frusto-conical portion 42 of the reflector ring 35.

The electric light bulb 33 and its housing is also sup ported by the reflector ring 35. This light bulb housing 52 is of cylindrical form closed at its top by an upper end 53 and open at its bottom. The light bulb socket 34 extends through and is anchored in this upper end head 53 and a neoprene sealing ring 54 is preferably interposed between the bottom rim of the light housing 52 and the frusto-conical ring 47 to provide a light seal. The light housing 52 is shown as supported by brackets 55 secured to and radiating inwardly from the reflective portion 41 of the reflective ring at spaced intervals.

The heat is radiated from a circular radiant heater element which is supported by annularly spaced clips or brackets 61 within the parabolically formed portion 40 of the reflector ring 35, these clips being anchored in this portion and extending radially outwardly therefrom. The ends of this circular radiant heating element 60 extend upwardly as indicated at 62, and connect to a twin terminal (not shown) carried by a bracket 63 from the junction box 32 and covered by a fiberglass sleeve 64.

A guard 65 for the circular radiant heating element is in the form of an inner endless wire ring 66 and an outer concentric endless Wire ring 68 connected by annularly spaced radiating wires 69. Certain of these radial wires, designated at 69a are extended upwardly through catch holes 70 in the reflector ring 35. The upper extremities 71 of these arms 69a are offset or notched to provide shoulders or catches which engage the upper surface of the reflector ring 35.

In the operation of the form of the invention shown in FIGS. 1-5, manual switch means (not shown) can be provided for operating the electrical components in any desired combination. Thus the incandescent light could be energized by itself thereby to provide light radiating downwardly and laterally through the translucent globe 51 and the intensity of which is determined by the wattage of the incandescent light bulb 33. The heat generated by the light bulb alone would not be sutficient to require cooling of the light housing 52 and hence when used as a light alone the exhaust fan 21 would normally not be energized.

The circular radiant heating coil 60 is preferably energized independently of the light bulb 33 so that radiant heating is not aifected when not desired. However, with the energization of the circular radiant heating element 60, the fan motor 25 must be energized at least at slow speed so as to prevent the main housing 10 and the parts contained therein from rising to an excessive temperature, particularly from heat derived from the reflector ring 35, although the electric light bulb 33, also, of course, contributes to heating the parts contained within the main housing or shell 10. The energization of the circular radiant heating element 60, raises it to radiant heating temperature and radiant heat from the bottom part of this circular radiant heating element is projected downwardly and laterally against a person standing directly below or near the recessed light and radiant heater so as to provide warmth while, say, drying himself. In addition, the radiant heat projected upwardly from the top part of the circular radiant heating element 60 is projected against the parabolic portion 41 of the reflector ring 35. This portion is parabolic in cross section, preferably to provide the light pattern illustrated in FIG. 4. It will be noted that this pattern is such that the reflected heat is essentially in the form of a downwardly divergent cone, this being for the purpose of both avoiding an uncomfortable concentration of heat against the head and shoulders ofa person standing directly under the unit and also to increase the horizontal component of the radiant heat and to make it eifective at a distance away from the center of the-unit so as to provide warmth against the side of the body of a person standing to one side of the center of the unit.

A part of the heat developed by the circular radiant heating element 60 is, of course, absorbed by the reflector ring 35 and a part of this heat is directed upwardly into the main housing or shell 10 by radiation, convection and direct transmission through the metal connectors for this ring. Heating of the parts contained within the main housing or shell 10 is also contributed to by the incandescent light bulb 33. To prevent the temperature of the main shell or housing 10 or the components contained therein from rising to an undesirable level, the fan motor 25 is always energized simultaneously with the energization of the circular radiant heating element 60, at least at low speed. This creates air movement as indicated by the arrows in FIG. 1. Thus, air is drawn in through the openings 38 of the upstanding outer rim 36 of the reflector ring 35, the upper portion of this stream of air travelling around and up the bottom rim 16 of the main housing or shell 10 and generally upwardly along inside thereof so as to cool directly this main housing or shell 10. The lower part of this stream of air drawn radially in through the openings 38 of the upstanding outer rim 36 of the reflector ring 35 travels along the top of this reflector ring and hence serves to remove heat from this reflector ring, particularly at that portion directly above the circular radiant heating element 60.

A second stream of cooling air is drawn into the main housing or shell 10 of the recessed fixture through the conical opening between the inner frusto-conical portion 42 of the reflector ring 35 and the frusto-conical ring 47 which surrounds supports the translucent globe 51. In passing along and being deflected by the upwardly diminishing frusto-conical portion 42 of the reflector ring 35, the outer portion of this stream of air abstracts heat from this frusto-conical portion 42 and hence also from the directly heated part 41 of this reflector ring 35. The inner part of this second stream of air passes upwardly along the exterior of the lamp housing 52 and hence serves to cool this lamp housing.

Both streams of air are drawn into the inlet 23 of the fan scroll 20 and are discharged by the fan wheel 24 into the ceiling duct 30, which can conduct this air to the exterior of the house or any other place.

Desirably, the exhaust fan motor 25 can be operated by itself for the purpose of exhausting air from the bathroom, particularly to get rid of moisture-saturated air when showering. This is done, of course, by energizing the motor 25 to operate at high speed or that the fan 21 serves in an exhaust-fan capacity.

It is also desirable to energize the circular radiant heating element 60 and incandescent light bulb 33 simultaneously with the energization of the fan motor 25 at high speed to serve in an exhaust-fan capacity. This is, of course, to provide heat to a person drying himself under the unit and also to exhaust vapor-laden air from the bathroom while so doing. Operation of the fan motor 25 at high speed simultaneously with energization of the circular radiant heating element 60 serves to cool the main housing or shell 10 and the components contained therein, to a greater degree.

The modified form of the invention shown in FIGS. 5 and 6 is essentially distinguished by the air movement, the air being used only for cooling the main housing or shell of the recessed ceiling light and radial heater and being returned directly to the room from which this air is withdrawn instead of being exhausted from the room. As with the preferred form of the invention the main housing for the recessed ceiling light and radial heater comprises a sheet metal cylindrical shell or can which is open at its bottom and has a cover or upper end head 81 fixed to its upper end. A plurality of L-shaped brackets or supporting member 82 are secured, as by screws 83 accessible from within, at circumferentially spaced intervals around the periphery of the shell 80 to provide radial horizontal connector fingers 84. These fingers are secured by screws 87 to horizontal supports 88 which are in turn suitably secured to the building joists (not shown) so that the'housing is recessed into the ceiling with its lower edge 86' forming the plaster line, the plaster of the ceiling being indicated at 89.

The numeral 90 represents a radiant heat reflector ring which also serves to channel the room air drawn into the housing 80 so as to have maximum etfect in cooling those parts of the recessed ceiling light and radiant heater which require cooling and also to return this air to the room.

To this end the reflector ring is made of a single piece of metal and has an upstanding outer marginal or peripheral portion 91 the upper edge of which fits against the'bottom of the plaster 89. This portion is provided with an annular series of generally rectangular openings 93. In cross section the reflector ring 9%) is contained downwardly and inwardly from the upstanding outer marignal portion 91 by a frusto-conical portion 94, the lower inner edge of which is continued in a parabolically formed reflector portion 95 the concavity of which faces downwardly. The inner edge of this parabolically formed reflector portion 95 of the ring 90 is continued in an upwardly diminishing frusto-conical portion96.

The radiant heat reflector ring 90 is supported by circumferentially spaced hanger straps or supporting memhers 98 secured around and depending from the bottom rim of the housing 80, each of these hanger straps having :a bottom laterally extending ear 99 to which the cone sponding side of the reflector ring 90 is secured by bolts 100.

This reflector ring in turn supports an open ended sheet metal cylinder 101 which is arranged concentric with the housing 80 and reflector ring 90 and extends up into the housing 80. This cylinder is supported by means of circumferentially spaced supporting members or strips 102 secured around the bottom of the cylinder 101 and having depending portions which are secured by screws 103 to the inner frusto-conical portion 96 of the reflector ring 90. An inverted U-shaped bracket 105 is secured at its ends to and bridges the space above the sheet metal cylinder 101. At its center this bracket supports the motor 106 of a slow speed low power fan indicated generally at 110, the blades 111 of which are designed to move the air axially of the cylinder 101 the upper part of which forms a housing for these blades.

- The numeral 115 represents a cylindrical sheet metal light housing arranged concentrically in the lower part of the cylinder 101, this light housing being open at its bottom and being closed at its upper end by an end head 116. This lamp housing is supported by a plurality of circumferentially spaced supporting members in the form of Z-shaped brackets 118 around its bottom rim, one end of these brackets being suitably secured to this rim and the opposite ends of these brackets being suitably secured to the inner face of the open ended cylinder 161. This light houses a depending incandescent electric light bulb 119 which is screwed into and held by a conventional socket 120 extending through and being anchored coaxially in the upper end head 116 of the light housing 115. A plurality of spring clips 121 are secured around the inside of the rim of the light housing 115 and are biased radially inwardly and formed to releasably grasp the rim 122 of a translucent bowl-shaped globe 123 which thereby encloses the bottom of the light housing.

The reflector ring 90 supports an upwardly diminishing frusto-conical metal ring 124 by means of circumferentially spaced supporting members in the form of spring fingers 125 secured around the inner face of the upwardly diminishing inner frusto-conical portion 96, these fingers extending radially downwardly and inwardly and catching under the bottom rim of this frusto-conical ring 124. This frusto-conical ring 124 fits into the rim at the bottom of the light housing 115, and to provide a light seal a strip of tape 126 is adhesively applied around the joint between these two parts. v

The heat is radiated from a circular radiant electric heating element 130 which is supported by circumferentially spaced supporting members in the form of clips or brackets 131 within the parabolically formed portion of the reflector ring 90, these clips being anchored in the portion and extending radially outwardly therefrom. The ends of this circular radiant heating element extend upwardly, as indicated at 132, and have terminals 133 connected by wires 134 to a conventional electrical plug 135 which fits into a Socket 136 suitably secured to the side wall of the main housing 80. This socket can be connected, along with the wires 138 of the motor r 136, to a conventional junction box 139 which is shown as supported by arms 140 exteriorly and in spaced relation from the main housing 80.

A guard 141 'for the circular radiant heating element 130 is in the form of a series of concentric endless wire rings 142 connected by annularly spaced radiating wires 143. Certain of these radial wires, designated at 143a, are extended radially outwardly and secured by screws 14-4 to the outer frusto-conical rim portion 94 of the re flector 90.

The slow speed low power fan motor 106 rotates the fan 111 to move the air downwardly so that the air movement is as shown by the arrows, FIG. 5. This room air is drawn in through the openings 93 of the reflector ring 90 with the top part of these streams going up the inside of the outer housing 80 to cool the same with room temperature air, and with the lower part of these streams flowing in contact with the top of the parabolic reflective portion 95 of this reflector ring which, because of its necessary proximity to the circular electrical radiant heating element 130 would otherwise be heated to a high temperature. This air is then propelled by the fan 111 downwardly around the exterior of the light housing to prevent it from rising to an excessively high temperature. The air is then discharged back into the room through the space between the frusto-conical inner portion 96 of the reflector ring 90 and the frusto-conical ring 124 both of which are downwardly divergent to avoid any noticeable blast or uncomfortable movement of hot air to one standing directly under or near to the recessed fixture.

It will be noted that with each form of the invention the form of the radiant heat reflector ring and its relation to the main housing shell, the light housing and the frustoconical ring at the bottom of the light housing has a number of distinct advantages. The upright outer marginal portion of the reflector ring provides mechanical strength for the ring as a whole, provides a firm mounting against the ceiling, and by the provision of air inlet holes therein provides streams of room air the top parts of which rise along the inside of the main or outer shell or housing to keep it at a very low temperature, while the bottom part of each stream sweeps over the parabolic reflective portions of the reflector ring which are directly above and necessarily in close proximity to the circular heating element. It will further be noted that the upright outer rim and parabolic reflective portions of the reflector ring are separated by a frusto-conical portion which is not heated by radiance from the heating element and hence is relatively cool and provides a definite margin for the reflective area. By virtue of the parabolic cross sectional shape of the reflective portion of the reflective ring, the reflected radiant heat is spread as a widely divergent cone not only to avoid uncomfortable heat concentration directly below the fixture but also to provide a horizontal component to heat the side of a person standing to one side of the fixture. The frusto-conical form of the inner rim of the reflector ring and its coaction with the frusto-conical ring at the bottom of the light housing also serve to properly channel the air, whether the space between he used as an air inlet or as an air outlet. Further the parts fasten together and support one another in a simple, inexpensive and yet sturdy manner.

We claim:

1. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater, comprising a downwardly opening outer metal housing adapted to be set' into the ceiling, a downwardly opening metal light housing arranged generally concentrically within and in spaced relation to said outer metal housing, an electric light in said light housing arranged to direct light downwardly therefrom, a downwardly facing radiant heat reflector ring at the lower ends of said housings across the space therebetween and in spaced, generally concentric relation to each of said housings, a circular radiant electrical heating element arranged in spaced concentric relation to and below said reflector ring, said reflector ring being below the bottom rim of said outer metal housing and spaced from the bottom rim of said light housing and being curved in cross section to reflect downwardly and outwardly from the vertical axis of the reflector ring thereby to reflect radiant heat from said circular heating element in the form of a downwardly expanding cone and a fan in said outer casing arranged to circulate air through the space between said reflector ring and each of said housings and through the space between said housings.

2. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater as set forth in claim 1 wherein said reflector ring additionally includes an upstanding peripheral rim adapted to engage said ceiling and provided with an annular series of through openings through which said air so circulates.

3. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater as set forth in claim 2 wherein said reflector ring additionally includes an upwardly divergent frusto-conical portion between its curved reflective portion and its upstanding peripheral rim.

4. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater as set forth in claim 1 wherein said reflector ring additionally includes an upstanding inner upwardly diminishing frustoconical rim portion directed toward said light housing.

5. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater as set forth in claim 4 wherein an upwardly diminishing frustoconical ring is arranged at the. bottom of said light housing within and in spaced concentric relation and conforming to said inner frusto-conical rim portion of said reflector ring for directing the circulation of air by said fan.

6. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater as set forth in claim 1 wherein a translucent bowl-shaped globe is removably secured to the lower end of said light housing to depend therefrom a substantial distance below the lowermost extremity ofsaidreflector ring.

7. A recessed ceiling light as set forth in claim 1 additionally including an annular metal guard is arranged concentrically and below said circular radiant heating element, and means attaching said metal guard to said reflector ring.

8. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater as set forth in claim 1 additionally including a concentric openended metal cylinder between said light housing and outer housing in spaced relation to both and with its lower end supported on said reflector ring, said fan circulating said air axially through said open-ended cylinder whereby one of said spaces between said reflector ring and housings is a room air inlet and the other of said spaces between said reflector ring and housings is an air outlet.

9. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater, comprising a downwardly opening outer metal housing adapt- Til ed to be set into the ceiling, a downwardly opening metal light housing arranged generally concentrically within and in spaced relation to said outer metal housing, an electric light mounted in said light arranged to direct light downwardly therefrom, a downwardly facing radiant heat reflector ring at the lower ends of said housings across the space therebetween and in spaced, generally concentric relation to each of said housing, circumferentially spaced supporting members for said reflector ring connected to the bottom of said outer housing and supporting said reflector ring in spaced relation to the bottom of said outer housing, circumferentially spaced supporting members for said light housing connected to said reflector ring and supporting said light housing in spaced relation to said reflector ring, a circular radiant electrical heating element arranged in spaced concentric relation to and below said reflector ring, and a fan in said outer casing arranged to circulate air through the space between said reflector ring and each of said housings and through the space between said housings.

10. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater as set forth in claim 9 wherein circumferentially spaced supporting members for said circular radiant electrical heating element are connected to said reflector ring.

ll. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater as set forth in claim 9 additionally including a concentric metal ring arranged against the bottom of said light housing and circumferentially spaced supporting members for said last mentioned ring connected to said reflector ring.

12. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater as set forth in claim 11 additionally including a translucent bowl-shaped concentric globe below said light housing and having an outwardly projecting flange at its rim supported on said last mentioned ring.

13. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater as set forth in claim 9 additionally including an air outlet duct extending through the side wall of said outer housing and having its inner end connected to the discharge from said fan.

14. A recessed ceiling light and radiant heater as set forth in claim 9 additionally including a concentric openended metal cylinder between said light housing and other housing in spaced relation to both, and circumferentially spaced connectors securing the bottom of said open-ended cylinder to said reflector ring, said fan circulating said air axially through said open-ended cylinder whereby one of said spaces between said reflector ring and housings is an air inlet and the other of said spaces between said reflector ring and said housings is an air outlet.

15. A recessed ceiling light and heater as set forth in claim 1 wherein means interconnect and substantially exclusively support said reflector ring from the bottom part of said outer metal housing, means interconnect and substantially exclusively support the bottom part of said light housing from said reflector ring, and means interconnect and substantially exclusively support said electric light from said light housing.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,583,754 Theisen Jan. 29, 1952 2,689,906 Corbett Sept. 21, 1954 2,708,232 Spear May 10, 1955 2,870,319 Ford Jan. 20, 1959

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Classifications
U.S. Classification219/220, 392/436
International ClassificationF21V29/02, F24H3/04, F21V33/00, F21V21/04
Cooperative ClassificationF21V29/02, F21S8/026, F21S8/02, F21V33/0092, F21V21/04, F24H3/0411
European ClassificationF21S8/02, F21S8/02H, F21V33/00F2, F21V21/04, F21V29/02, F24H3/04B2