US 3068534 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 18, I962 KUANG P. HU 3,
PREFABRICATED BUILDING Filed Nov. 17, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 EEE! m .2 El 121 a [Z] 121 l@ Ia 1W W M I INV EN TOR.
ATTO/M/ZYS 1962 KUANG P. Hu 3,068,534
PREFABRICATED BUILDING Filed Nov. 17, 1958 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Dec. 18, 1962 KUANG P. HU
PREFABRICATED BUILDING 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed NOV. 1'7, 1958 ATTORNEYS WMKM M Dec. 18, 1962 KUANG P. HU
PREFABRICATED BUILDING 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Nov. 17, 1958 INVENTOR. lfuarzy-Pz'ao Hu BY w m f WM A TTORME Y5 ite rates The present invention relates to an improved prefabricated building and more particularly to a frameless house utilizing rigid laminated floor, roof, exterior and interior walls enclosing an interior living space.
The present invention proposes a prefabricated house of such construction that minimum labor is required for its erection at the site. It is merely necessary to assemble the prefabricated structural elements of the house at the site upon a foundation or footing which have been previously prepared.
Generally, the building of the present invention comprises a plurality of structural panels secured together to form the floor, roof, and exterior and interior walls to obtain an extremely strong box-like integral structure in the form of a regular polygon. Preferably, the building comprises interior and exterior side walls forming, when viewed in plan, concentric octagons, and the floor and roof panels are segmental in shape to define regular trapezoidal structures radiating from the vertical axis of the building.
Preferably, a novel panel structure is utilized comprising an exterior peripheral frame of substantial structural strength and of such size and material as to facilitate the joining of the panels to one another through the peripheral panel frames. The panel interiors are preferably defined by a grated or egg crate core preferably formed of paperboard impregnated with a thermosetting resin or the like to impart improved strength, fire resistance, insect resistance, and decay resistance characteristics thereto.
It is, therefore, an important object of the present invention to provide an inexpensive prefabricated house substantially completely composed of preformed panels which are assembled to provide the floor, roof, and inte rior and exterior side walls of the building.
Another important object is the provision of an im proved frameless building construction composed of a plurality of preformed panels secured together to provide a structure having concentric polygonal exterior and interior side walls, interior room-defining wall radiating.
from the axis of the concentric polygons defined by the side walls, and wedge-shaped roof panels also radiating from the axis.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a frameless building structure of octagonal shape having a central roof apex provided with an air outlet and peripheral air inlets located at the building exterior walls, whereby circulation of air inwardly of the building and through the apex outlet is promoted.
Yet another object is the provision of a house or the lik consisting of eight identically dimensioned wedgelike sections, each of which defines an interior living space or room and each section being defined by individual roof, floor, external wall and internal wall panels, and
room dividers joining the external and interior wall panels to subdivide the house into the Wedge-like sections.
It is still another object of this invention to provide an improved structural panel having a periphery formed of structural elements enclosing a central portion, a relatively open interior core filling the central portion and defined by intersecting strips of paperboard or the like, and surface laminations bonded to the peripheral structural members and to the core.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will apatent O ing 'of the present invention. In the detailed description spectively.
.pear from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the annexed drawings, in which:
As shown on the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view of a building of the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a plan view of the building of FIGURE 1 with a portion of the roof broken away and other portions of the building illustrated in section;
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view of the building of FIGURES 1 and 2;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the plane 44. of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged sectional view taken on the plane S5 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the plane 6-6 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 7 is a sectional view taken along the planes 7--7 of FIGURE 6;
FIGURE 8 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the plane 88 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 9 is a sectional view taken along the. plane 99 of FIGURE 1;
General Structure In FIGURE 1, reference numeral 20 refers to a buildof this invention, the building 26' is a house, but it will be readily understood that the same principles of construction and all other aspects of the invention are readily applicable to other types of buildings.
The building 20 rests upon a foundation, preferably upon'individual footings or' pilings 21. Such pilings 21 are provided at the'corners of the house 20 around the outer periphery of the house and also a similar number of such pilings 21 are provided about the inner periphery of the house as will be hereinafter more fully described. 1
As will be noted from FIGURES *1 and 2 of the drawing, the house 20 is preferably polygonal in shape, the
preferred embodiment being octagonal. As seen from FIGURE 2 of the drawings, the concentric octagonal arrangement is illustrated in which the house has eight side walls 22 arranged concentrically about the vertical axis of the hous which is located at 23, and eight inner walls 24 are also provided, these walls being arranged in likewise manner concentric about the axis- 23. Interposed between the inner and outer Walls are eight generally radially extending interior walls 25.
Inner and outer floor panels are provided, the outer fioor panels 26 being in the form of regular trapezoids having parallel sides defined by the juncture of the floor panels and the outer and inner side walls 22 and 24, re-
The inner octagon defined intermediate. the inner side walls 24 is provided with two floor panels 27, each of which is of irregular hexagonal configuration, these two floor panels abutting along a line 28.
Segmental roof panels 3% overlie the side walls 22 and 24 and the interior walls 25, these roof panels 36 being generally triangular in configuration. As will be seen from FIGURE 3 of the drawings, the interior side walls 24 are of greater height than the exterior side walls 22 finishes at the site.
Panel Structure As best seen in FIGURES l2 and 13 of the drawings, the invention provides a new and novel structural panel indicated generally at 40. This panel comprises a core made up of intersecting laterally extending strips 41 and transversely extending strips 42. The strips are notched through one half their height and are assembled so that they cooperatively define an egg crate or honeycomb structure. For example,,the strips 42 are provided with with longitudinally spaced upper notches 44. The assembly of the strips with the notches intersecting is well illustrated in FIGURE 12. and 13.
Preferably, the strips 41 and 42 are cut from paperboard of equal width with the slots being cut at equal intervals to one half the width of the strips. The strips are then assembled to form the grating or actual core structure. Preferably, the strips are formed of paperboard, as for example of laminated corrugated paperboard, the board being preferably impregnated with a phenolic or similar thermosetting resin for enhancing the moisture resistance, fire resistance, termite resistance, and decay resistance of the paperboard and also to increase the structural strength thereof.
Surrounding the core defined by the strips 41 and 42 are peripheral structural members 45, preferably of Wood and of a thickness corresponding to the height of the core and of a width greater than the thickness thereof. Enclosing the core and secured thereto to form the side surfaces of the panel are cover sheets 46. These cover sheets are of substantial strength in and of themselves and madetypically be sheets of plywood, resin impregnated fiberboard, paperboard, or the like, or the facing sheets or skins may be formed of aluminum, stainless steel, or similar metallic materials.
The advantages of this core-formed panel will be readily appreciated, inasmuch as the open core is not only light in Weight but also provides a dead airspace intermediate the cover sheets 46 which forms a very eifective insulation. If desired, the dead air space formed by the honeycomb core may be filled with a suitable insulating material, such as granulated or fibrous heat insulation.
The peripheral structural elements 45 are'utilized to integrate the panels into the overall'house structure and to provide peripheral portions which'may be shaped and contoured, as by sawing, planing and the like, to adapt a single modular rectangular structure to general structural uses throughout the house. 7
The cover sheets 46 may be provided with'a finish applied prior to assembly of the laminated structure within the house so as to avoid the necessity of applying panel Floor Structure As best illustrated in FIGURES 4 and 5, the floor panels 26 are secured directly to the foundation of footings 21 through the medium of anchor bolts 50 secured in the footings 21 and projecting thereabove through vertical bores 51 formed in the peripheral structural elements 45 of the floor panels 26. interposed between the floor panels 26 and each of the footings 21 is a dampproof strip or course formed of suitable material, such as an asphalt roofing strip 26A.
The free end of each anchor bolt 50 receives a nut 52 tightened down against the exposed upper cover sheet 46 of the floor panel 26.
Similar anchor bolts 50 are utilized at the inner and lower notches 43, while the strips 41 are each provided outer extremities of each of the floor panels 26 to secure .75
the floor panels to both the inner and outer footings 21. As best shown in FIGURE 6, laterally adjacent floor panels are provided with facing, mating recesses 53 in their confronting edges, these recesses extending longitudinally throughout substantially the entire length of the peripheral structural members 45 of the floor panels. The confronting recesses 53 cooperatively define a rectangular opening through which is inserted a supporting beam, preferably in the form of an I beam 55 having terminal laterally directed flanges 56 of such lateral extent as to bridge the gap between the adjacent fioor panels 26. Thus, it will be appreciated that the floor panels are completely integrated in the piling structure by means of the anchor bolts 50 and laterally adjacent floor panels are mutually supported from one another by the beams 55.
Side Wall Structure As best illustrated in FIGURES 3, 4 and 5, the side walls comprise modular prefabricated, generally rectangular panels made up in accordance with the disclosure of FIGURES l2 and 13. The exterior'panels 22 are preferably provided with'windows 33 in the desired shape and sizeand preferably ventilating louvers 34, either fixed or movable, are superimposed over the windows for promoting the radially inward circulation of air from the atmosphere into the interior of the house. At least one such side wall is provided with a door 35 of conventional arrangement and this door is likewise integrated into the panel structure.
The interior panels 24 are located intermediate the exterior side walls 22 and the vertical axis 23 of the house, and these interior side walls are preferably provided with doors 36 over which are located louvers 37 similar to the louvers 34 heretofore described.
The integration of these side walls into the floor and foundation structure is best illustrated in FIGURES 4 and 5. In FIGURE 4, an exterior side wall 22 (made up of modular panels as heretofore explained) has its lower peripheral structural element 46 provided with a downwardly opening generally cylindrical recess 58 into which is inserted a split expansion sleeve 59 of conventional type. This insert 59 is interiorly threaded, as in 68, to receive the threaded upper end of a bolt 61. This bolt 61 depends into a recess 62 formed in the peripheral structural element 45 of the floor panel 26, the recess 62 being of less height than the structural member 45 to leave a tongue 63' formed integrally with the structural member 45. The side wall skin element 46 depends alongside the recess 62, and a tongue 64 complementary to the tongue 63 is secured to the skin 46. The two tongues 63 and 64 abut one another, as at 65, and the bolt 61 traverses both such tongues 63 and 64 to receive a nut 66 located within'the recess 62 and serving to tighten the tongues into extended surface engagement and to retain the side wall 22 in firm assembly.
As illustrated in FIGURE 5 of the drawings, a similar construction is utilized to secure the interior side wall 24 to the floor panel 26. In FIGURE 5, the same reference numerals are applied to the equivalent structural elements with the exception that the suffix a is added to each structural element.
Thus, it will be seen that the floor panels and the outer wall panels 22 and the inner wall panels 24 are firmly secured together to form a structure capable of supporting the roof panels 30.
To further aid in securing the exterior side Walls to one another, the abutting marginal structural elements 46 of adjacent side walls are secured together as illustrated in FIGURE 9 of the drawings. From this figure, it will be seen that the elements 46 are provided with confronting, generally rectangular recesses 47, respectively, the recesses being vertically elongated for communication with the upper and lower ends of the side walls. Inserted into the recesses 47 is a key insert, indicated generally at .5 70, comprising a transversely elongated strip 71 joined through a web 72 to a generally elongated head 73. The key insert 70 is threaded vertically into the recesses 47 and serves to tie the adjacent side walls against relatively transverse movement.
Roof Structure As best illustrated in FIGURES 3 and 8 of the drawings, the individual roof panels slope upwardly and inwardly towards an apex located in alignment with the vertical axis 23 of the house. These roof panels 30 are of generally triangular configuration and individual roof panels overlie individual exterior side walls 22 and individual interior side walls 24, respectively.
Such roof panels 30 are preferably fabricated from panels of the type illustrated in FIGURES 12 and 13 and are secured to the inner and outer side walls as illustrated in FIGURE 8 by threaded inserts 75 inserted into the upper peripheral members 45 of the side walls 22 and 24, respectively. Bolts 76 are threadably retained by the inserts 75 and secure the roof panels in position. Prefer ably, the roof panels are covered with suitable roofing paper 77 or similar Waterproofing materials, as is well known in the art.
Surmounting the center of the roof and in alignment with the axis of the house is a centrally located ventilator indicated generally at 80 and particularly illustrated in FIGURE 11 of the drawings. comprises a lower deflector plate 81 secured through supports 82 to an upper centrally apertured support 83 which is secured by bolts 84 to the individual roof panels adjacent the inner extremities thereof. Because of the provision of the ventilator 80, the roof panels 30 are not truly triangular in configuration, but are slightly truncated.
Superimposed upon the plate 83 is a plurality of upstanding support elements 85 which support an upper rain deflector or roof 86 overlying the central aperture 87 in the support plate 83. From FIGURE 3, it will be obvious that air flowing through the louvers 34 and the exterior walls 22 and the louvers 37 and the interior walls 24 will pass through the spaces intermediate the supports 82, the aperture 87 of the support plate 83 and intermediate the supports 85 for passage from the house. This provides a very effectively radially inward displacement of heated air, thereby promoting the circulation of air throughout the house.
To laterally secure the roof panels 30 to one another, key inserts 90 (FIGURE are utilized. Such inserts 90 are formed by angularly disposed wings 91 lying at substantially 90 to one another and insertable, respectively, into facing grooves 92 formed in the peripheral structural elements 45 of adjacent roof panels. Since the roof panels 30 slope downwardly and outwardly and each key insert 90 is concave upwardly, the inserts 90 form drain troughs extending radially of the roof to conduct any water leaking between the roof panels to the overhang 31.
Internal Wall Structure As best seen in FIGURE 3 of the drawings, the internal wall panels 25, disposed radially when viewed in plan (FIGURE 2) are subdivided into three sections, namely A, 25B and 25C. Such wall panels are preferably formed as illustrated in FIGURE 2 with the periphery of each panel being defined by structural elements 45 and the central parts of the panels being defined by the honeycomb elements 41 and 42.
It will be noted that each wall panel has its upper edge 10% inclined upwardly and inwardly to match the slope of the roof panels 30. To install the panels, after the outer peripheral walls 22 and the inner peripheral walls 24 are in place and after the roof has been secured in the peripheral walls, the outermost panel 25A is moved radially outwardly into engagement with tapered splined keys 101 carried by the outer peripheral structural ele- Generally, the ventilator ment 45 of the panel 25A. As illustrated in FIGURES 6 and 7, the lower peripheral structural element 45 of I the panel 25A is provided with a downwardly opening notch 103 receiving therein a tenon 104 secured to the floor panels 26 by suitable means, as by nails 105, and bridging the gap between adjacent floor panels 26. The notch 103 is substantially longer than the width of the tenon 104 so that the panel may be slid radially to insert the keys 101 into the appropriate recesses 102.
The outer panel 25A carries tapered keys 107 similar to the keys 101 projecting radially inwardly to be received by correspondingly spaced recesses formed in the adjacent edge of the panel 25B. The panel 25B is provided with recesses 103 similar to those described in connection with panel 25A and slidably receiving tenons 104 therein.
The third or last panel 25C cannot he slid into place longitudinally because the panel 25 is of such size as to fill the gap between the panel 25B and the inner peripheral wall 24. Accordingly, the panel 25C is not keyed to the panel 253 and the tenons 104 are snugly received by notches formed in the lower edge of the panel 25C.
To secure all of the panels 25A, 25B and 25C into position and to finish the joints between the panels and the adjacent floor, side and roof panels, a series of battens or molding strips are nailed to the panels and then to the adjacent structural elements. For example, a single elongated molding 110 secures the upper edges of the panels to the under surface of the roof panels 30 and vertically extending strips 111 secure the panels 25A and 25C to the outer and inner wall panels, respectively. Lower molding strips 112 secure the bottom edges of the panels to the floor panels 26, this molding strip 112 being notched as required to accommodate the tenons 104.
Conclusion In conclusion, it will be seen that the present invention provides a new and novel prefabricated building construction, particularly adapted to residential construction wherein a plurality of modular panels can be assembled at the site to form a polygonal structure. Basically, the resultant structure includes concentric polygonal inner and outer walls, wedge-shaped roof and fioor walls, and radial interior partitions. The exterior and interior walls preferably are formed of novel panels having peripheral structural elements, intersecting interior partitions defining a honeycomb construction, and surface panels covering both the interior partitions and the peripheral structural elements.
The utilization of the polygonal shape provides a structure of simple design and which is extremely rigid. The panels are secured to one another by keys, expansion bolts, and the like fasteners which result in an integrated structure which can be readily and easily assembled at the construction site.
While preferred embodiments have been described above in detail, it will be understood that numerous modifications might be resorted to without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the following claims.
What is claimed is:
l. A prefabricated unitary, one-story building comprising concentric polygonal inner and outer foundation elements, a floor structure comprising a pair of identical floor panels, each of an irregular polygonal configuration corresponding to one-half of the polygonal inner foundation element supported upon and overlying the space surrounded by said inner foundation element, a plurality of identical trapenzoidal floor panels having relatively short inner edges superimposed on and supported by the inner foundation element and longer outer edges superimposed on and supported by the outer foundation elements, the adjacent abutting edges of adjacent trapezoidal floor panels being recessed, a supporting beam disposed in the registering recesses of adjacent trapezoidal floor panels, respectively, and each such beam extending from the inner foundation element to the outer foundation elemeet, a plurality of separate interior wall panels, each of said interior panels being superimposed directly over and bearing on the inner edge of one of said trapezoidal floor panels, respectively, a plurality of separate exterior Wall panels, each of said exterior panels being superimposed directly over and bearing on the outer edge of one of said trapezoidal floor panels, respectively, a plurality of radially extending walls subdividing the space intermediate said inner and outer wall panels, each of said radially extending Walls overlying the line of juncture of a pair of said trapezoidal floor panels to be in bearing relation to the radial beam interposed therebetween, and the inner and outer vertical edges of each of said radially extending walls abutting the inner and outer wall panels, respectively, at substantially the points of juncture between adjacent wall panels, and a plurality of independent substantially triangular roof panels overlying said inner and outer wall panels and said interior walls, said roof panel-s being secured to said inner and outer wall panels and the juncture between adjacent roof panels being vertically aligned with the sub-adjacent interior wall, respectively, whereby the load of said roof panels, said interior walls, said inner and outer Wall panels and said trapezoidal floor panels is imposed directly upon said inner and outer 'foundation elements and said radial beams.
2. The building of claim 1, wherein adjacent roof panels have their juxtaposed peripheral structural elements recessed along the sides thereof extending radially of said axis, said recesses being inclined to the horizontal to diverge upwardly, and a structural key having angularly upwardly divergent arm portions inserted into said recesses, respectively, to secure said adjacent roof panels to one another and to define a run-01f gutter extending radially from said axis throughout substantially the radial extent of said roof panels. I
3. The building of claim 1, wherein adjacent exterior walls have their juxtaposed peripheral structural elements recessed vertically, said recesses of adjacent walls registering, and a structural key joins said adjacent walls, said key having a vertical extent equal to that of said walls, a longitudinal web interposed between said wall structural elements and a transversely extending head member is entered in said receses to bind said adjacent walls to one another.
4. The building of claim 1, wherein said radial walls are each subdivided into aligned radially extending panels and the outermost panel is keyed to the adjacent exterior wall and to the next adjacent radially extending panel.
5. The building of .claim 1, wherein said inner and outer walls are provided with lateral tongues adjacent their bottom extremities and said floor elements are similarly provided with lateral tongues adjacent to said wall tongues, and said wall and element tongues are traversed by vertically extending bolts to secure the same in firm assembly.
6. The building of claim 1, further characterized by the height of the inner wall panels being greater than the height of the outer wall panels and the upper extreme edges of said radial interior walls sloping downwardly and outwardly from said inner wall panels to said outer wall panels, thereby imparting slope to said roof panels while supporting said roof panels throughout their radial extent.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS D. 156,683 Tesch Dec. 27, 1949 156,789 Haley Nov. 10, 1874 1,512,975 Bright Oct. 28, 1924 1,806,354 Lange May 19, 1931 1,960,328 Breines May 29, 1934 2,358,704 Goudy Sept. 19, 1944 2,363,405 Eichelberger Nov. 21, 1944 2,566,099 Hulst Aug. 28, 1951 2,630,604 Marsh Mar. 10, 1953 2,633,610 Hervey Apr. 7, 1953 2,682,087 Siering June 29, 1954 2,775,794 Keely Ian. 1, 1957 FOREIGN PATENTS 157,541 Great Britain 1921 401,316 Italy 1943 581,193 Great Britain 1946 1,133,714 France 1956